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THE 


HISTORY   OF   DUNDEE; 

BEING  AN  ACCOUNT  OF 

THE  ORIGIN  AND  PROGRESS  OF  THE  BURGH 

FROM  THE  EARLIEST  PERIOD  ; 

EMBRACING  A  DESCRIPTION  OF  ITS  ANTIQUITIES, 
TOPOGRAPHY,  PUBLIC   WORKS    AND   BUILDINGS,  MANUFACTURES 

AND  COMMERCE,  MUNICIPAL,  EDUCATIONAL, 
AND  CHARITABLE  INSTITUTIONS,  WITH  BIOGRAPHICAL 
SKETCHES  OF  EMINENT  MEN. 


A  NEW  AND  ENLAKGED  EDITION 

OF    THE    WORK,    PUBLISHED   IN    1847,    BY 

JAMES    THOMSON; 
EDITED  AND  CONTINUED  TO  THE  PRESENT  THE,  WITH  MAP  AND  ILLUSTRATIONS,  BY 

JAMES    MACLAKEN. 


DUNDEE: 
JOHN    DURHAM    &    SON,     49    HIGH     STREET. 

1874. 


JW 


DCKDO 


Jnnr 


TO 

JAMES   COX,    ESQUIRE, 

®f  Clem<nt  fsrk, 

IP  IR,  O  V  O  S  T     O  IF     ID  TJ  UST  X)  IE  IE, 
THIS     f!  i  s  T  o  RJT    OF    THE     TOWN 

fdicald. 


PREFACE. 


IN  justification  of  a  new  book,  and.  more  especially  one  of  historical 
character,  two  things  may  fairly  be  required, — that  the  subject  should 
possess  some  interest  in  itself,  and  that  it  should  be  presented  with 
some  degree  of  skill  and  completeness. 

That  the  first  of  these  conditions  will  be  apparent  in  this  case  the 
author  is  well  assured,  however  diffident  he  may  feel  as  to  the  merits 
of  his  performance.  That  was  undertaken  more  from  regard  to  the 
necessity  of  meeting  a  want  long  felt  to  exist  than  from  any  sense  of 
special  fitness  for  the  task.  Until  the  appearance  of  THOMSON'S  work 
in  1847,  no  proper  History  of  the  town  existed.  Dr  SMALL'S  contri- 
bution to  the  Statistical  Account  of  Scotland,  published  toward  the 
end  of  last  century,  although  valuable  in  its  way,  did  not  profess  to 
cover  the  ground  required  in  an  exhaustive  history  of  the  town. 
Since  1847,  the  researches  of  a  host  of  able  writers  have  thrown  much 
light  on  local  as  well  as  national  history,  and  made  the  incomplete- 
ness of  the  original  edition,  in  many  respects,  more  obvious ;  besides 
which  it  has  long  been  out  of  print.  In  proceeding  to  supply  the  want 
referred  to,  the  intention  at  first  was  to  reproduce  the  original  work  so 
far  as  it  went,  with  such  corrections  as  might  be  derived  from  later 
authorities,  and  accordingly  the  earlier  sheets  were  revised,  with  the 
emendations  indicated  in  the  text,  or  put  in  the  form  of  notes. 
Before  proceeding  very  far,  however,  it  became  apparent,  from  the 
necessity  of  large  excisions  and  additions,  that  this  course  was 
unsatisfactory,  and  the  greater  part  of  the  work  has  therefore  been 
re-written.  The  desire  to  give  adequate  prominence  to  the  later 
development  of  the  town,  its  industries,  and  institutions,  having  en- 


Tt  PftftTACK. 

Urged  the  scope  of  the  work,  hafl  considerably  increased  its  compass. 
To  this  cause,  and  the  inability  of  the  author  to  devote  more  than  the 
•canty  leisure  permitted  by  professional  duties,  the  delay  in  its  publica- 
tion is  attributable,  for  which  it  U  hoped  the  greater  comprehensiveness 
of  the  book  may  be  regarded  M  compensating. 

In  addition  to  the  acknowledgment*  made  throughout  the  work 
to  explorers  in  the  aame  field  of  wboae  labours  I  have  availed  myself, 
I  most  express  my  obligation*  to  many  townsmen  who  have  kindly 
afforded  me  the  use  of  materials  in  their  possession,  or  communicated 
information  tending  to  make  the  work  more  accurate  and  complete. 
I  must  specially  mention  the  valuable  assistance  rendered  by  Mr 
JAMES  I  >i  rr,  now  the  oldest  representative  of  the  typographic  art  in 
Dundee,  in  the  supervision  of  the  work  while  passing  through  the 
press.  To  all  who  have  encouraged  and  aided  in  the  work,  as  to  my- 
self, it  will  be  the  best  reward  if  the  book  now  submitted  to  the 
indulgent  consideration  of  the  public  should  promote  in  some  degree 
an  intelligent  interest  IB  the  annals  of  Dundee,  and  serve  to  mark  the 
important  part  which  it  has  played  in  the  past  history,  and  now 
in  the  commercial  enterprise  of  Scotland. 

J.  M. 


1874 


OOHSTTIEItsrTS- 


)at[i  Jirst. 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  THE  TOWN. 

Page 

Introduction,  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  1 — 4 

SECTION  I. 
Name  and  probable  origin  of  the  Town,  ....  5 — 13 

SECTION  II. 

From  death  of  Alpin  to  landing  of  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  .  .  14 — 20 

SECTION  III. 

From  reign  of  William  the  Lion  to  death  of  Wallace,  .  .         21 — 30 

SECTION  IV. 

From  accession  of  Robert  I.  to  reign  of  Jamea  V.,  .  .         31 — 43 

SECTION  V. 

The  Reformation  Period,         .  .  .  .  .         44 — 56 

SECTION  VI. 

From  death  of  Beaton  to  close  of  Mary's  reign,  .  .        67 — 67 

SECTION  VII. 

The  reign  of  James  VI. ,  .  .  .  .  . .  .        68 — 87 

SECTION  VIII. 

The  Covenanters — Montrose — and  siege  by  Monk,  .  .  88 — 99 

SECTION  IX. 

Claverhouse,  and  the  Rebellions  of  1715  and  1745,  .  .  100—120 

SECTION  X. 
Trade  and  social  habits  in  18th  Century,  ....  121 — 136 

SECTION  XI. 

The  Nineteenth  Century,-  .  .  .  .  •  .  .  137 — 156 

SECTION  XII. 
Account  of  the  Barony  of  Dundee,     .....     157 — 166 


ftotf  £<cond. 


DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  TOWN ;  ITS  PUBLIC  WORKS,  BUILDINGS, 
AND  INSTITUTIONS. 

•OIION  L  P»n 

Situation,  Topography,  and  Disposition  of  Street*,  .  .     109—187 

.     SECTION  IL 

The  Ancient  Church  and  Tower  of  St  Mary,  .  .  .     188—224 

SECTION  IIL 

The  Ancient  Religious  BOOM*,          .  ,  .  .  .     225—243 

SECTION  IV. 

Municipal  Constitution,  Guildry,  and  Trade*,  .  .  .     244—272 

SECTION  V. 

Deecription  of  the  Port  and  Shipping  of  Dundee,      .  .  .     273 — 280 

SECTION  VI. 
Charitable  and  Educational  Institution*  and  Endowment*,  .     201 — 824 

SECTION  VII. 

Tb»  Staple  Trade  and  Principal  Manufacturing  Work*,  .  .     921—340 

SECTION  MIL 
Minor  Industrie*— the  Press,  Banks,  Ac.,     ....     341—356 

Bk>grai4uc*J  Kketchee  of  Eminent  Natives,  .  .  .     357—392 

SeUctaon  from  Inecnption*  of  Uouff  Monument*,  .  .     393—419 


. 

Kor«  A.— CfcarUr  of  Sir  William  Wallace,  .  .  L 

..      B.- Declaration  in  favour  of  King  Robert  I..     .  .  i._jj. 

C.-Cfc«tir  of  King  Robert  L,    .  .  ^_^ 

..     I).--KxtracUfrom  the  LonlTrtMurer't  AccouoU,        .  T 

..     E.-EiUot  Hoik, ^ 

F.-Ancieot  R«ot  Roll ]  TU.-XXJL 

„    O.-Chaitar  by  Ja»eeV.,iocludiiif  "  Mwcnandi*  Utter."  «juu.-xxxiii. 


I  1ST  3D  IE 


Abercrombies,  church  pew  of — 203;  erect- 
ed convent — 237. 

Advertiser,  first  issued — 139  ;  organ  of 
Reform  party — 142  ;  became  daily 
paper — 349. 

Alan,  Brian  Fitz,  English  Governor  of 
Castle— 24. 

Albany,  Duke  of,  umpire  in  dispute — 39. 

Albert  Institute— 389. 

Alderman,  preceded  provost — 246. 

Alec,  Alectumor  Aileach,  derivation  of — 6. 

Alexander  I.,  castle  of — 18. 

III. ,  renewed  charters — 22-245. 

Alpin,   King  of  Scots,  battle  with — 11; 

supposed  relics  of — 12,  13. 
Altarages    in    Parish    Church  — 196-8  ; 

others — 225. 

Alyth,  raid  upon,  by  Monk's  troops — 94. 
Anderson's  Mortification — 319. 
Anderson  Scholarship — 315. 
Angus,  ancient  name  of — 3.     Angus  Ma- 
gazine— 347. 

Album— 347. 

Earl    of — 42;    town-house — 180; 

marriage — 182. 

Arbroath,  abbey  of,  completed — 21.  Par- 
liament—33.  Battle  of— 40. 

Arbuthnot,  A ,  published  a  Bible — 72-73. 

Area  of  burgh — 169. 

Argus  newspaper — 349. 

Argyle,  Duke  of,  visit  with  army — 115  ; 
appoints  magistrates — 116. 

Argyle,  Earl  of,  besieges  Broughty — 59; 
pursues  Huntly — 79. 

Argylesgaitt— 173. 

Armitstead,  G.,  M.P.— 145. 

Armorial  bearings — 253. 

Arran,  Earl  of,  attacks  the  English  in 
Broughty — 58. 

Assembly,  General,  held— 70-73-74. 

Assemblies,  dancing,  in  18th  century — 116. 

Assessors  of  Guildry — 255. 

Asylum  for  Lunatics,  origin — 284 ;  found- 
ers— 285;  management — 286. 

Baillie,  General,  pursues  Montrose — 91. 

Bailies,  derivation  of  title — 246. 

Baledgarno,  stronghold  of — 18;  visited  by 
Edward!.— 25. 

Balgillo,  fortified  by  English— 59;  cap- 
tured by  French — 60. 


Ballates,  the  Gude  and  godly — 51-57. 
Balliol,  John,  claims  crown — 22;  quarrel 
with  Edward  I.  — 24 ;  his  character — 
25  (note) ;  held  barony  of  Dundee — 
159. 

Balmerino,  Abbey  burnt  by  English — 60. 
Banks,  Introduction  of — 350 ;  robbery  of 
Dundee   Bank — 351 ;    five   shil- 
ling notes — 352 ;  successive  banks 
established — 353. 
Banks,  List  of — 355. 

Bank,  of   Scotland,  tried  a  branch — 122. 
353. 

Aberdeen  Town  and  County — 354. 

City  of  Glasgow — 354. 

Clydesdale,  office  of— 184,  353. 

Commercial,  first  office — 186. 

British  Linen,  estab. — 122,  353. 

Eastern— 353. 

National  opened  branch — 353. 

North  of  Scotland— 354. 

Royal,  established— 122,  354. 

Savings — 354. 

Union— 353. 

Western— 354. 

Bankruptcies  in  Dundee — 140,  332. 
Barham,  Admiral,  birth-place — 184. 
Barony  of  Dundee  (see  Dundee). 
Barrack  Street— 180. 

Barrie,  Robert,  vicar  of  Dundee — 53. 
Bateman,  J.,   report  on  water  scheme — 

155. 

Baxter  Brothers'  Works— 327,  386. 
Baxter,  Edward,  gift  to  Guildry— 323. 
Baxter,   Sir  David,   sketch  of— 385  ;  be- 
quests—390. 

Park— 388. 

Scholarships— 389. 

Beardie,  Earl — 40;  buried  at  Dundee — 41. 

Beaton,  Cardinal — 46-47-49;  assassinated 
51 ;  connection  with  Claypots — 164 ; 

Bell  Mill,  first  built— 326. 

Bells  in  Tower— 222-223. 

Bereans — 241. 

Bible,  Family— 72. 

Bisset,  Baldred,  Scottish  envoy — 24-5. 

Blair,  Dr  Patrick,  life  of— 361. 

Blue  Bell  Inn— 183. 

Board  of  trustees  for  manufactures,  ap- 
pointed— 121 ;  offer  spinning  school 
— 122;  subsidize  spinning  mjll — 123. 


ISDKX. 


*o  Dsj»de*-4l  story  as 

to  Clmreh-*)  (note);  189;  biogra- 
phy of-U* 


•  ' 


i'  • 


It*   r  ...  \\    rfa      >" 

Parliament  at-23. 


.  i 
ri.Beilie.  hones  of-183. 


.    i     . 


Provost— 183. 
Brown,  Robert,  an  Independent  preacher 

-Jl 

i        ,          v    -  '  ' 

Brae*,  George,  rector  Grammar  gohooi 

Brace,  Ring  Robert.  claimed  crown-22  ; 
erowned  at  Soone— 32;  victory  at 
Banaockbarn— S3;  death  and  cha- 
racter-35-36  ;  charter  by-246. 

M         •      . 


Buccleuck,  Countess  of,  birth-place- 179. 

1  '  •  •  I 

Bairn,  ur  George,  connection  with  press 

im 

••!••••,  qualification  of -254. 

Burgh  disfranchised 

Burgh  Records,  extracts  from— 266. 

Burghs,  Convention  of.  at  l'erth-78-80  ; 

at  Dundee-181. 
Bergha,  earliest  Scottish-244. 

Calender  Close,  Orioal  Jaffray's  house  in 

Calenderinf  works-Mi. 
.  ancient— 3. 

-144.  348. 
'  eie  Independents), 
killed  at  Barry— 14. 
til.  Rev.  C..  monument— 214. 
Ctmperdown  works— 338. 
Cape-house  on  Tower,  an  excrescence 

•  m 

<  .  •  '  .  •  •  • 

141. 

Camonetie,  derivation  of-15. 

Castle  hill -38;  86 

Castle  of  Dundee,  given  up  to  Edward  I 
—S3;  captured  by  Wallace—  27  ;  re- 
taken—29;  reduced   by    Brace— 33; 
magaaneof-183. 

Ca-tU  Street- 7;  130;  184, 

rfcaJman.  Dr.  and  Robert  Mudie,  ancc 
dote  of- 

Chapter-honae  of  8t  Mary's— 104. 

Chapels  and  chaplawnes  in  ! 


and  Friendly 
.113-324. 
Charles,  Prince,  adherents  of- 11 6. 

.-s  I.,  confirmed  charters-85 ;  en- 

r-     .   .     v 

Charles  II.,  visit  of-92;  gifts  by-93; 
death— 100;  residence— 181;  inter- 
view with— 181  (note) ;  church  pew— 

m 

Cherry  of  Tay,  species  of  fish— 87. 
Charters,  granted  by  Brnoe— 34  ;  his  son 

-37 ;  James  I V.  —42 ;  Qneen  Mary- 

67;  James  VI. -80;  of  Guildry— 

254;  King  Robert's,  Apr 
Cheret.  probable  feature  in  8t  Mary's— 

198-199. 
Chime  of  bells  in  Tower— SIS. 

•  'Rivalry,  age  of— 38. 

Christison,    \Vm.,   second   reformed  mi- 

ni.ter-fi.-i,  74;  stipend -200. 
Ckrn*ifU,  newspaper— 448. 
(  Lurches  destroyed  by  fire— 216-217 ;  re- 
built-218;  ancient— 225-234. 

traffic  within-  I 

Claverhonse,  Graham  of— obtained  Dud- 
hope— 104;  created  Viscount  Dun- 
dee-106;  forfeited- 163;  townhouse 
of— 122;  maternal  ancestor— 186. 

Clark's  Mortification— 301. 
•ts.  l«rony  of— 164. 
Clergy  declare  for  Bruce— 32 ;  A  pp.  i. 
Clydesdale  Bank-253. 
Coffee-room.  Exchange,  in  Trades'  Hall— 

184. 
Coin*  found— 184. 

•  ..Kill.-.  Thomas,  printer— 345. 
Commercial  Bank— 363. 
Congregation,  Lords  of —62-64. 
ConstaMo.  (ieorge,  supposed  "Jonathan 

nl.li.uck"— 166. 

OoMmMes  of  Dundee— 37 ;  104;  160. 
Coneteble's  Mortification -3 10. 

Covenant,  Solemn  League  and,  adhered 
to— 88. 

Covenanter*  persecuted  by  Montrose— 99. 

( invents -2M-240. 

Council  chamber,  pictures  in— 176. 

'  ..uttic  «  Wynd— 182. 

Courier  newspaper,  origin  of— 143,  348; 
Cotrisr  <t*  A  rymt — 349. 

Cowgate,  antiquitiee— 186;  attacked  by 
Monk- 187. 

!  Cox  Brothers'  works— 337-339. 
'«.  Serrmeeonrea  of— 37. 

Crawford,   Earls  of- 48.  79;  town  lodg- 
ing-182;  built  seseion-hones— J06; 
.     .     :..-.:  .•       .r 

-274. 

-•       •  •        :  . 

Croat,   old    market-177;   in    " 
IM 


INDEX. 


XI. 


Cross  Church,    origin    of — 208;    list    of 

ministers — 215. 
Crusades,  the — 19. 
Culloden,  fugitives  from — 119-120. 
Cumberland,    Duke    of,    presented    with 

freedom— 119-120. 
Curry,  Walter,  assists  to  take  Edinburgh 

Castle— 36-37. 
Custom-house,  old — 184;  new — 284. 

Darien  scheme,  the — 107. 

Darling,  Grace — 148  ;  porbrait — 149. 

David  I.,  character  of — 21. 

David  II. — 36  ;  taken  prisoner — 37;  grants 

new  charter — 37. 

Davidson,  Guthrie,  mortification — 323. 
Davidson,  Rev.  Thomas,  monument — 213. 
Dempster,    George,    founded  bank — 351 ; 

life  of —365-368. 
Denfind — see  Fiend's  Den. 
Dens  Works— 339. 
Dick,   Thomas,    LL.D.,   sketch    of— 376- 

379. 

Directory,  first  published — 346. 
Dischington,  Sir  VV.— 220. 
Dock  accommodation — 278-279. 
Dock  Street— 184. 
Dog-well— 185. 
Donald  I.— 10. 
Donald  Bane,  lands  of,  near  Dundee — 17  ; 

imprisoned — 18. 
Douglas  family — 40 ;  Duke  of,  bought  up 

— 120;    Lord  Douglas  obtained  Dud- 
hope  lands — 163. 
Dry  Dock,  first  made — 140. 
Drumgeith,  proprietors  of — 166. 
Dudley,  Sir  A. ,  takes  Broughty— 58. 
Dudhope   Castle — 84 ;    erection  of — 159  ; 

description — 161. 
Dudhope,   Lord,  privileges  bought   up — 

86-87;  Viscount— 162. 

estate    granted   to   Claverhouse — 

104. 

Duncan,  Geo.,  M.P.— 145,  387. 

William,  ancestor  of  Camperdown 

—240. 

Admiral,  birth-place — 183  ;  biogra- 

phy—368-373. 

Dunde,  Sir  Eanulph  de,  and  Sir  Ro- 
dolph— 160. 

Dundee,  derivation  and  synonyms — 4  ; 
castle  of — 7 ;  avoided  by  Danes — 16 ; 
royal  residences  in — 18  ;  erected  a 
burgh — 20 ;  rise  of  town — 22 ;  visited 
by  Edward  I. — 25;  burnt— 29;  de- 
fended by  English  against  Bruce— 32; 
captured— 33 ;  obtained  charter — 34 ; 
erected  sheriff dom — 37 ;  visited  by 
James  V. — 43;  by  Queen  Regent — 
47  ;  threatened  by  English — 58  ; 
burned — 60  ;  occupied  by  French 
auxiliaries — 60;  visited  by  Knox — 61 ; 


Dundee,  raised  troops  for  Reformation 
party — 64  4  visited  by  Queen  Mary 
— 66 ;  her  gifts — 67 ;  visited  by  good 
Regent — 69;  General  Assembly  held 
— 70-74;  visited  by  James  VI. — 79; 
confirmed  charters — 80 ;  renewed  his 
visit — 85;  town  assaulted  by  Mon- 
trose — 90;  visited  by  Charles  II. — 
92 ;  invested  and  taken  by  Monk — 
93-97 ;  poverty  of — 98 ;  last  execution 
for  witchcraft — 102-103;  menaced  by 
Claverhouse  — 105-106  ;  decline  of 
trade  at  end  of  17th  century — 107  ; 
state  of  finances  in  1691 — 108  ;  state 
of  town  from  1746—99,  123-134 ; 
Weekly  Intelligencer — 135  ;  topogra- 
phy— 169-171  ;  geology— 172;  ar- 
rangement of  streets — 173  ;  older 
buildings — 175-186;  quaint  descrip- 
tion of — 187  ;  "Dundee  stone" — 179; 
Provosts — 252 ;  armorial  bearings — 
253  ;  Bank  established— 351 ;  first 
"Directory" — 346;  newspapers  — 
347-349;  banks— 353— 355 ;  coinage 
—355. 

Dundee,  Barony  of — 87  ;  account — 157- 
166. 

Countess  of— 104;  Earl  of— 161- 

162. 

Dundee,  Perth,  &  London  Shipping  Co. — 
148. 

Durward,  Alan,  tradition  of — 219. 

Duns,  meaning  of — 8. 

Duntaw — 8. 

Edgar,  King,  died  at  Dundee — 18. 
Educational  foundations — 295-313. 
Edward  I  ,  arbiter  for  Scottish  crown 

— 22-23 ;   visited  Dundee  with  army 

—24. 

Edward  Scholarships — 315. 
Edward's,   Rev.  R.,  description  of  town, 

quoted— 187,  345. 
Ellis,  James,  voluntary  exile  with  Palmer 

—138. 

Engineering  works — 342. 
Episcopalian  Churches — 151. 
Erskine  of  Dun— 62. 
Established  Church  congregations — 151. 

Fan-blast,  invented  by  Carmichael — 141. 

Farthings,  Dundee— 356. 

Ferguson's  mortification — 299. 

Fiend's  Den,  tradition  of — 41. 

Fintry's  Wynd  (see  Sugar-house  Wynd). 

Fish-market— 184. 

Fortifications,  thrown  up  by  French — 60  ; 

cost  of,  in  1691—111 ;  gates  in— 186. 
Freemasons — 83 ;  marks — 264. 
Flamboyant,  Scottish — 193. 
Flamingo,  the,  a  satirical  poem — 143. 
Flesh-market,  site  of— 183. 


(ft 


,  ,  oppoaw  Clatrr- 

kowe-  106 ;  oostly  Tantty  of-161 
Ple^erfatU-173. 

" 


1  Forfarelur*.-  wreck  of-  148. 
.'reach  Reroretioe,  sjapslhiisrs- 

Fnars'  VenMl  (sw  ftarnek  tttreet). 


eoMl  (aw 
eft-tS 


137. 


161. 


Gtl 


BMi    ..i 


.    i.vi    ..i  i  mt  mm  <  •> 

IM 
ITL 

921. 


(•las,  Rer.  John,  aketch  of —374-376. 

Olass-work-344. 

OUdatanes,  Archbishop,  sketch  of-979. 

Gloag.  J.  A.  L, connect**  with  JeWrturr 

:;»7 
Gordon,   of    Aeckindown,    advances   00 

Gothic  ejummwa,  peooliahties  of— 191 ; 

table  of  *tyUs-l«. 
Goorlay  Brothers  *  Co. -148. 
Gowrie,  Eerl  of .  captured    71. 
Graham's  Mortification*-**. 
Gray.  Lord,  inTes  up  Brooghty  Ferry— 


(inthne's 
HAlfpewues,  Da-1- 


Griere's  Mortincatmi-316. 

Osiid's  Mortafioatoon-296, 

Omildry  Inoorporatiom  account  of-2S9- 

account   of  siege  by  General 


V. 


Hallytmrton.  ProToet  James,  raises  troops 
:-66;  takes  the  field  at  O«|wr-69; 

*        -  * D^^e>W       ^.  —  -9  laememBiei  fte»^MB^a.J^A  * 

ttMwnB  i  «rtx»,  mNtvi  ovfeW  oooov— vt ; 
killed  at  aiege  of  Lsit«-66 ;  son  died 
-70;  monument-212. 

Halyl-wton's  Mnriifieatins)-319. 

Harbov.  privUeges  defined -80;  collec- 
tions to  repair -98 ;  first  due.- 274. 
-276;  cost  of  work* 


Harboer  Board,  orignated-277. 
lUrUw.  Uttle  of.  aad  ballad-161. 
Harnr.  Blind,  poem  on  Wallace    9894 
HeadOoe^t-947T 


H  setters,  strike  of- 
Henderson  • 

ll 


•  . 
. 


Mil. .baud 
newspaper— 

if   •   •     • 

Heron,  qnoted-8. 

Hewatt,  Ji 


Beaton -60. 


«*  Wedderbum 


Hill-town— 87 ;   borned— 106; 

of-173. 

Holy  blood  alUr-196. 

Horaley.  Bishop,  spssohse,  of— 946. 

Hospital  Fund.  ongin-«7 ;  lawwiit-151  ; 

'.•  .       -.    •     .•>. 

I'         •'  .  •        •,'         •         •     ;   ':     -.- 


Howie,  K«r.  RoberV-74;  feud  with  ma- 
gistratea-76-7a 

"  Howkehee."  the -140. 

Hughes'  Mortification— 311. 

Hunter,  famUir  of-185. 

Huntingdon,  Earl  of,  traditionary  TOW — 
5;  charter  to  Arbroath-9;  joined 
Crusaders— 19;  shipwrecked  on  re- 
torn— 20  ;  hi*  family  —  20,  159 ;  •tone* 

|     :..::.:_•    :. .::.       1  >^    I-'' 

Huntly,  Earl  of,  died  at  Dundee— 90. 


t  Act- 166. 

144,946. 

aratton  of,  by  chnrch- 


Independenta,  first  in  town— 73 ;  chapels 

—161. 
Infirmary,  Royal,  origin  of— 281 ;  buildings 

—282;  management— 283. 
Innea,  Cosmo.  Report  on  Stipend  Case 

151. 
ImtMfftmtrr,    Dwmdet    IF*aUy,    first    pub- 

liahed- 946. 

InTseka,  English -28-29;   by  fieet-96; 


Ivory,  Thorn**,  a  natire  engrarer—  348. 

-  Sir  Jamea.  aketch  of—  968. 

-  Lord,  aketeh  of-963. 

Jack,  Robert,  kaoged  for  fabe  money—  «L 
Jaffray.   (irinel,    tried  for  witchcraft— 

102;  where  burned-  180. 
James  V.,  Mcape.   fmm    K»lkland-42; 

Tinted  Dudee—  49. 

-  VI.,  Tiaite—  79.  84  ;  coin*  of  found 

|S| 

-  VII.,  pereeeotion  of  Prwbyteriana 
—101. 

Johiuton'*  chanty-295. 
'  .     ...     •    .    i. 

Junin*.  letters  aachbed  to  Dempeter    968. 
JuU  mannfaotarea—  932-937. 


K»«ea.  Lord,  definition  of  borgha— 
Kelhe.  towB-kMa,  of  Ea^i-TfiL 


945. 


INDRX. 


Xlll. 


Kenneth,  overthrew  Picts — 12. 
Kings,  the  three  of  Golan— 235. 
Kinloch,  George,  first  M.  P. —145  ;  life  of 

—380-383  ;  statue— 383. 
Kinnaird  Castle,  visited  by  James  VI. — 

84—85. 
Knox,    John,    attending    Wishart  — 49  ; 

visits  Dundee — 61 ;   his  friends — 63 

(note). 

Lamberton,  meeting  with  Bruce — 31. 

Lament's  Diary,  quoted — 340. 

Law  of  Dundee,  battle  on — 12  ;  described 

—163 ;  view  from— 170. 
Lawson,  Provost — 153. 
Lawson's  Mortification — 302. 
Leather  trade — 344. 
Leng,  Mr  John,  of  Advertiser — 348. 
Leslie,  General,  attempt  to  raise  siege — 

94;  captured — 95. 
Leslie,   James,    C.E.,    report    on  water 

works — 155-156. 

Library  in  parish  church,  destroyed — 206. 
Lindores  Abbey,  founded — 189  ;  held  St 

Mary's— 199. 

Lindsay,  Sir  David,  sailed  to  tournament 
38 ;  founded  chantry— 196. 

Sir  David,  the  poet,  writings  of — 51. 

Alexander,  lent  money  to  king — 79. 

Sir  James,  founded  convent — 238. 

Living,  mode  of,  in  16th  century — 82. 
Literary  Olio,  published — 347. 
Locomotives,  first  made — 141. 
Lochee,  account  of — 337. 

"  Lockit  Buik"  of  Guildry— 260. 
Logie  Works— 340. 
Louden's  Mortification — 322. 
Lowe's  Edinburgh  Magazine — 349. 
Lowson,  scholarship — 312. 
Lucken-booths — 180. 

Lumsden,   Governor,  answer  to  Monk — 
93;  death — 95;  his  antecedents — 99. 
Lyell,  Captain,  monument — 211. 

Macbeth,  and  Shakspeare — 17. 
Mackenzie,  W.  L.,  career  of — 146. 

Sir  George,  biography  of — 360. 

Magazines,  published  in  Dundee — 346-347. 
Magdalene's  nunnery — 243. 

Green — 243 ;  jealously  preserved — 

269. 

Maitland  of  Hatton,  acquired  Dudhope — 
162. 

Malcolm  II. ,  accession — 1 ;  defeated  Danes 
at  Barry — 14. 

Malcolm  the  Maiden— 245. 

Malcolm  III.,  had  palace  in  Dundee — 16. 

Maltmen  Trade— 263. 

Manufactures,  in  19th  century — 325 ;  cot- 
ton—326. 

Maormors — 16-17. 

Margaret,  Queen,  palace  of — 17. 


Margaret,  Maid  of  Norway,  death  of — 22. 

Marketgaitt— 173. 

Marshall's  Mortification — 321. 

Mary,  Queen,  arrived — 65 ;  visited  Dun- 
dee— 66  ;  grant  to  town — 67;  flight 
to  England — 71. 

Matil'Jis,  wife  of  E.  of  Huntingdon 19. 

Mauchline  Tower — 186. 

Maule,  Sir  Thomas,  killed— 29. 

Mason,  wages  and  duties — 83. 

Meadows  (see  Wards). 

Mealmaker,  George,  transported  for  sedi- 
tion—138. 

Meal  mob,  in  1773 — 135  ;  meal  purchased 
by  town— 136. 

Meal-market— 177,  180. 

Melvilles,  James  and  Andrew — 73. 

Memorial  stone  of  Tower  Restoration — 
223;  of  Harbour— 278. 

Mercantile  Gazette — 349. 

"  Merchandis  Letter" — 254. 

Mercury,  Dundee — 346. 

Methodist  Close— 241. 

Methven,  Paul,  first  Protestant  minister 
—61. 

Mill-dams,  sites  of— 172-173. 

Millhill's  lodging— 242. 

Mill  Vennel,  now  Small's  Wynd— 239. 

Milne,  George — 348. 

Ministers,  succession  of,  St  Mary's — 201. 
do.,  Cross  Church— 209. 
do.,  South  Church— 210. 


Mint,  transferred — 78. 

Monasteries  :  Greyfriars — 234;  Blackfriars 
—236  ;  Redfriars— 238. 

Monk,  General,  invests  the  town — 93 ;  as- 
saulted it — 95;  his  lodging — 97;  fu- 
ture career — 100. 

Monksholm— 239. 

Monograms  of  burgesses — 264. 

Montfichet,  William  de,  governor — 32. 

Montrose,  Earl  of,  assaults  the  town — 90 ; 
retreat — 91 ;  brought  in  prisoner — 92. 

Monuments  in  town's  churches — 206,  et 
seq;  in  Houff— 393. 

Mortifications— 295-324. 

Moryson,  Fynes,  account  of  Scotland — 81. 

Mudie,  Robert,  life  of— 142-143;  works— 
144-145. 

Municipal  constitution — 244;  changed — 
247. 

Murraygate — 185. 

"  Muses  Threnodie,"  quotation  from — 8. 

Mylnefield,  Mob  of— 135. 

"  M'Cheyne's  Memoirs" — 350. 

M'Cosh,  James— 348. 

M  'Gavin's  Commentary — 350. 

Naval  Battle  in  Tay— 36. 
Nethergate,  improvements — 139 ;  antiqui- 
ties—180. 
Newspapers,  account  of — 347-349. 


XIT. 


Of  DEC. 


Nine  Trade*, 

N     |    ::.!••:,:   •   ,      •  •  r     :  •  •  •  :         I    -. 

N      •     . •   .     •'      ,,<..-      -      •    ,    :      •_•] 
N  nnnery,  Fnuiciecan  -  - 1 1 

Ogilry.  family  of -80.  9ft. 
OiUry'.  Mortificalion-316-317. 
Old  Steeple,  new  from  -170. 
Orphan  Institution,  account  of — 287. 
Our  Lady  Wark*Uyri*— 177. 
Orergate  antiquitie*  of— 178-179. 

Palmer.  T.  P.,  triad  for  *edition-138. 

Panuride— 14. 

Panic*,  commercial — 140. 

Paomure,  funeral  of  Mound  Earl— 206 ;  <!<>• 

nation  to  Infirmary — 322. 
Parliament,  mem  ben  of,  for  burgh— 145 
Paroell.  Sir  Henry,  M.P.— 145. 
Paraona.  of  St  Mary'a-200. 
P-ton'i  Mortifi  -*u»n— 302. 
PfopU't  Pntvt,  literary  paper— 349. 

Journal,  newkpaper — 849. 

Peadtele  Trade*— 262. 
Pennie*.  Dundee—  354. 

Perth,  claimed  precedency  orer  Dundee— 
8;  deciled— 39;  rerired — 69;  and  de 
oid*d-60. 

Petrie'i  mortification— 321. 

"Phileua,"   letter*  deacnbing  town— 123- 

Picta,  PictUnd.  tc.-  3  ;  battle  with  Scota 

—11  ;  dynaaty  of— 12  13. 
Pinkie,  battle  of-68. 
PiUlpin,  battle  of-12. 
Pttkerro,  barony  of— 166. 
Plague,   the,   in   1544-47;    in    1584—78, 

271 ;  in  1608-84. 
Polio*  Office,  atte  of  old— 177. 
Population  of   the  town  in   1561—98;  at 

•uocetthre  period* — 366. 
Pot  and  lily— 193 
Preacher*,  courted  and  bullied— 72;  offmd 

aaatain  Parliament— 75. 
PnAftna*  Mayasime.  publiahed-347. 
Preat,  account  of — 340. 
PreUoder,  proclaimed— 112;  at  Dundee 

114;  coronation  and  ret«at— 115. 
Prim,  anciently  in  cburch-202,  204. 

nieUr— 77;  appoint  magiatntoa— 84 ; 
order  trial  for  wttohoraft— 102 ;  aanc- 
ttoned  usurpation  of  Conatable— 105. 

Pnmaiona,  price  of.  im  1481-236. 

ProToata,  firrt  .xalUd- 246;  hat  of — 262. 

Pullar'i  mortiBcation— 310,  315. 

Railway!,  firwt  adopted.  Dundee  ft  Newtyle 

Dnndeeft'Arbroath-147. 

Dundee  4  Perth— 147. 

Kamaay's  MortiaoUaoo— 306,  315. 


-146. 


Ray,  Francw,  printer—  344. 
Rebellion  of  1715-112. 
Reform,  ilh<nie»inne  on—  142. 
Reformation,  dawn  of—  44  ;  progieae    61  ; 

e«ubliahed-65;  ordmMMM-267  ;  re- 

former*  nn»l—  Appendix  T. 
Regality.  Lord  of.  denned  ~  158. 
Rent  Kolla,  ancient—  Appendix  riii.  xxx. 

Riddoch.   Proroat,  influenee  and  work*— 
—139;    policy-250;    mortification- 


Rintoul,  R.  8..  of  JJmlUKi-142.  S47. 
Robert  III.,  benefactor  of  coorent-238. 
KoberteoB.  Protoet,  towa-bouae  of  —  182, 
-        Rer.  Jamea.  monument  —  214. 
Roger.  Rev.  Jamea-347. 
Koger'a  mortification  -296. 
Roman  Catholic  cbapela—  151. 
Roman  inreeinn  —  1  ;  account  of  inhabitant* 


Rotten  raw,  (aee  Rill-town). 

1745,  adherenU—  117  11& 
Royal  Arch,  ejected—  153. 
Royalty,  ancient,  limit*  of—  169. 

Saturday  Pott—  S49. 

Scottish  monarchy,  origin  of—  2-3. 

8orymeeourea-27.  3738,   75.   8486.  225. 

X57. 

-        of  FordelL  town  reaidence  —  180. 
Sean-Id  Worka-340. 
Boagite.  brigganta  burnt  in  —  41-42;  antiqui- 

tieaof—  182. 

Seal  fiabing.  account  of—  150. 
toe  burgh 
Dundee    Ma. 


.liMing—  242. 

Shipping,  at  liw  ebb—  96;  Hat  of  in  1691  — 
110;  eariy  notice*—  273  ;  D.,  P..  4  L. 
Company  —  275;  number  and  tonnage 

-'79. 

Shipa,  furnwhed  —  42;  for  pnnuit  of  Both- 
well—  68;  loat  with  plunder  of  aim 
97;  f-c  conroy.  79. 
Siege,  by  Monk—  93-96;    exaggeration  of 


Small  Dr,  remark*  no  aiege— 97 
Smeahm.  engineer  of  Harbour—! 
Soapwork — 344. 
Social  eril,  in  old  ffani    «8 
South    Church— 208;    minuter*    of 

11214 
George,    bequeet    to 


Spmning  mffl.  flnt-Stt. 
Spalding'*  Wynd  (a**  Couttie'*). 
»*•!•  ihip,  firat  built- 140. 

twin  ferry-boat— 141. 

Steeple,  old  (*ee  St  Mary'.  Tower). 
Steeple  Church  (***  St  dement1*). 


INDEX. 


XV. 


Steven's  Mortification — 300. 

Stewart  of  Grandtully,  house  in  Seagate — 
114-183. 

Stipend  Case,  account  of — 151-152. 
I    Stobb's  Fair,  instituted — 98. 

Strachan's  Park— 239. 
I    Strachans,  of  Claypotts— 164-165. 
I    Strathmartine,  residence  of  baron— 177. 
[     Streets,   old,   how  narrowed — 174;  objects 

of  interest  in — 175-186. 

I*   St  Andrew's  Chnrch  erection  of — 261 ;  pa- 
tronage of — 262. 

St  Clement's,  churchyard,  abolished — 68  ; 
church — 151,  176;  ministers  of — 216, 
151;  ancient  church — 226. 

St  Margaret's  Close.  Mint  in — 78. 

"  St  Mary,"  ship— 38. 

St  Mary's  Tower,  refuse  in  siege — 95;  style 
of— 190-191;  date— 195;  restoration— 
194;  probable  designer — 219;  dimen- 
sions— 220. 

St  Mary's  Church,  described — 188  et  seq; 
probable  order  of  building — 195  ;  com- 
parative size — 196  ;  Foundations  within 
it — 197-198;  suggested  arrangement  of 
— 198;  sketch  of  plan — 224;  frequent 
rebuilding— 201-202  ;  fittings  of  inte- 
rior—202203. 

St  Nicolas' s  Craig— 7,  20. 

St  Paul,  ancient  church  of — 226;  St  John 
—227;  our  Lady— 228;  St  Michael— 
229;  St  Salvador— 230,  St  Roque— 
230;  St  Thomas— 231;  St  >~">erf ,  St  James 
the  greater,  St  Blaise — 233;  St  Mary 
—234. 

Sugar  refining  trade— 344-386. 

Sugarhouse  Wynd — 186. 

"  Talisman,"  Scott's — 19. 

Tay,  naval  battle  in — 42  ;  English  fleet — 

58  (note.) 

"  Tay,"  first  steam -boat — 140. 
Tay  Ferry,  harbour  resolved  on — 142. 
Tpy  Works— 340. 
Telford,    Thomas,  engineer  of    Harbour — 

142-277. 
Thermes,  Paul  de,in  command  of  garrison — 

60. 
Thorter    Row,    tradition    respecting  — 96 

(note). 

Thomson,  James,  biography — 391-392. 
Thomson's  Mortification — 322. 
Tolbooth— 102  ;  original— 182. 

new — 179  ;  turret  upon — 179. 

Town  Guard  appointed — 103. 

Town   Council,   former    composition    of — 
248-249;  reformed— 250. 

"Dissection"  of — 250  ;  present  con- 

stitution— 251. 
Town-house,  position  of — -169  ;  described — 

175. 
Towns,  origin  of — 4 


Trades,    the    Nine— 258-261  ;    the    Three 

United — 262  ;     precedence    of — 260  ; 

extinct  trade — 261  ;    meeting  place — 

262. 
Trades'  Hall — 183  ;  bell  and  inscription — 

184. 

Trade  mark* — 265. 
Transept  of  old  Church— 208. 
Tree  of  Liberty — planted — 136. 
Tron,  site  of  the  Salt— 180. 

Umfraville,  governor  of  castle — 23. 

Union  Street — 180. 

Union  Bank— 353. 

United  Presbyterian  Congregations — 151. 

Vagrants,  summarily  dealt  with — 270. 
Vedder,  David,  writings  of — 347. 
Vestry  of  St  Mary's — 205. 
Victoria,  Queen,  visit  of — 152-153. 
Virgin  Mary,  Church  dedicated  to — 20. 

William  th^  Lion's  charter — 9. 

Wages  in  Mills   &c.,  table  of— 329. 

Wallace,  Sir  Wm  .  early  life — 25  ;  kills 
Selby— 26  ;  leader  of  Scots — 27  ;  takes 
Dundee — 27  ;  rewards  Scrymseoure — 
28  ;  resigns — 29  ;  in  hiding  at  Auch- 
terhouse — 30  ;  betrayal  and  death — 
31  ;  charter  by — Appendix  i. 

Wallace  Craigie,  proprietors  of — 165-166. 

Warder  newspaper — 348. 

\\rards,  the  Hospital— 237,  239. 

Water  supply — 155  ;  new  works — 156. 

Watsou,  Provost— 166  ;  house  of— 178. 

Watt  Institution — 146 

Webster,  Speed,  Watt,  and  Johnston's 
M  ortifications — 320. 

Webster's  Mortification— 308-31 2. 

vVedderburn,  vicar  of  Dundee,  contest  at 
archery — 43. 

Wedderburn,  Alex.,  Town-c'erk — 85. 

Wedderburns,  authors  of  ballads — 51-57. 

Wedderburns  of  Birkhill— 162. 

Wedderburn,  Sir  John,  Collector  for  Prince 
Charles — 118;  townhouse  of — 180. 

Weekly  iVezos,  first  penny  paper — 249. 

Weigh-house,  Public — 185. 

Welles,  Lord,  fought  tournament  with 
Lindsay— 38  39. 

Wells,  public— 178. 

Whale-fishing,  account  of — 149  ;  cargoes — 
150. 

Whig  Club— 136. 

Whitehall  Close,  old  palace— 181. 

Whitelocke,  account  of  spoil  at  siege — 97. 

Whyte's  mortification— 309. 

Widow's  Fund — 314. 

Wightman,  assaults  Wishart — 48. 

Willison,  Rev.  John,  monument — 213; 
life  of— 364. 

Dr— 364. 


rri 


William,  a  load  author — 347. 


Wia*  Mrir  trad*  io-32.  98.  274. 
Wkturt,  Owrn,  pwMUft  of —44  ; 

^*  .  .     ;     ..  .         .       i  ,      ,     i 


r   1    .       . 


tioo-45;  prMobiac  «t 


47  ;  martyrdom — 49 ;  all«g»d  oompli- 
in  |4«u  -30  (note). 

:  r     •-     .'.  • 


101  ;   «MatioB  of  Oriael 

102-103. 

Wood,  Sir  Andrew,  Adminl-42. 
Wright  Tnd»-tSS. 

r«unan,  Jo..  M.P.— 145; 

f.m.lr-264. 
MT«Uow  PrigkU,"  Ormof*  norel  of- 184. 
Young  M«o'«  ChrUtun  AMoekUioo— 147. 


ADDITIONS  &  CORRECTIONS. 


Page  145. — At  the  general  election  in  February  1874,  Mr  J.  EDWARD 
JENKINS,  barrister-at-law,  was  elected  M.P.  for  the  burgh, 
in  the  place  of  Sir  JOHN  OOILVT.  Mr  JENKIVS,  who  was 
born  in  1837,  hia  father  being  the  Rev  Dr  JKXKINS  of 
Montreal,  was  educated  in  America,  and  called  to  the 
English  bar  in  1864.  He  is  well  known  as  an  author, 
and  at  the  time  of  his  election  was  absent  on  a  lecturing 
tour  in  America.  In  politics  it  is  neediest  to  say  he  is 
an  advanced  Liberal 

„    210.— After  line  18th,  insert  "  1874— THOMAS  MARTIN." 
.,     176. — 9th  line  from  top,  by  a  transposition,  GAINSBOROUGH  is 
made  the  painter  of  Admiral  DUVCAN'S  portrait  instead 
of  that  of  GBOROB  DEMPSTER. 
„     251.— 10th  line  from  bottom,  for  £5  read  all 
„      „   — 6th  line  from  bottom,  for  thirty  read  tvxnty-fight, 

169. — (Note),  Our  intention  of  giving  a  sketch  map  of  the  town 
in  the  16th  century,  having  been  anticipated  in  another 
work,  it  has  been  thought  unnecessary  to  offer  another, 
although  it  would  have  differed  materially  from  the  one 
to. 


INTKODUCTIOK 


THE  obscurity  of  the  early  part  of  Scottish  history  is  principally 
owing  to  the  equivocal  policy  of  Edward  I.  of  England ;  who,  not 
content  with  turning  his  arms  against  the  inhabitants  of  Scotland, 
warred  also  against  their  record?,  in  the  vain  hope  that  the  destruction 
of  them  would  efface  all  remembrance,  as  well  as  evidence,  of  their  hav- 
ing been  an  independent  people.  The  absence  of  the  national  archives 
left  ample  room  for  the  prolific  genius  of  the  cloister ;  and,  accordingly, 
the  conventual  penmen  have  filled  up  the  void  with  beings  and  tran- 
sactions of  their  own  creation.  Very  little  that  is  said  to  have 
occurred  before  the  accession  of  Malcolm  II.,  in  the  year  1004,  can 
be  relied  on,  and  much  betwixt  that  and  the  reign  of  Malcolm  III., 
who  mounted  the  throne  in  the  year  1057,  is  extremely  doubtful. 
Such  being  the  case  with  the  general  history  of  Scotland,  little  con- 
fidence can  be  placed  in  the  accounts  given  of  the  particular  history  of 
a  municipality  which,  however  celebrated  in  modern  times,  was  for 
many  ages  unknown,  and  continued  for  centuries  comparatively  obscure. 
The  ecclesiastical  writers,  prejudiced  in  favour  of  their  country,  were  by 
no  means  scrupulous  as  to  what  they  wrote,  and  the  superstitious  cre- 
dulity of  the  people  induced  them  to  believe  whatever  their  ghostly 
directors  told  them.  As  we  do  not  pretend  to  be  qualified  for  piercing 
the  thick  veil  which  the  well-meant,  but  ill-managed  labours  of  ancient 
writers  have  thrown  over  the  events  of  former  times,  we  must,  where 
authentic  history  fails  us,  have  recourse  to  conjecture  to  fill  up  the 
space  which  otherwise  would  remain  a  blank. 

The  Celts,  the  aborigines  of  Europe,  were  the  first  discoverers  and 
occupiers  of  the  British  Islands,  but  the  time  when  that  discovery  and 
occupation  took  place  is  unknown ;  and  although  the  investigation  of 
the  point  might  be  gratifying  to  curiosity,  yet,  as  nothing  of  solid 
advantage  would  accrue  from  it,  it  is  the  less  to  be  regretted  that  an  im- 
penetrable cloud  covers  the  subject.  "When  Caesar  brought  the  Eoman 
arms  into  Britain,  a  mixed  race  was  in  possession  of  the  sea-coasts,  but 
farther  inland  the  Eonians  found  the  people  unmixed  and  pure ;  and 
when  Agricola  penetrated  into  Scotland,  he  found  the  same  character- 
istic applicable  to  its  inhabitants.  The  predominant  habits  of  the  people 


on  the  sea  coast  corresponded  strikingly  with  those  of  the  inhabitants 
of  the  opposite  continental  shore,  which  was  the  natural  result  of  an 
intercourse  that  had  existed  for  ages  between  the  two  countries ;  and, 
from  the  Continent  were  found  in  Scotland,  in  like  manner 
from  Scotland  would  be  found  on  the  Continent.  During  the 
time  such  intercourse  had  existed  before  the  arrival  of  the  Romans, 
there  can  be  little  doubt  that,  in  many  instances,  the  manners  of  the 
two  nations  would  be  considerably  assimilated  ;  that  customs  and 
observances  would  be  communicated  by  the  one  to  the  other,  and  other 
customs  and  manners  would  be  so  weakened  or  altered  from  their 
original  strength,  by  imitation  and  improvement,  that  in  time  it  would 
be  difficult  to  ascribe  them  entirely  to  either  people.  That  a  reciprocal 
interchange  of  observances  would  take  place  may  be  safely  assumed ; 
for  we  cannot  suppose  that  either  would  be  so  blind  as  not  to  perceive 
what  was  excellent  and  worthy  of  imitation  in  the  institutions  of  the 
other,  and  adopt  it  into  their  own  practice.  If  this  had  not  been  the 
case,  it  would  be  difficult  to  account  for  the  agreement  found  by  the 
Romans  in  the  manners  of  the  two  nations  in  many  points,  though  so 
much  remained  unassimilated  and  unadulterated  as  to  show  that  they 
were  totally  distinct  and  independent  nations — independent  in  name, 
in  character,  and  in  country ;  and  dependent  only  in  so  far  as  inter- 
course created  wants  and  desires  which  each  respectively  possessed  the 
means  of  gratifying ;  in  which  sense  all  countries  that  have  commercial 
intercourse  are  dependent  on  each  other. 

In  the  origin  of  nations  we  seldom  find  a  single  person  centering  in 
himself  the  powers  and  wielding  the  energies  of  a  people.  Greec< . 
instance,  became  early  and  continued  long  divided  into  a  luultij.l 
of  states  and  tyrannies ;  and  when  the  liberties  or  existence  of  the 
whole,  or  any  number  of  parts  in  confederation,  were  threatened,  tin  n 
one  powerful  person  was  appointed  dictator  over  the  others  while  the 
crisis  lasted  In  like  manner,  Britain  was  divided  into  a  plurality  of 
states  and  kingdoms.  Britain,  says  an  ancient  writer,  abounds  in 
nations  and  kings  of  nations.1  As  in  Greece,  when  danger  threatened, 
one  king  was  elected  pro  tempore,  supreme  over  all ;  and  when  the 
cause  of  his  election  ceased  to  exist,  he  returned  to  his  original  position 
among  his  brother  rulers.  M'Pherson,  in  his  Dissertations  prefixed 
to  Ossian's  poems,  gives  a  rather  fanciful  account  of  the  origin  of 
positive  monarchy  in  Scotland,  to  which  the  reader  is  referred.  The 
>  Pom.  MeU.  d«  Sit.  Ork  L.  iii. 


INTRODUCTION.  3 

various  states  and  kingdoms  which  originally  existed  in  Scotland — 
denned  in  boundary,  limited  in  extent,  and  fluctuating  in  both,  in  the 
vicissitudes  of  collision,  as  must  have  been  the  case — are,  with  the 
sovereigns  who  ruled  in  them,  alike  unknown.  The  original  names 
by  which  they  were  distinguished  have  passed  away,  and  only  the 
Latin  terms  remain ;  but,  as  the  Eomans  are  not  to  be  supposed  to 
have  invented  names  to  designate  the  different  nations,  perhaps  the 
roots  of  the  native  national  names  are  to  be  found  in  the  Latin  deriva- 
tive appellations.  Angus,  or  Forfarshire,  is  well  known  to  represent 
the  ancient  Horestia  or  Forestia,  probably  so  named  from  the  quantity 
of  wood  which  it  contained  at  the  period  of  the  Eoman  invasion. 
Forfar  has  been  considered  to  originate  in  the  Latin — Forestia ;  but  it 
is  also  said  to  be  a  corruption  of  the  original  term,  For- Fare,  which 
literally  signifies  a  guard ;  but  we  leave  this  point  to  etymologists. 
Angus,  or  Forfarshire,  the  original  Forestia,  formed,  in  part  or  in 
whole,  a  kingdom,  tyranny,  or  phylarchate  of  the  aboriginal  possessors 
of  the  country,  until,  in  course  of  time,  from  a  coalition  or  union  of 
states,  the  two  grand  divisions  of  the  Eoman  Caledonii  and  Picti, 
subsequently  called  Scots  and  Picts,  were  formed ;  and  as  Forestia  was 
located  among  and  below  the  Grampian  chain  which  formed  the  line 
of  demarcation  between  the  two  nations,  it  declined  from  an  inde- 
pendent territory  into  a  province  of  Pictavia,  Pictin,  or  Pictland. 

At  the  time  of  the  arrival  of  Agricola,  the  Eomans  found  the  Picti 
and  Caledonii,  though  rude  and  uncultivated  in  comparison  to  them- 
selves, possessed  of  a  degree  of  civilization  superior  to  most  nations 
with  whom  they  had  come  in  contact ;  which  was  the  more  surprising, 
as  they  inhabited  an  obscure  corner  of  the  world,  were  scarcely  known 
to  any  other  people,  and  owed  all  their  improvement  to  their  own 
efforts  and  exertions.1  In  proportion  to  the  degree  of  civilization 

1  At  the  period  of  the  Roman  invasion,  about  A.  D.  8i,  the  Caledonians  cer- 
tainly displayed  a  military  organization  and  generalship  on  the  part  of  Galgacus 
their  leader,  not  to  be  expected  from  rude  barbarians.  The  researches  of  Prof. 
Stuart  haye  fixed  with  tolerable  certainty  the  site  of  the  great  battle  of  the 
Grampians  on  the  high  ground  above  Stonehaven.  Galgacus,  with  consummate 
strategy,  held  back  his  forces  until  Agricola  bad  divided  the  Roman  army  into 
three  parts,  and  pushed  the  famous  ninth  legion  through  Strathmore  to  the  point 
where  the  Grampian  Hills  approach  so  near  the  sea  that  the  invaders  could  march 
no  farther  to  the  north  without  crossing  them  On  this  well-chosen  field  Galgacus 
gave  battle.  Tacitus  claims  the  result  of  the  engagement  as  favourable  to  the 
Romans,  but  acknowledges  the 'bravery  of  the  Caledonians,  and  admits  that 
Agricola  instantly  abandoned  the  expedition,  and  fell  back  on  his  reserves  in 
Strathearn.  No  more  is  heard  of  the  ninth  legion  ;  and  the  presumption  is  not 
unfounded  that  the  onset  of  the  (Siledonians  was  more  fatal  to  the  invaders  than 
their  historian  cared  to  admit. — ED. 


4  IBTBODUCTIOJt. 

enjoyed  by  them,  it  is  to  be  presumed  that  owe  would  be  bestowed  to 
hare  comfortable  mean*  of  habitation ;  and  the  natural  inability  of 
one  to  protect  himaelf  and  property  from  the  attacks  of  banded  aggres- 
sors, as  well  at  the  pleasure*  and  conveniences  of  society,  would  induce 
the  erection  of  a  number  of  habitations  at  one  place.  These  would 
spread  out  in  time  into  towns,  more  or  leas  extensive.  The  dwellings 
would  be  formed  of  whatever  materials  occurred  moat  readily  and  best 
adapted  to  the  purpose ;  and  as  wood  was  plentiful,  it  would  be  exten- 
sively used,  and  in  fact  we  have  ample  evidence  that  it  was.  These 
log  buildings,  in  course  of  improvement,  gar*  place  to  the  more  durable 
erections  of  stone ;  and  the  dwelling  of  one  apartment  yielded  to  that 
of  many.  In  the  infancy  of  the  arts,  simple  conveniences  are  all  that 
are  sought  It  is  in  an  advanced  stage  of  society  that  desires  increase 
beyond  the  power  of  gratification.  The  simple  child  of  nature  is  con- 
tented with  his  cave  or  mud-walled  hut,  and  with  his  roots,  or  bread 
and  water — the  pampered  son  of  art  must  have  his  splendid  palace  and 
his  luscious  viands.  Simplicity  and  nature  have  long  since  bidden 
adieu  to  the  abodes  of  man,  and  left  to  art  the  uncontrolled  go 
ment  of  all. 

In  the  formation  of  towns  the  paramount  object  was  mutual  protec- 
tion and  facility  of  defence.  The  luxury  of  carriages,  the  active  bustle 
of  commercial  enterprise  on  an  extensive  scale,  were  both  unknown  ; 
hence  there  was  no  occasion  for  having  spacious  streets,  the  narrow 
crooked  lanes  being  sufficient  to  answer  all  the  neoeatary  purposes  of 
passage.  Accordingly,  we  fin-1  that  in  the  oMon  time,  towns  in  • 
extent  were  comprehended  within  narrow  limits  ;  the  streets  were  few, 
and  hud  out  with  little  regard  to  regularity ;  the  houses  were  crowded 
close  upon  one  another,  as  if  tin-  builders  aimed  to  exclude  the  light 
of  the  sun ;  heterogeneous  materials  were  used  as  convenience  or 
necessity  dictated ;  but,  as  time  in  its  course  brought  knowledge,  and 
suggested  improvements,  the  old  state  of  things  began  to  be  viewed 
with  disgust,  and  measures  were  resorted  to  in  order  to  remedy  defect*, 
by  introducing  regularity  and  method  in  building,  and  giving  capacity 
of  accommodation  to  thoroughfares.  "We  have  witnessed  the  march 
of  improvement  begun.  Dundee,  formerly  a  limited,  obscure,  and 
gloomy  prison,  as  it  were,  has,  for  a  considerable  time,  been  making 
apid  progress  in  the  course  of  renovation,  and  will  ere  long  he  able 
to  dispute  the  palm  of  elegance  and  convenience  with  the  first  towns 
in  Scotland. 


THE 


HISTORY    OF    DUNDEE, 


I. 

NAME  AND   PROBABLE   ORIGIN   OF  THE  TOWN — WAR   BETWEEN  THE  SCOTS  AND  PICT8 — 
BATTLK  OF  DUNDEE      SCOTS  DEFEATED,  AND  ALPIN  THEIR  KINO  BEHEADED. 

INQUIRIES  which  have  for  their  object  the  elucidation  of  a  point  placed 
beyond  the  reach  of  written  records,  degenerate  into  traditionary  con- 
jectures, which  are  only  to  be  admitted,  and  with  great  caution,  wher. 
other  evidence  cannot  be  procured.  Traditions  are  commonly  grounded 
upon  some  principle  flattering  to  individual  vanity,  and  the  influence 
lent  them  by  time  will  not  blind  the  candid  and  impartial  inquirer. 
For  this  reason,  we  reject  the  ordinary  derivations  of  the  term  Dundee 
as  childish,  or  at  least  merely  fanciful — containing  nothing  calculated 
to  gratify  the  curious,  or  to  satisfy  the  philologist.  We  will  allow, 
however,  the  reader  to  judge  for  himself.  Dr  Small  informs  us  that 
Dundee  "  formerly,  and  even  so  late  as  the  beginning  of  the  present 
(18th)  century,  was  generally  spelled  Donde  or  Dondie,  and  in  Queen 
Mary's  charter,  Dondei.  In  Law-Latin  it  is  Deidonum,  and  we  have 
been  assured  by  various  Highlanders  that  they  consider  it  as  signifying 
what  this  Latin  imports,  the  "  gift,"  or  otherwise  the  "  hill  of  God." 
These  circumstances  give  probability  to  the  tradition  that  it  obtained 
the  name  towards  the  end  of  the  12th  century,  from  David,  Earl  of 
Huntingdon,  who,  landing  here  after  a  dreadful  storm,  on  his  return 
from  the  Holy  Wars,  designed  by  it  to  express  his  gratitude  for  his 
deliverance,  and  in  consequence  of  a  vow,  built  the  old  Parish  Church. 
He  certainly  at  this  time  received  the  town  as  a  present  from  his 
brother,  King  William.  Had  the  signification  been  the  Hill  of  Tay 
or  TaoJimuiu,  according  to  Buchanan,  it  would  in  Gaelic  have  beer- 


ITIKTORT  or 

pronounced  Duntaw.  The  ancient  nam«-  was  Alec,  in  Boeee's  Latin 
Alectum,  and  by  this  it  is  still  distinguished  in  the  Highlands.  The 
signification  of  Alec  is  said  to  be  pleasant  and  beautiful."1 

Irvme  also  informs  us  that  "  Taodunum,  the  Hill  of  Tay,  is  the 
name  of  Dundee  or  I  Hintay— taken  from  the  hill  that  riseth  above  the 
town  called  Dundee-law  ;  but  this  seemeth  not  to  be  the  twra  ratio 
ftonuMU, — for  besides  that  there  are  many  duns  or  hills  on  the  banks 
of  Tay  on  both  sides,  more  conspicuous  than  this,  which  might  give  it 
in- TV  justly  that  name,  we  find  it  in  our  histories  to  have  taken  this 
name  from  the  safe  arrival  of  Uivi.l.  Karl  of  Huntingdon,  Ring 
William's  brother,  who,  in  his  return  fn>m  the  Holy  War,  in  a  great 
storm,  from  the  sight  of  this  hill  received  first  comfort,  and  next  his 
crazy  vessel  safe  harboured  at  St  Nicolas'  Rock,  upon  which  emergency 
he  called  it  iMium-dei,  because  it  was  the  first  assurance  he  had  that 
rivers  were  heard."* 

I'll.-  v.-irious  spellings  of  the  name  in  the  former  of  these  quotations 
and  »ther»  that  may  be  added,  such  as  Downdie,  Doundie,  Dunde, 
iMindi'i.  A.T.,  ;ITV  «'t  no  importance,  as  they  only  show  the  orthography 
used  at  different  times,  until  the  word  was  finally  settled  Dundee,  and 
this  we  hare  seen  indifferently  adopted  with  the  former  in  deeds  and 
indentures  between  the  years  1550  and  1600.  We  suspect  that  the 
story  of  the  Earl  of  Huntingdon  is  the  invention  of  some  inhabitant  of 
tli--  cloister,  in  his  anxiety  to  give  a  spiritual  turn  to  the  incident  of 
David's  arrival,  who  was  a  considerable  benefactor  to  the  church  ;  nor 
in  this  view  of  the  matter  had  he  called  it  the  Gift  of  Mary,  or  the 
Gift  of  Peter,  or  the  <  ;it\  of  any  other  Saint,  would  it  have  been  lees 
in  keeping  with  the  general  custom  of  that  remote  period.  Equally 
suspicious  is  the  derivation  from  Altf,  however  respectable  it  may 
appear  under  the  venerable  shelter  of  Hector  Koece's  authority.  Our 
acquaintance  with  the  '  I  indent  limited  ;  but  we  are  afraid 

that,  instead  of  Alec  signifying  "  pleasant"  or  "  beautiful,"  it  will  be 
found,  upon  being  analysed — Ail-lech  or  Ailach — to  signify  a  stony 
place  or  rocky  field,  neither  very  pleasant  nor  very  beautiful — a  singular 
root  for  the  vernacular  Scottish  expression,  "  Bonnie  Dundee."' 

»  Statistical  Account  of  Dundee,  1702  and  1842. 

*  Nomenclature  of  Scottish  History,  1817,  Montrose 

1  In  oorrohoration  of  this  it  may  be  added,  that  in  the  Irish,  a  cognate  tannage 
with  the  Gaelic,  AUcorAiUafL,  aignifiee  a  "  stone  house  or  habitation,"  as  applied 
to  the  residence  of  the  Irish  Kings.  "  In  all  the  Irish  histories  the  palace  of  the 
northern  Irish  kings  is  designated  by  the  name  AiUacA  simply  -Urianan-Aileach, 


DEEIVATION  OF  NAME.  / 

The  quotation  from  Irvine  tends  to  support  the  derivation  from 
Deidonum,  and  connects  St  Nicolas'  Eock  or  Crag  with  it,  which,  to 
be  sure,  was  in  existence  then ;  but  there  is  no  evidence  that  it  was 
so  early  known  by  that  name.  It  was  Deidonum,  the  gift  of  God, 
indeed,  to  the  Earl  of  Huntingdon  to  see  the  Law ;  but  it  is  very 
strange  it  should  have  been  the  first  friendly  land  he  saw.  He  might 
have  seen  it  before  he  saw  the  heights  to  the  eastward,  but  not  before 
the  summits  of  Sidlaw  and  Fife  were  visible.  Upon  the  whole,  any 
reasoning  upon  this,  as  well  as  other  legends  of  the  cloister,  must  be 
considered  as  thrown  uselessly  away. 

Having  thus  rejected  the  commonly  received  derivations  of  the 
name  Dundee,  we  will  venture  to  bring  forward  one  in  place  of  them, 
which,  if  not  certain,  is  at  least  plausible.  Buchanan,  we  are  aware, 
has  given  the  same,  but  without  adducing  a  reason  for  it.  This  is 
now  to  be  done ;  and  indeed  it  is  surprising  that  this  derivation  has 
not  been  adopted  to  the  exclusion  of  all  others.  In  the  vicinity  of  the 
harbour  there  was  formerly  an  immense  dark-coloured  rock,  through 
which  Castle  Street  was  cut,  and  of  which  a  portion  yet  remains.  On 
the  summit  of  this  rock,  when  entire,  stood  the  castle,  which  was 
demolished  during  the  wars  between  England  and  Scotland,  after  the 
death  of  the  infant  queen,  Margaret,  niece  and  successor  of  Alexander 
III.1  At  an  early  period,  before  Dundee  was  in  being,  the  natural 
strength  of  this  rocky  eminence — one  of  three,  the  others  being  to  the 
north  of  the  High  Street,  and  the  Windmill-hill,  adjoining  the  "Wards — 
would  point  it  out  as  an  eligible  situation  for  a  fortress,  such  as  was 

Aileach-Neid,  or  Aileach-Fririn.  The  signification  of  this  name,  Aileack,  is  obvi- 
ously 'stone  house  or  habitation;'  and  it  is  so  explained  by  Michael  O'Clery,  the 
chief  of  the  Four  Masters,  in  his  Glossary  of  Ancient  Irish  Words  : — '  Aileac  no 
Ailteac  a  ainim  ain  vaile  tugad  a  clocaib, — Aileac,  or  Ailteach,  i.e.,  a  name  for  a 
habitation  which  was  given  from  STONES.'  The  epithets  NEID  and  FBIGEEANN 
(pronounced  Fririn)  are  proper  names  of  men." — Ordnance  Survey  of  Ireland, 
Parish  of  Templemore,  ito.,  Vol.  I,  223,  Dublin,  1837.  Thus  Alec,  or  more  cor- 
rectly Aileach  (the  former  appearing  to  have  been  written  from  the  pronunciation), 
seems  to  be  a  very  tough  root  for  the  euphonic  branch  "  Bonnie  Dundee "  to 
spring  from;  but  the  epithet  bonnie  neither  applies  to  beauty  of  aspect  nor 
amenity  of  situation,  but  is  simply  the  French  adjective  bonne,  good,  and,  in 
concurrence  with  the  extensive  practice  of  ancient  times,  is  applied  to  the  town 
as  representing  the  inhabitants,  being  merely  a  complimentary  expression. 

1  Some  of  our  historians  call  Margaret  the  grand- daughter  of  Alexander;  but 
the  Declaration  of  the  clergy  at  Dundee,  1309,  calls  her  his  niece.  So  near  the 
time,  they  were  likely  to  know  the  relationship.  Vide  a  copy  of  the  original,  in 
s'  Annals  of  Scotland,  Appendix,  and  translation  in  the  present  work. 


8  IIIaToKT  OF  DtrXDEE. 

and  by  oar  remote  progenitors  under  the  Druidical  regime.    Emi- 
i  and  places  of  strength  were  bj  our  Celtic  ancestors  denominated 


Dtuu,  not  from  the  want  of  term*  in  their  language,  but  from  their 
practice  of  calling  things  from  the  use  to  which  they  were  applied  ; 
hence  Dun,  a  hill,  height,  or  fttmtmn^  would  become  the  figurative 
appellation  of  whatever  was  erected  on  it.  The  name  of  the  hill 
having  thus  been  transferred  to  the  fortress,  the  town,  formed  under 
its  protection,  and  built  on  the  brink  of  the  river,  united  the  names 
of  both  in  the  compound  Dun-Taw,  changed  into  Taodunnm  by  Carey 
in  his  "  Macbeth,"  This  term  Duntaw,  in  English  the  bill  or  fort  of 
Tay,  is  now  corrupted  into  Dundee,  which  in  fact  is  the  old  British 
expression  of  Blackhill,  a  name  which  well  corresponds  with  the  block 
colour  of  the  rock.  The  import  of  the  term  Taw  is  heat ;  and  hence, 
i  a  property,  observed  in  ancient  times,  possessed  by  the  water, 
the  name  Loch-taw  or  Tay,  that  is,  the  Warm  Lake,  is  derived.  Taw 
comes  from  the  name  of  the  Celtic  deity  Teuthaighte  (Teutatet  lat.), 
i.e.  warm  or  warmed. 

With  regard  to  the  origin  of  the  town,  Heron1  says  that  David, 
:  luntiugdon,  at  his  return  from  the  crusade  in  which  he  had 
accompa:  itxl  L  of  England,  lauded  nearly  on  the  site  of  the 

future  town  of  Dundee  ;  and  again  in  his  notes  adds,  that  the  burgh 
<  t  I  Mm. lee  was  certainly  not  of  earlier  origin  than  the  end  of  the  1 1th 
century.  It  is  rather  difficult  to  ascertain  the  meaning  of  the  his- 
torian— to  say  nothing  of  the  difference  of  nearly  three-fourths  of  a 
century,  between  the  end  of  the  eleventh  century  and  the  time  of 
the  arrival  of  l>avi«l,  <>n  "  nearly  the  situation  of  the  future  town  of 
Dundee" — whether  he  refers  to  it  as  a  royal  burgh,  or  simply  a  collec- 
tion of  houMv  ;porated.  He  seems  to  have  been  under  the 
iiitlu'-ncc  of  th«-  Hilly  disputes  about  precedency  that  formerly  agitated 
the  lieges  of  Dundee  and  Perth  ;*  and  to  have  ascribed  an  earlier 

1   Hut.  Soot  B.  II.  a.  ii  e  6,  and  Note*  to  hi*  fin*  roL 

*  ID  the  fifth  mow  of  Adaouon'a  "  MUM  Threnodie,"  originally  publish*! 
about  1020,  and  again  about  1775,  theae  dispute*  are  alluded  to.  Gall  being 
urged  to  repeat  the  rtory  of  the  aenult  on  Perth,  or  battle  of  the  bridge  of  Taj, 
dMttfcM  to  do  it,  thu* : 

-  No,  no.  Gall  did  reply, 
Lett  I  offend  our  neiykkmr  tow*  near  by, 
When  they  aball  hear  how  malice  did  proroke  them ; 
Ambition  them  guide,  and  avarice  choak  them." 

A.  f<><it  note  to  thu  paaaage  ehowa  "our  neighbour  t  nrn"  rijnifim  Dundee.     la 
rt  -f  till*  work  we  will  hare  OOOMIUTI  to  revert  to  Uu.  Mibjoot. 


OP  THE  TOWN.  9 

origin  to  the  former  would  have  risked  galling  the  kibe  of  the  latter. 
If  Heron  refers  to  the  origin  of  Dundee  as  a  royal  burgh,  we  will  not 
dispute  with  him  ;  but,  if  as  a  town  or  large  village,  we  must  protest 
against  his  assertion,  for  this  reason,  that  though  kings  no  more  than 
their  subjects  are  bound  to  the  possession  of  wisdom,  William  the  Lion 
could  not  act  so  preposterously  foolish  a  part  as  to  bestow  a  charter 
on,  and  erect  into  a  royal  burgh,  a  place  that  was  in  nubibus.  That 
Dundee  is  far  more  ancient  than  the  time  of  William  need  not  be 
questioned  ;  and  it  is  our  belief  that,  so  soon  as  the  fortifications  which 
at  first  occupied  the  summit  of  Duntaw  were  in  a  state  to  yield  efficient 
protection,  houses  would  begin  to  be  formed  in  its  neighbourhood  to 
enjoy  that  protection ;  and  these  houses,  continuing  to  increase  in 
number,  would  form  the  town  near  which  King  Alpin  was  defeated 
and  beheaded  (834),  in  which  Malcolm  II.  refreshed  his  troops  before 
the  battle  of  Barrie  (1012),  and  which  William  the  Lion  subsequently 
incorporated — if  the  bestowal  of  a  charter  constitutes  incorporation — 
and  conferred  upon  his  brother  David,  Earl  of  Huntingdon.  This  is 
proved  by  several  charters  which  are  extant,  given  by  the  Earl,  in 
particular  one  to  the  Abbey  of  Arbroath,  in  which  he  calls  the  town 
meo  burgi  de  Dundee.1 

Some  of  our  ancient  historians,  indulging  in  their  penchant  for  the 
marvellous,  inform  us  that  Dundee  was  a  place  of  strength  and  import- 
ance at  the  time  Agricola  brought  the  Eoman  eagles  into  Scotland, 
and  point  it  out  as  the  place  where  Catanach,  King  of  the  Picts, 
entered  into  an  agreement  or  league,  offensive  and  defensive  of  course, 
with  Galde — the  Galgacus  of  the  Latin  historians — King  of  the  Scots, 
against  their  common  enemy,  the  Eomans.  They  also  inform  us  that 
their  castle  was  strongly  fortified,  and  the  residence  of  Donald  I.  We, 
no  more  than  the  historians  who  record  these  things,  know  anything 
about  them ;  but,  when  we  call  to  remembrance  that  the  Eomans 
found  the  inhabitants  of  Caledonia  acquainted  with  many  of  the  useful 
and  convenient  arts — the  use  of  money  and  the  nature  of  traffic, 
whether  by  purchase  or  exchange,  possessed  of  a  system  of  religion, 
living  under  government,  and  not  altogether  ignorant  of  the  abstruse 
branches  of  knowledge — we  must  needs  own  that  they  were  not  wholly 
barbarians ;  and  when  such  was  the  case,  they  must  necessarily  have 
had  some  idea  of  erecting  a  residence.  The  possession  of  a  residence 
would  suggest  some  method  of  strengthening  it — and  a  strong  residence 

1  See  note  p.  20. 


10  HISTORY  Or 

would  suggest  the  improved  notion  of  a  fortification ;  different,  indeed, 
from  those  of  modern  time*,  but  not  the  IBM  *  fortification.  The 
practice  of  their  field  warfare  would,  moreover,  suggest  the  propriety 
of  strengthening  the  weak  parts  of  a  position.  Turf,  stones,  wood — 
the  readiest  materials  that  occurred — would  be  applied  to  that  pur- 
pose ;  and  these  articles,  not  being  conveniently  portable,  would,  on  a 
change  of  position,  be  left  behind,  ready  to  be  used  on  any  succeeding 
emergency.  This  would  also  suggest  the  utility  of  places  of  strength, 
ready  prepared  for  occupation  as  circumstances  should  direct;  at 
first  a  mound  of  earth,  or  rude  rampart  of  stones,  or  breastwork  of 
felled  wood,  as  each  of  them  might  most  easily  be  erected ;  the  second 
of  which  methods  may  be  conceived  as  that  adopted  in  the  first  erec- 
tion <>ii  Duntaw.  To  this  method  of  defence  we  may  suppose  the 
vitrified  erections  succeeded;  which,  !••  mg  superseded  by  the  tower 
of  masonry,  opened  the  way  to  the  erection  of  the  almost  innumer- 
able buildings  which  soon  took  place  in  all  the  varieties  of  square  and 
circular  towers,  sej>arate  and  mixed.  Though  nothing  U  known  of 
the  state  of  Dundee,  nor  that  its  castle  or  Dun  was  anywise  remark- 
able for  strength  more  than  any  other  in  the  time  of  Donald  I.,  whose 
reign  is  n-t*  n<  .1  t<>  tin-  --ii'l  -•'.'  th<>  second,  and  beginning  of  the  third 
century— if  there  were  ever  a  king  Donald — yet  it  cannot  be  assumed 
that  the  town  was  not  in  being  at  that  time,  neither  can  it  be  said 
that  before  tli.it  time  no  kind  of  fortification  h;ul  .  \.  r  been  erected 
near  it,  for  that  would  be  denying  more  than  can  be  proved ;  yet, 
all  things  considered,  the  practice  of  the  people  and  capabilities 
of  tli.-  place,  it  may  be  safely  assumed  that  there  was  a  Duutaw — 
the  rudiment  or  first  element  of  Dundee — in  being  at  the  time 
ascribed  to  the  league  between  Catanach  and  <>al-l.-.  Nothing  posi- 
tive can  be  advanced  concerning  this ;  for  it  is  as  probable  that  such 
was  the  case  as  that  it  was  not,  and  may  be  adopted  l>y  •  ith- 

out  subjecting  his  judgment  to  question,  being  purely  a  matter  of 
opinion. 

Frequent  mention  of  Dundee  in  ancient  chronicle  is  not  to  be  ex- 
pected, and  accordingly  a  mighty  void  occurs  in  its  history  from  the 
year  209,  the  year  in  which  the  douMful  I  iM  I.,  ,li,.«l,  until 

834,  when  we  find  it  the  head  quarters  of  Alpin,  King  of  the  Scots, 
whose  army  lay  encamped  in  its  vicinity,  a  war  having  taken  place 
between  him  and  the  Picts.  At  this  time  the  territory  of  the  Scots, 
called  the  kingdom  of  Dalriade,  a  name  which  has  made  no  small  noise 


THE  PICTS  AND  SCOTS.  11 

among  antiquaries,  consisted  of  the  "Western  Islands,  with,  the  coun- 
tries of  Lorn,  Argyle,  Knapdale,  Kintire,  Lochaber,  and  Breadalbane, 
on  the  main  land.  [The  Pictish  kingdom  extended  from  the  Firth  of 
Forth  northward,  bounded  by  the  sea  on  the  east,  and  by  the  territory 
of  the  Scots  on  the  Avest,  the  precise  boundary  line  being  unknown. 
Like  the  Scots,  whose  chief  seat  was  in  Ireland — now  generally  admit- 
ted to  be  the  ancient  Scot-land — the  Picts  were  a  Celtic  race,  and  in 
all  probability  the  first  known  inhabitants  of  North  Britain,  if  not 
also  the  Caledonii  of  Eoman  authors.] 

Alpin  became  King  of  the  Scots  in  the  year  831,  and  being,  by  his 
mother,  grandson  to  Hungus,  King  of  Pictland,  laid  claim  to  that 
kingdom  also,  the  family  of  his  grandfather  having  been  all  carried  off 
by  violent  deaths.  After  several  vicissitudes  of  fortune  the  Picts 
chose  Brude  for  their  king,  who  immediately  took  measures  to  retrieve 
the  loss  of  a  recent  battle  fought  with  Alpin  near  Forfar.  Henry 
Maule  of  Melgund,  in  his  History  of  the  Picts,  thus  narrates  the 
story  :  "  Brude,  King  of  the  Picts,  taking  it  highly  to  heart  that 
Alpin,  King  of  Scots,  with  two  thousand  men,  should  have  invaded 
Louthian,  exercising  all  cruelty  on  the  inhabitants,  spairing  sex  nor 
age,  in  the  preceding  year,  levies  a  great  army,  crosses  the  Tay  at  the 
castle  of  Caledonia  [Dunkeld],  and  marches  with  all  the  speed  he 
could  to  the  country  of  Horestia  [Angus],  where  he  encamped  on  the 
side  of  a  hill  some  thirteen  or  fourteen  furlongs  from  the  town  of 
Alectum  [Dundee],  where  he  is  met  by  King  Alpin  with  twenty 
thousand  Scots-  With  much  blood  was  it  foughten  for  many  hours 
together,  till  Alpin  with  great  force  giving  a  fresh  charge  on  his 
enemies  was  unfortunately  taken ;  the  Scots  no  sooner  -seeing  their 
king  taken,  but  they  betake  themselves  to  the  mountains,  so  that  the 
Picts  that  day  remained  victors,  who  take  their  prisoner,  King  Alpin, 
and  beheaded  him,  leaving  his  body  behind  them,  and  carrying  his 
head  to  their  city  of  Camelon,1  where,  in  derision,  they  affixed  it 
aloft  on  a  pole  in  the  middle  of  their  city."2 

There  is  one  circumstance  omitted  by  Maule,  but  noticed  by  other 
writers,  which  decided  the  day  in  favour  of  the  Picts.  During  the 
battle,  Brude  caused  all  the  attendants  and  women  in  his  camp  to  put 
themselves  in  array,  and,  as  a  fresh  reinforcement,  make  a  show  of 

1  Supposed  to   be  Abernethy  in  Stratherne,  which  at  that  time  was  their 
capital,  ci-^il  and  ecclesiastical,  according  to  the  Register  of  St  Andrews 
3  Hist.  Picts,  Chap.  X.  .Edin.  1706  and  1818,  12mo. 


13  DISTORT  OF  DDWDEt. 

•tucking  the  Scot*,  a  stratagem  resorted  to  by  Robert  L  at  Bannock- 
burn,  and  attended,  aa  in  this  case,  with  complete  success. 

At  the  time  the  armies  joined  battle,  Alpin  was  looking  on  from 
the  castle  on  the  Law,  and  observing  one  of  his  wings  begin  to  give 
way,  he  sallied  out,  with  his  attendants  and  the  garrison,  to  support 
his  troops ;  he  arrived  at  the  tield,  and  gave  the  fresh  charge,  which, 
•s  Maule  notices,  proved  fatal  to  him. 

place  where  Alpin  was  decapitated  by  the  victorious  PicU  was, 
and  is,  called  1'italj.y,  formed  by  a  corruption,  or  rather  an  elision 
of  the  final  n  in  Alpin.  1'italpy  is  close  to  the  road  leading  from 
Dundee  to  Coupar  Angus,  somewhat  more  than  three  miles  from  the 
former,  .ml  a^.ut  on*-  In. in  tin-  field  of  battle.  At  this  place  AJpin's 
body  wag  buried,  and  hence  its  uame — Pit-Alpiu,  the  Hole  or  Grave 
of  Alpin.1 

Dundeu  ut  this  period  must  have  been  a  place  of  some  consequence, 
since  it  was  able  to  accommodate  an  army  of  twenty  thousand  men. 
It  is  not  necessary  to  account  for  the  maintenance  of  such  a  number, 
as  every  one  knows  that,  down  to  a  late  period,  the  maintenance  of  a 
Scottish  .-.Mi-  r  was  not  an  expensive  matter.  That  our  ancestors 
were  brought  up  in  a  very  hardy  manner  is  notorious ;  and  though, 
during  the  time  that  elapsed  Ix-ion-  tin-  battle,  the  .---Idiers  would  have 
Miiien-d  no  inconvenience  from  remaining  in  tin-  held,  yet  still  tho 
.•nee  of  such  an  anuy  forcibly  induces  the  notion  that  the  town, 
even  at  this  early  period,  must  have  been  of  considerable  extent, 
Kn-iii  bfin^  .situated  within  tho  acknowledged  territory  of  the  PicU, 
and  also  occupied  by  Alpin,  it  would  seem  that  conquest  had  been  at 
work,  gr.ulu  illy  narrowing  the  limits  of  the  Pictiah  sovereignty  and 
extending  that  of  the  Scottish,  until  .tin-  r«  iun  <>f  Kenn«  th,  tin-  son 
and  successor  of  AJpin.  uh..  overthrew  th«  vn.L-ty  alt<>-. 

annexed  the  dominions  of  that  crown  to  his  own,  and  became,  by  so 
doing,  the  1,1. -t  sole  monarch  of  all  Scotland.     Before  the  battle  \\ 
decided  the  fate  of  ricilaud,  Kenneth,  according  to  Boeoe,  offered  to 
make  peace  with  the  PicU  up.»n  condition  of  receiving  in  absolute 

1  Boaoe  relaU*  tlwt  Al|>io  was  behaved  on  the  stone  on  which  he  raised  his 
standard ;  and  at  the  N.W.  corner  of  the  i>arliauientary  boundary  of  Dundee  a 
•tone  u  still  pointed  out  M  the  veritable  block  What  u  far  more  certain  u  that 
some  years  ago  a  human  skeleton  was  found  near  this  spot ;  and  some  eighty 
years  ago,  several  graves  formed  of  nide  flag-stenes  A  fine  •'snake  bracelet" 
was  also  found  there  in  1712,  which  is  preserved  iu  the  Antiquarian  Mi 
Edinburgh  —Ed. 


BATTLE  OP  PITALPIN.  13 

sovereignty  the  provinces  of  Fife,  Forfar,  and  Mearns.  As  Alpin, 
before  his  defeat,  was  in  possession  of  a  part,  if  not  the  whole  of 
Angus,  which,  with  Mearns,  formed  the  ancient  Horestia,  it  is  probable 
that  the  Picts  had  recovered  it  again ;  and  it  is  also  probable  that, 
from  his  father  having  been  possessed  of  it,  in  part  or  in  whole,  Ken- 
neth had  considered  it  as  belonging  rightfully  to  himself,  and  that  the 
peaceable  and  absolute  cession  to  him  of  it,  with  Fife  and  Mearns, 
should  be  the  price  of  peace.  Kenneth's  terms  were  rejected — battle 
joined,  and,  in  refusing  to  yield  a  part,  the  Pictish  Government  lost 
•all ;  and  thus  Dundee  came  to  form  a  part  of  the  Scottish  dominions. 
[This  version  of  the  battle  of  Pitalpin  has  been  freely  accepted  by 
our  local  annalists  ;  but  on  reference  to  historians  of  greater  weight,  its 
accuracy,  in  many  essential  particulars,  may  well  be  questioned. 
Taking  such  authorities  as  Tytler,  Skene,  Pinkerton,  Chalmers,  &c., 
we  find  that  Alpin,  king  of  the  Scots,  who  had  a  brief  reign  of  only 
two  years,  did  fight  a  bloody  battle  about  836,  in  which  he  was  num- 
bered with  the  slain  ;  but  the  scene  of  the  conflict  was  in  the  parish 
of  Dalmellington  in  Ayrshire,  and  not  on  the  western  slope  of  Dundee 
Law.  The  Eegister  of  St  Andrews  says  that  Alpin's  only  attempts  to 
extend  his  territory,  beyond  his  native  mountains  of  Argyle,  were 
directed  to  the  district  of  Ayr  and  Galloway.  Moreover,  Drust  IX. 
was  then  king  of  the  Picts,  Brude  or  Bridei  being  the  chief  who 
fought  Egfrid  and  his  Northumbrians  at  Duin-Nechtan  [Dunnicheu] 
in  685, — a  century  and  a-half  before  he  is  made  to  figure  on  the  field 
of  Pitalpin.  The  latest  writer  we  have  consulted  (Mr  Jervise,  in 
Memorials  of  Angus,  p.  21),  resolves  the  difficulty  so  far,  by  putting 
back  the  date  of  the  battle  to  730,  and  holding  that  Aengus  was  the 
Pictish  leader  who  defeated  Elpin,  king  of  the  Scots,  at  Pitalpiu. 
There  was  an  Alpin  or  Elpin  who  flourished  775 — 779  ;  but,  apart 
from  the  discrepancy  of  dates,  he  was  a  Pictish  monarch  (Chalmers' 
Caledonia;  Eitson's  Annals,  vol.  ii.) ;  still,  if  we  may  assume,  what  is 
probable,  enough,  that  Alpin  or  Elpin  was  a  name  taken  by  a  line  of 
Dalriad  kings,  one  of  whom  may  have  borne  it  about  730,  this  solution 
might  be  adopted,  and  justify  us  in  believing  the  battle  of  Pitalpin 
to  be  matter  of  history.] 


Section  li. 

TTT«  DAKKS-  BATTU  or  BABRIE— ACCEMIOH  or  MALCOUI  m.— »ATII> 
BABL  or  HCVTIVODOV,  RTTCBM  nu>x  TUB  CICSADK — LAJTM  AT  DCWDKI,  WHICH  a 
EBKCTKD  nrro  A  BCROH. 

M  the  death  of  Alpin  we  find  nothing  remarkable  occurring,  in 
which  Dundee  was  concerned,  until  the  year  1012,  when  Malcolm  II. 
defeated  the  Danes,  under  Camus  their  general,  at  Barrie  or  Car- 
noutftie,  about  ten  miles  to  the  eastward  of  the  town.  Not  long  before 
this  [1010],  Malcolm  had  overthrown  the  Danes  with  great  slaughter 
at  Mortluch,  in  AlM-nlceiishire;  which  untoward  event  being  related  to 
Sweyn,  Kin;.'  <>t  I><  nmark,  instead  of  deterring  him  from  any  farther 
-  otl.tml,  «-ncouraged  him  more;  the  rather  that,  having 
recently  reduced  England,  he  was  determined  to  reduce  Scotland 
also.  For  this  purpose  he  fitted  out  two  fleets,  one  in  Norway, 
the  other  in  Kngland,  and  placed  both  under  the  command  of 
Cainus,  one  of  the  ablest  of  his  officers.  Disappointed  in  effecting  a 
landing  in  the  Firth,  Camus  bore  away  northwards,  and,  anchoring  in 
I. mum  Bay,  landed  his  troops  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Bed-head,  a  few 
miles  beyond  Arbroath.1  Proceeding  to  Brechin,  he  laid  siege  to  the 
Castle  ;  but  not  being  able  to  reduce  it,  in  the  true  spirit  of  northern 
barbarism,  he  set  fire  to  the  town  and  church,  and  reduced  them  to 
ashes.  Leaving  this  scene  of  blazing  desolation,  he  proceeded  south- 
ward across  the  country  towards  Balbride,  or  Panbride — plundering 
and  burning  every  place  in  his  route,  among  which,  tradition  says, 
was  the  chun-h  <>f  AU'relliot  or  Arbirlut.  Pitching  his  camp  at  ' 
noustie,  he  waited  the  approach  of  Malcolm,  who,  he  learned,  was 
approaching  with  his  army  from  I  >tm. !••••.  \vh.  n-  he  had  rested  a  few 
days.  Malcolm  took  up  his  position  at  Barrie,  in  front  of,  and  »• 
a  mile  distant  from  the  lines  of  the  invaders.  Both  armies  prepared 
for  battle — a  battle  of  the  highest  moment  t<>  Scotland,  as  upon  the 
issue  <>f  it  her  fate  depended.  Effectually  to  rouse  the  Danish 
soldiers,  it  is  said,  that  on  disembarking,  Camus  destroyed  or  sent 

1  Another  account  nuke*  one  portion  of  the  Northmen  land  »t  the  mouth  of 
the  Southmk,  new  MontroM,  •  •ecood  at  Lunan  RAT.  and  •  third  deUohment  at 
U«me.— ED. 


BATTLE  OP  BARRIB.  15 

away  his  ships,  thus  showing  his  troops  that  they  were  to  rely  wholly 
upon  their  swords.  The  morning  of  the  day  of  battle  at  length 
dawned,  and  the  Danes  confidently  expected  to  gain  the  victory ;  but, 
instead  of  Scotland  becoming  a  feudatory  or  dependent  of  the  Danish 
crown,  victory  sat  on  the  helmet  of  her  monarch,  and  hurled  defeat 
and  overwhelming  disgrace  upon  the  arms  of  the  north.  The  Danish 
lines  were  broken ;  and  complete  disarray,  disorganization,  confusion, 
and  flight  were  the  results.  An  old  local  rhyme  preserves  the  tradi- 
tion of  the  great  slaughter  that  attended  this  conflict — 

"  Lochty,  Lochty,  is  red,  red,  red, 
For  it  has  run  three  days  wi'  bluid." 

Camus  himself  was  overtaken,  and  slain  on  the  summit  of  Downie 
hill,  near  Monikie,  where  a  tumulus  received  his  remains,  and  a  stone 
cross,  sculptured  with  rude  figures,  was  erected,  which  still  points 
out  the  spot.1  Cairns  were  heaped  over  the  gathered  bodies  of  those 
who  fell  in  the  low  plain,  whence  the  name  Carnoustie — the  Cairn  or 
Tomb  of  the  Host — is  derived. 

Malcolm,  improving  his  victory,  pursued  the  flying  Danes,  and 
overtaking  them  at  Aberlemno,  gave  them  a  second  overthrow,  and 
erected  commemorative  memorials  of  his  victory,  which,  with  several 
tumuli,  are  still  existing,  The  shattered  remains  of  these  two  battles, 
still  pursuing  their  route  northwards,  were  followed  by  Malcolm, 
breathing  nothing  but  destruction,  and  finally  put  to  the  sword  in  a 
third  battle,  at  Cruden  in  Aberdeenshire ;  which  name  is  an  abbrevia- 
tion of  Cruor  Danorum,  that  is,  the  Blood  of  the  Danes,  and  was  so 
called  by  the  ecclesiastical  writers  of  the  time. 

Notwithstanding  the  numerous,  and  almost  incessant,  invasions  of 
Scotland  by  the  northern  nations,  it  does  not  appear  that  Dundee  was 
ever  a  sufferer  by  these  irruptions.  If  it  ever  did  experience  any 
damage  from  them,  it  has  escaped  record  ;  and  it  is  not  likely,  if  an 
enemy  had  reduced  it,  that  such  an  incident  would  have  been  over- 
looked,— the  more  so,  that  places  of  comparatively  inferior  importance 
are  particularly  specified,  as  well  as  the  occurrences  which  imparted 
the  little  importance  that  distinguishes  them.  There  are  only  two 
instances  recorded  of  the  Norsemen  having  been  at  all  near  Dun- 

1  About  1620,  the  tumulus  was  opened  by  order  of  Sir  Patrick  Maule,  in  the 
presence  of  a  number  of  gentlemen,  when  a  large  skeleton  was  found,  with  a  part 
of  the  skull  cut  away  ;  also  a  rude  clay  urn,  and  bracelet  of  gold,  which  are  pre- 
served at  Brechin  Castle.  These  are  figured  in  Mem.  A  ng.  p.  22. — ED. 


If 

<'ee,  —  the  one  when  they  were  defeated  at  Luncarty,  to  which  they 
advanced  from  the  south  by  Perth  ;  the  other  when,  as  above,  they 
advanced  from  the  north  and  east  towards  Panbride,  which  is  only 
about  eleven  or  twelve  miles  distant.  Some  accounts,  indeed,  state 
that  thoae  Dane*  who  were  defeated  at  Luncarty  landed  at  Montrose, 
ati'l  proceeded  westward,  plundering  and  burning  every  place  in  their 
progress.  It  is  stated  that  they  besieged  Perth  ;  but  as  no  mention  is 
made  uf  Dundee,  we  must  conclude  it  to  have  been  too  strong  for  them 
to  reduce,  or  that  it  must  be  added  to  those  places  which  wore  plun- 
dered and  burned.  As  it  was  the  only  place  of  importance,  wealth, 
and  strength  between  Montrose,  where  the  invaders  disembarked,  and 
;li*  ir  progress  was  arrested,  if  it  kid  been  invested  or 
reduced,  this  doubtless  would  have  been  recorded,  hence  we  are  rather 
authorized  to  conclude  either  that  it  resisted  successfully  the  attacks 
of  the  Danes,  or  that  the  march  of  the  invaders  from  Montrose  to 
Perth  was  through  Strathmore  —  a  supposition  which  derives  probabi- 
lity from  the  alleged  burning  of  Brechin  in  their  progress. 

Not)  ting  furtlu-r  of  importance  occurred  in  which  Dundee  had  any 
share  until  the  year  1<>.*>7,  when  M.ilr»lm  III.  mounted  the  throne  of 
his  father,  which  had  been  unjustly  withheld  from  him  by  the  usurpa- 
tion of  Macbeth.  The  marriage  of  Malcolm  to  the  EnglUh  princess, 
Margaret,  sister  of  Edgar  Atheling  (who,  on  the  demise  of  Edward 
the  Confessor,  ought  to  have  been  King  of  England),  took  place  about 
1069,  and  was  the  occasion  of  a  palace  being  erected  in  Dund* 
indeed,  there  bad  not  been  one  before,  which  is  probable  from  the 
court  Lot  being  permanently  fixed  at  one  place,  but  ambulatory.  This 
arose  from  the  rents  of  the  Crown  demesne*  being  paid  in  kind  before 
the  introduction  of  metallic  currency,  and  which  continued  in  part 
after  money  was  coined.  This  method  of  paying  rents  rendered  it 
necessary  for  the  monarch  to  remove  from  place  to  place  with  his 
attendants,  to  use  his  rente  wheru  they  were  produced  ;  and  for  this 
purpose  residences  w.-uld  be  erecU-J  for  these  perambulatory  visita- 
tions, which  would  of  course  vary  in  duration  at  the  different  places, 
according  as  there  was  a  greater  or  lesser  extent  of  crown  lands  near 
them.  He-  oe  we  are  led  to  conclude  that  there  had  been  a  royal  house 
at  Dundee  before  the  accession  of  Malcolm,  occupied,  in  the  absence 
uf  the  monarch,  by  his  thane  or  steward,  the  Maormor.1  This  house 


'  ThedarhrUk>OM«iutoUfromaMOMlkMoritewar.1.ao4nAor.gm^.   Th« 
Maormor  has  bwn  eosrfmukbd  with  the  Thane  :  but  the  former.  b«idtt  Ufa*  BMC* 


MALCOLM  CANMOKE.  17 

we  consider  to  have  been  the  palace  called  after  Queen  Margaret, 
because  she  had  resided  in  it.  Margaret  was  pious,  and  a  generous 
benefactress  to  the  clergy,  who,  in  gratitude  to  her  memory,  placed 
her  name  in  the  calendar  after  her  death ;  and  in  commemoration  of 
her  virtues,  the  place  where  the  palace  stood  still  bears  her  name.1 
Though  the  favourite  residence  of  Malcolm  Canmore  was  Dunfermline, 
yet  lands  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Forfar  were  set  apart  for  the  dowry 
of  the  queen ;  and  it  is  tolerably  certain  that  a  royal  residence  or 
castle  existed  in  that  town.  It  is  natural  to  suppose  that  she  would 
frequently  visit  what  was  peculiarly  her  own,  by  free  gift  and  act  of 
the  crown,  and  it  is  also  likely  that  the  royal  pair  would  sometimes 
visit  Dundee. 

[King  Malcolm  Canmore,  after  a  prosperous  reign  of  thirty-six  years, 
fell  at  the  siege  of  Alnwick  Castle,  Nov.  13,  1093.  His  brother, 
Donald  Bane,  Maormor  or  Earl  of  Gowrie,  whose  lands  extended 
almost  to  the  walls  of  Dundee,2  returned  from  exile  in  the  Western 
Isles,  and  usurped  the  kingdom.  He  was  dethroned  in  the  following 
year  by  Duncan  II.  (elder  son  of  Malcolm  by  his  first  marriage  with 
Earl  Thorfin's  widow) ;  but  Duncan  himself  was  treacherously  slain 
in  1095  by  Maolpeder,  Maormor  of  the  Mearns.  Donald  Bane  a 
second  time  seized  the  throne,  but,  being  attacked  in  1098  by  a 
southern  army  led  by  Edgar  Atheling  and  his  nephews,  he  was  a 
second  time  overthrown.  Having  been  taken  prisoner,  his  eyes  were 
put  out,  and  he,  who  had  been  twice  a  king,  was  doomed  to  end  his 

ancient,  of  strictly  Celtic  origin,  and  hereditary  descent,  had  a  dignity  and  jurisdic- 
tion next  to  the  sovereign  himself,  and  in  the  progress  of  the  feudal  system,  took 
the  title  of  Earl.  The  thane  on  the  other  hand,  was  a  title  introduced  at  a  much 
later  period  (with  the  Anglo-Saxons),  to  the  Eastern  district  of  Scotland,  to  which 
it  was  confined.  The  thane's  duties  were  very  much  those  of  a  land-steward 
upon  a  barony,  and  he  is  supposed  to  have  ranked  only  with  an  Earl's  son. 
While  it  is  historically  certain  that  thanes  were  unknown  in  Scotland  in  the  time 
of  Macbeth,  it  is  well  observed  that  "  sober  enquiry  resists  in  vain  the  overpower- 
ing magic  of  Shakespere,  which  will  for  ever  convince  the  eye  and  the  understand- 
ing that  'the  thane  of  Cawdor  lives.'  "  (Caledonia  vol  i.  p.  716).  The  Maormor 
— royal  deputy  or  high  steward — of  Angus  is  supposed  to  have  had  a  residence 
about  four  miles  west  from  Arbroath,  where,  in  a  commanding  situation  over- 
looking a  fine  stretch  of  country,  the  two  farms  of  "  Balmirmer"  may  mark  the 
locality  of  the  house  or  town  of  the  Maormor.: — ED. 

1  This  is  pure  conjecture ;  and  it  is  rather  negatived  by  the  fact  that  the  locality 
pointed  at  is  a  considerable  distance  from  the  most  ancient  part  of  the  town— the 
east  side  and  immediate  neighbourhood  of  the  Castle. — ED. 

2  Balfour's  Annals,  vol.  i  p.  6. 


18  imrroRT  or  DTTKDBL 


days  a  he!)^  captive  in  the  (^e  of  Ifeecobie.     Edgar,  son  of  M.J 
colm  and  Margaret,  now  assumed  the  government] 

The  state  of  the  country  at  thin  period  was  such  that  the  most 
rigorous  exertions  of  authority  wen  necessary  to  preserve  the  public 
peace,  and  repair  the  disorder*  which  had  occurred  during  the  contest 
for  the  succession.  Robberiee  and  murders  were  so  frequent  that  it 
became  imperative  on  the  government  to  adopt  some  method  to  repress 
them,  and  bring  the  perpetrators  to  justice.  With  a  view  to  effect 
this,  fortresses  were  erected  and  garrisoned  at  different  places  ;  and  to 
restrain  the  freebooters  that  infested  the  Cane  of  Gowrie  and  the 
mountainous  district  adjacent,  a  castle  was  founded  at  B&l-  Edgar-no— 
the  house  of  Edgar,  so  named  from  the  king.  Baledgarno  is  about 
eight  miles  west  of  Dundee,  close  to  the  west  wall  of  Rossie  Priory 
park.  While  superintending  the  erection  of  this  fortress,  Edgar  fell 
rick,  and  being  carried  to  the  regium  donum  in  Dundee,  died  on  the 
10th  January,  1106-7,  after  a  peaceable  reign  of  nine  years,  and  was 
buried  at  Dunfermline. 

[He  was  succeeded  by  his  brother  Alexander  I.,  who  also  appears  to 
have  identified  himself  with  Dundee,  for  it  in  related  that  in  1  107  he 
was  surprised  in  his  castle  of  Invergowrie  by  a  party  of  rebels  from 
Morayshire  and  the  Mearns.1  The  site  of  this  stronghold  has  been 
referred  to  the  ruins  called  Hurley  Hawkin,  situated  near  the  Church 
of  Lift] 

Thus  we  have  seen  that  one  prince  at  least  resided  in  Dundee,  and 
that  others  occasionally  visited  it  may  be  easily  supposed.  These 
incidental  visits  of  royalty  bespeak  its  consequence  and  importance, 
and  would  contribute  to  make  it  more  important  and  more  opulent 
Although  these  sojourning*  were  temporary,  and  the  springs  of  wealth 
opened  by  their  occurrence  would  cease  with  their  cause,  the  effect 
they  would  have  upon  the  growing  wealth,  extent,  and  progressive 
improvement  of  the  town,  would  undoubtedly  be  considerable.  To- 
wards the  end  of  the  twelfth  century,  Dundee  owed  its  farther  progress 
to  a  circumstance  which,  trivial  and  absurd  in  itself,  was  attended 
with  the  most  beneficial  and  durable  consequences. 

During  the  course  of  the  twelfth  century,  the  idea  of  recovering 

Palestine  from  the  thraldom  of  the  followers  of  T«1*rm«*n  was  started  ; 

and,  though  fraught  with  danger,  folly,  and  absurdity,  such  was  the 

effect  of  fanatic  teal,  that  thosasads,  including  kings,  princes,  and 

>  Wrntowo't  Cronjkil,  i.  282;  S84. 


TTTE  CRUSADES.  19 

nobles,  embraced  it.  Estates  were  sold  and  sovereignties  pawned  to 
enable  those  who  disposed  of  them  to  carry  their  pious  design,  of 
exterminating  the  infidels  and  recovering  the  Holy  Sepulchre,  into 
execution.  It  is  not  to  be  denied  that  the  infidels — that  is,  the  pro- 
fessors of  Islamism — treated  the  superstitious  Christians,  in  their 
pilgrimages  to  Jerusalem,  with  the  most  sovereign  contempt,  and  that 
this  folly  operated  powerfully  to  irritate  them ;  for,  be  it  observed, 
that  the  votaries  of  fanaticism  are  never  remarkable  for  humility  or 
reverence  to  any  of  a  different  faith.  They  retorted  accordingly,  and 
thus  brought  persecution  upon  themselves  with  all  its  train  of  humi- 
liating sufferings ;  for  how  were  the  Saracens  to  allow  superstitious 
wanderers,  entering  by  mere  sufferance  within  their  confines,  to  dictate 
to  them,  the  occupiers  of  the  country  and  lords  of  the  soil  ? 

The  idea  of  recovering  the  Holy  Land  out  of  the  hands  of  the 
infidels  took  like  a  contagion ;  and  as  the  Church  affixed  a  high  value 
on  human  merit,  it  seemed  the  most  meritorious  deed  that  man  could 
perform,  and  one  worthy  of  the  best  rewards  of  Heaven,  to  subjugate 
Palestine,  drive  out  its  infidel  possessors,  and  plant  the  banner  of  the 
Cross  upon  the  walls  of  the  ancient  metropolis  of  Israel.  Besides  the 
novelty  of  the  thought,  there  was  something  in  it  so  accordant  with 
the  romantic  spirit  of  chivalry  which  then  prevailed,  that  all  ranks 
eagerly  enrolled  themselves  in  the  crusade,  which  their  spiritual  direc- 
tors assured  them  was  the  immediate  service  o  Heaven,  and  as  such, 
could  not  fail  in  accomplishing  its  object.  Error  and  disaster  were 
the  consequences  ;  for  although,  during  the  first  and  second  crusades, 
Jerusalem  was  taken  and  erected  into  a  kingdom  (the  capital  of  which 
it  continued  for  ninety  years),  in  the  end  it  was  finally  and  irrecover- 
ably lost,  as  were  all  the  Asiatic  acquisitions  of  the  Christians. 

In  the  year  1189  Eichard  I.  of  England  was  induced  to  join  Philippe 
of  France  and  Frederick  of  Germany  in  the  third  Crusade  for  the 
recovery  of  Palestine,  in  which  David,  Earl  of  Huntingd  >n,  Prince  of 
Scotland,  and  brother  to  King  William  the  Lion,  took  part.  The 
history  of  this  scion  of  our  royal  house  is  a  remarkable  one,  and  forms 
the  groundwork  of  Scott's  brilliant  story,  "  The  Talisman."  Shortly 
after  his  marriage  with  Matildis,  daughter^  Eanulph,  Earl  of  Chester, 
he  joined  the  Crusaders,  who,  arriving  in  the  Levant,  met  with  nothing 
but  barren  successes  for  a  time,  followed  by  disunion  among  them- 
selves, and  ending  in  defeat  and  destruction  to  their  followers.  Ulti- 
mately a  treaty  was  concluded  between  Richard  and  Saladin,  and  the 


-•J  HI8TOBT  OF  DOB-DDL 

scattered  remnants  of  the  cniMden  turned  homeward*.      fLarl  T>avid 
found  the  retreat  as  hazardous  as  the  advance  :  he  was  shipwrecked 
on  the  coast  of  Egypt,  taken  prisoner,  and  0old  as  a  slave  to  a  Vene- 
tian merchant,  who  carried  him  to  Constantinople.     In  that  city  the 
I'rince  was  recognized  by  some  Engliah  merchants,  who  procured  his 
freedom,  and  provided  the  means  of  conveying  him  to  Scotland.     In 
prosecution  of  his  voyage,  David  met  with  more  misfortune*,  among 
which  a  narrow  escape  from  shipwreck  on  the  coast  of  Norway  was  not 
the  least.     In  his  distress,  we  are  told,  he  supplicated  the  aid  of 
Heaven  ;  and,  according  to  the  practice  of  the  times,  vowed  to  build  a 
church  in  honour  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  if  he  should  reach  his  native 
shore  in  safety.     Thereupon  the  raging  sea  subsided,  and  the  wind 
becoming  favourable,  he  soon  beheld  the  summit  of  Dundee  Law,  and 
entering  the  Tay,  he  resolved  to  build  near  that  hill,  the  sight  of 
which  "  gave  him  the  comfortable  assurance  that  his  prayers  wet* 
heard ;"  and  accordingly  he  landed  at  the  rock  or  craig  afterwards 
called  8t  Nicolas'  Craig.     Soon  after  his  arrival  it  is  said  that  David, 
in  fulfilment  of  his  vow,  built  a  magnificent  church  and  dedicated  it 
to  the  Virgin  Mary,  who  thus  became  the  tutelary  saint  of  the  town.1 
King  William  hearing  of  the  safe  arrival  of  his  brother,  to  whom 
he  was  affectionately  attached,  hastened  to  meet  him  at  Dundee,  after 
adventures  so  various  and  unfortunate  :   religious  processions  were 
ordered,  and  celebrated  all  over  the  kingdom  to  signalise  the  event ; 
and  Dundee,  erected  at  this  time  [about  1174]  into  a  burgh,  with  all 
the  immunities  pertaining  thereto,  was  conferred  upon  the  Earl  by  his 
royal  brother.1 

*  Henry  da  Brechin,  natural  eon  of  Earl  David,  is  a  witnasi  to  the  gift  of  a  toll 
of  land  in  Dundee  to  the  Abbey  of  Arbroath,  in  which  deed  David  call*  the  town 
•wo  buryi  dt  Dmdet.     The  Earl  WM  by  birth  and  inheritance,  aa  well  aa  by  his 
adrenturea,  a  prominent  noble.    The  grandaon  of  King  Darid  I.,  he  poaeaeaed  in 
early  life  the  earldom  of  Lennox ;  he  wan  abo  created   Earl  of  Qarioch  by  his 
brother  the  King,  and  held  the  Lordahip  of  Strathbogie,  with  the  land*  of  Inver- 
bervie,  Lindoree,  Longforgan,  and  Inchmartine.     He  was  the  father  of  the  two 
prinoeesee  from  whom  Bruce  and  Baliol  were  descended— the  nuptial*  of  Margaret, 
the  elder  daughter,  with  Allan  Lord  of  Galloway  baring  been  celebrated  at  Dundee 
about  1209.     Earl  David  died  in  England  in  1219. 

*  Theee  incidents  are  related  by  Fuller  (Holy  Warn,  p.  2«8),  but  evidently  on 
the  authority  of  Boece,  who,  being  himeelf  a  natire  of  Dundee,  is  auppoaed  by  Mr 
Jerriae  to  hare  given  the  story  aa  told  and  believed  in  hi*  youthful  day*.    The 
Ujiee  of  three  centuries,  however,  may  justify  us  in  receiving  it  with  much  of  that 


Sttttion 

SITUATION  OF  DUNDEE  FAVOURABLE  TO  COMMERCE — ALEXANDER  HI.  RENEWS  ITS 
PRIVILEGES — DIKS—  CONTEST  FOR  THE  CROWN — JOHN  BALLIOL  PREFERRED  -  EDWARD 
I.  INVADES  SCOTLAND — DUNDEE  IS  TAKEN — CAPTIVITY  OF  BALLIOL — SIR  WILLIAM 
WALLACE  AT  DUNDEE — SIEGE  OF  THE  CASTLE  BY  ALEXANDER  SCRYMSEOURE — RESIG- 
NATION OF  WALLACE — HIS  RAID  ON  THE  KNIGHT  OF  MEIGLE— BETRAYAL  AND  DEATH. 

[The  stately  Abbey  of  Arbroath  had  now  been  completed,  and 
frequent  visits  were  paid  to  it  by  King  William,  its  founder,  and  his 
successors,  Alexander  II.  and  III.1  Courts  were  held  within  its  pre- 
cincts, at  which  charters  were  granted,  and  other  public  business 
transacted ;  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  Dundee  had  at  least  a  passing 
visit  from  these  sovereigns  on  such  occasions.  Beyond  what  may  thus 
be  inferred,  history  is  silent  regarding  it,  until  the  time  of  the  dispute 
between  Bruce  and  Balliol  for  the  Crown. 

In  the  meantime  a  new  spirit  had  been  infused  into  the  social  life 
and  polity  of  the  nation.  Paganism  was  rooted  out,  and  had  given 
place  to  Christianity ;  writing  was  coming  into  use ;  land  was  held  by 
written  tenures ;  and  the  statute  law  began  to  be  respected.  Begin- 
ning in  the  days  of  Malcolm  Canmore  and  his  Saxon  Queen,  but  more 
largely  developed  during  the  brilliant  reign  of  David  I. — the  Arthur 
of  Scotland — an  immigration  of  southern  colonists  poured  over  the 
border,  and  spread  along  the  eastern  seaboard  of  Scotland.  Encouraged 
by  lands  gifted  to  them  as  feudatories  of  the  Crown,  these  Norman 
knights  and  Saxon  thegns,  with  their  followers,  soon  made  their  influ- 
ence felt  among  the  native  population.]2  The  favourable  situation  of 
our  newly  created  burgh  for  commercial  exertions  induced  many  to 
take  up  their  residence  within  its  walls,  for  the  purpose  of  pursuing 

reserve  which  other  stories  of  the  old  chronicler  have  evoked.  Pennant  (Tour, 
vol.  iii.  125)  tells  us  that  Earl  David,  being  unable  to  erect  the  church  himself, 
obtained  a  Papal  mandate  recommending  a  collection  throughout  Christendom! 
but  there  is  no  evidence  of  this  having  been  done.  Apart  from  these  traditions' 
what  we  learn  from  trustworthy  sources  is,  that  Earl  David  founded  the  Abbey  of 
Lindores  (circa  1178),  dedicating  it  to  the  Virgin  Mary;  that  he  granted  to  this 
abbey  (1200)  the  church  of  Dundee;  and  that  the  latter  is  not  found  mentioned 
as  St  Mary's  in  any  writing  until  about  1406  (Reg.  Brechin,  i.  24 ;  Liber.  S  Maria 
de  Lundoris,  38  ;  Cardonnel  i.  12 ;  Anderson's  Scot.  Nation  L  28.)— ED. 

1  Reg.  Vet  de  Aberb.,  79. 

J  Innes,  Sketches  Scot.  Hist.,  p   10. 


C2  III«TURT  or  DOTTDHL 

th>-ir  vnrinti*  avo<v\tions  with  more  success  and  security  than  they  could 
do  in  the  country.  HUB,  as  it  increased  the  number  of  inhabitant*, 
necessarily  tended  to  the  accumulation  of  riches ;  and  there  need  be 
little  hesitation  in  saying  that  at  this  period,  and  long  after,  Dundee 
was  the  first  town  in  tl».-  kingdom  for  .wealth,  population,  and  general 
consequence  to  the  State — as  at  a  period  long  subsequent,  it  only 
yielded  to  Edinburgh,  which,  when  it  became  the  permanent  residence 
of  royalty,  soon  exceeded  all  others.  The  increasing  consequence  of 
Dundee,  situated  on  an  arm  of  the  sea,  on  the  east  side  of  the  king- 
dom, and  having  ready  access  to  all  existing  marts  and  emporiums  of 
commerce,  attracted  the  attention  of  Alexander  III.  [1249-1285],  who 
renewed  and  confirmed  the  privileges  and  immunities  granted  by  bis 
royal  predecessors;  which  w«.uM  not  fail  in  producing  a  corresponding 
effect  on  the  character  of  the  town,  and  adding  new  rigour  to  its  com- 
mercial enterprises. 

The  most  serious  evil  which  Dundee  experienced  in  ancient  times 
arose  out  <>f  th  disputed  succession  to  the  Crown,  at  the  death  of  the 
•it  queoa  Margaret,  daughter  of  Eric,  King  of  Norway,  and  niece 
of  Alexander  III.  Margaret  died  at  Orkney  [1290],  while  on  her 
passage  to  take  possession  of  her  uncle's  crown,  which  fatal  circum- 
stance raised  no  less  than  thirteen  competitors  for  the  vacant  throne ; 
but  practically  tin-  competition  lay  between  John  Balliol,  great-grand- 
son to  David,  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  through  his  eldest  daughter,  and 
I '.nice,  grandson,  through  his  second  daughter.  These  two 
claimants  were  strongly  supported  by  powerful  factions ;  and  as  war 
apj-  .in-d  to  tin.  lU-n,  they  agreed  to  refer  the  matter  to  the  arbitration 
of  Kdwurd  I.  of  England,  and  to  abide  by  his  decision,  Edward 
readily  accepted  the  office  of  arbiter,  an-1  met  the  Scottish  nobility 
and  clergy  at  Norham,  10th  May,  1291.  In  the  meantime,  eager 
to  acquire  the  sovereignty  of  Scotland,  which  several  of  his  predeces- 
sors had  unsuccessfully  sought,  he  practised  upon  the  easy  nature  of 
Balliol ;  who,  more  dazzled  with  the  empty  glitter  of  royalty  than 
anxious  to  possess  an  independent  diadem,  consented  to  h<>ld  his  king- 
dom as  a  feudatory  of  Edward;  who,  on  the  other  side,  engaged  to 
give  him,  at  all  hazards,  possession  of  the  crown  of  Scotland.  Pre- 
vious to  tin-.  Id  ward  had  made  an  attempt  to  subjugate  Scotland 
to  his  power,  by  means  of  a  marriage  between  his  son,  afterwards 
Edward  II.,  and  the  niece  of  Alexander  III.,  while  she  yet  resided  in 
Norway  with  her  father,  Eric,  or  Ilaquin,  as  some  have  called  him. 


COMPETITORS  FOR  THE  CROWN.  23 

In  a  parliament  which  was  held  at  Brechin,  Edward  had  the  support 
of  a  powerful  faction,  through  whose  exertions  the  proposed  marriage 
was  carried  against  all  opposition,  and  an  ambassador  appointed  to 
proceed  to  Norway,  to  notify  to  Eric  the  acquiescence  of  the  estates  of 
Scotland  in  the  proposals  made  by  Edward.     Eric  cautiously  avoided 
coming  to  any  explicit  expression  of  his  sentiments,  dissatisfied,  per- 
haps, that  the  person  and  interests  of  his  daughter  should  go  from 
under  the  shelter  of  her  natural  protector.     The  caution  of  the  Nor- 
wegian monarch  alarmed  Edward;  but  he  had  no  other  remedy  than 
patience ;  and  before  any  other  measures  to  induce  compliance  with 
his  wishes  could  be  adopted,  the  death  of  Margaret  dissipated  all  his 
hopes  of  acquiring  Scotland  by  a  matrimonial  connection.     The  com- 
petition for  the  succession  which  then  arose  brought  the  sceptre  of 
Scotland  almost  within  his  grasp ;  for,  when  the  time  arrived  for  the 
decision  of  the  claims  of  the  two  competitors,  Edward,  on  17th  Nov., 
1292,  declared  for  Balliol,  prefacing  this  declaration  with  another,  in 
which  he  assumed  to  himself  the  superiority  of  Scotland^  as  lord  para- 
mount.    Foreseeing  that  these  declarations  would  not  be  palatable  to 
the  Scots,  Edward  had  prepared  to  compel  their  consent ;  for  his 
armies,  already  assembled  on  the  borders,  poured  into  Scotland  to  take 
possession  of  it  for  him,  as  superior  lord,  and  for  Balliol,  as  king,  and 
England's  feudatory ;  but  ere  long  he  began  to  perceive  that,  though 
the  candidates  for  the  Crown  were  willing  to  receive  him  as  superior 
lord,  the  nation  at  large  was  actuated  by  a  spirit  very  different,  and 
in  consequence  he  demanded  to  be  put  in  possession  of  all  the  forts 
and  places  of  strength.     The  candidates,  and  many  of  the  nobility  in 
the  kingdom  readily  yielded  their  castles,  in  which  English  garrisons 
were  placed ;  but  Gilbert  de  Umfraville,  who  in  right  of  his  wife  was 
Earl  of  Angus,  with  great  integrity  and  spirit,  refused  to  deliver  up 
those  of  Dundee  and  Forfar,  of  which  he  was  governor — declaring  that, 
as  he  had  been  intrusted  with  them  by  the  people  of  Scotland,  he 
knew  of  no  foreign  power  that  had  a  right  to  demand  them.     These 
castles,  however,  were  rendered  by  Umfraville,  in  the  end  of  1291, 
upon  a  promise  of  indemnification  from  Edward  and  the  competitors 
for  the  Crown.1 

In  receiving  his  crown,  Balliol  found  that  it  was  not  entirely  one  of 
roses.     He  found  that  his  dignity  was  a  delusion,  and  his  power  a 

*  Eym   Fcedera,  ii.  531. 


•j  i  TORT  OF  ntnrnn. 

murk  for  insult  upon  insult,  which  at  length  provoked  eren  hi*  tame 
an-  1  norvile  spirit  to  rebel  against  one  who  had  mocked  him  with  the 
xhail»w  «»f  royalty.  Having  obtained  the  Pope's  absolution  from  the 
oath*  which  ho  had  taken,  Ilalliol  sent  commiasioners  to  Fram 
tli  ••  y<  .ir  IL".»:>,  to  negotiate  a  treaty  of  offence  and  defence  with  that 
kingdom  ;  an<l  to  make  himwlf  tlu»  more  certain  of  effectual  amistance 
fn-i.  inniwsioners  were  charged  with  a  secret  treaty, 

projHising  that  Edward,  the  eldest  son  of  Ballinl,  should  many  the 
•  laughter  of  ('harlcM  of  Anj"ii.  the  king  of  France's  brother.  The 
second  artirlo  of  th--  tn-aty  mentions  the  dowry  of  the  French  princess, 
ami  also  tin-  n  vruues  which,  in  conjunction  with  her  husband,  she 
.1-1  i-njoy  in  Scotland,  which  were  fifteen  hundred  pound*  sterling 
—  tw«>  -tliinls  out  of  the  rents  of  lialliol's  lands  in  France,  and  the  other 
thirl  out  of  the  proceeds  of  his  lands  in  Scotland  and  the  Castellany 


received  the  intelligence  that  Balliol  renounced  his  al- 
-v  it  If  contempt  "The  foolish  traitor,"  said  he  to  the  mes- 
senger,  "  since  ho  will  not  come  to  us,  we  will  go  to  him."  Marching 
hi-  .iruiy  into  Scotland,  he  defeated  the  Scots  at  Dunbar,  28th  April, 
1290,  an<l  put  tin-  inhabitants  to  the  sword.  The  castles  of  Edin- 
burgh and  Stirling  thereafter  fell  into  his  hands  ;  for  Balliol,  with  no 
niil  whatever  from  France,  and  a  divided  support  from  his  own  coun- 
trymen, could  make  no  stand  against  the  ruthless  invaders.  In  June, 
the  English  reached  Dundee  ;  but  it  does  not  appear  that  any  serious 
resistance  was  offered  to  their  progress,  the  castle,  in  all  probability, 
being  th--n  h«-M  l>\  I'.ri.m  Fit/.  Alan,  the  English  governor,  to  whom 
Umphravill.-  had  resigned  it  Passing  onwards  to  Brechin,  Edward 
besieged  and  took  its  castle;  and,  on  the  10th  July,  1296,  in  the 
kirkyard  of  Stracathro,  the  humiliating  spectacle  was  witnessed  of  the 
King  of  Scotland,  dressed  by  his  captors  in  the  insignia  of  royalty 
only  to  have  ermine,  crown,  and  sceptre  rudely  torn  from  his  person, 
and,  standing  on  the  bare  ground  all  but  naked,  with  a  white  wand  in 
his  hand,  doing  penance  before  the  haughty  Edward.1  Having  des- 

1  It  is  usually  stated  that  a  formal  doed,  renouncing  the  H"g"*"«",  wu  executed 
by  Balliol  at  Brechin  a  few  day*  afterward*  ;  and  Mr  Jeniw  add*  that  the  Abbot 
of  Arbroath  put  thi*  writing  into  Edward's  hands  (Memorials,  p.  146).  Recent 
nmarohsi  show  that  Baldred  Biaat-t,  the  Scottish  envoy  at  Borne,  in  1800,  strenu- 
ously denied  the  fact  of  BeJliol's  renunciation,  declaring  that  Edward  took  the 
eeak  furcibjjr  from  UM  Chancellor,  and  used  them  upon  faffed  leUen 


SIR.  WILLIAM  WALLACE.  25 

patched  his  royal  captive  to  the  Tower  of  London,  Edward  visited 
Arbroath  to  receive  the  homage  of  Abbot  Henry.  On  the  6th  August, 
he  proceeded  to  Dundee  ;  on  the  following  day,  he  was  at  "  the  redde 
castell"  of  Baleclgarno,  on  his  way  to  Perth,  whence,  after  a  brief  stay, 
he  proceeded  southwards. 

Edward's  usurpation,  and  the  cruelty  with  which  he  had  enforced 
it,  aroused  the  Scottish  people  to  a  sense  of  their  deplorable  condition. 
The  higher  nobles  had  sworn  fealty  to  the  English  king  ;  the  lesser 
barons  shrank  from  renewing  the  unequal  struggle  ;  the  citizens  of 
every  town  were  overawed  and  oppressed  by  English  garrisons  ; — 
in  a  word,  that  liberty  for  which  the  nation  had  so  long  struggled, 
seemed  to  be  wrested  from  it  for  ever.  In  this  crisis,  William 
Wallace  appeared  on  the  stage,  and,  by  a  series  of  brilliant  and 
successful  exploits,  took  his  place  as  leader  in  the  War  of  Inde- 
pendence, which  resulted  in  the  liberation  of  Scotland  from,  foreign 
domination. 

The  early  life  of  Wallace,  and  even  the  date  and  place  of  his  birth, 
are  involved  in  obscurity.  Many  doubtful  legends  have  gathered 
round  his  name  ;  but  it  is  satisfactory  to  know  that  our  latest  and 
most  reliable  historians  have  been  able  to  give  an  authentic  outline  of 
his  career,  and  fully  corroborate  "the  popular  estimate  of  the  national 
hero.1  In  his  boyhood,  Wallace  was  sent  to  complete  his  education  in 
Dundee,  where  he  contracted  a  friendship  with  John  Blair,  a  Bene- 
tine  monk,  who  afterwards  became  his  chaplain ;  and  who,  in  con- 
junction with  Thomas  Gray,  parson  of  Liberton,  compiled  a  history 
in  Latin  of  Wallace's  deeds.  The  few  fragments  of  that  work  which 
survived,  formed  the  basis  of  Harry  the  Minstrel's  vernacular  poem, 

(Innes,  Sketches,  p.  181).  This  seems  to  derive  colour  from  the  remarkable  fact 
that  Wallace,  two  years  after  the  alleged  renunciation,  styles  himself  ''  Guardian 
of  Scotland,"  acting  in  the  name  of  an  illustrious  prince,  John,  by  the  grace  of 
God,  King  of  Scots;"  the  same  forms  being  observed  so  late  as  1302.  When 
Wallace,  a  man  actuated  with  the  loftiest  patriotism,  and  associated  with  the  king 
m  his  unavailing  resistance  to  the  English,  can  pay  him  such  a  tril  ute,  we  are 
constrained  to  believe  that  historians  have  scarcely  done  John  Balliol  justice. 
"  His  attempt,"  says  Lord  Hailes,  "  to  shake  off  a  foreign  yoke  speaks  him  of  a 
high  spirit,  impatient  of  injuries.  He  erred  in  enterprising  beyond  his  strength  : 
in  the  cause  of  liberty  it  was  a  meritorious  error.  He  confided  in  the  valour  and 
unanimity  of  his  subjects,  and  in  the  assistance  of  France.  The  efforts  of  his 
subjects  were  languid  and  discordant,  and  France  beheld  his  ruin  with  the  indif- 
ference of  an  unconcerned  spectator."  (Annals,  vol  i ,  p.  241  ) 

1  Tytler's  History  ;  and  Scott.  Worthies,  vol.  L  ;  Burton's  Hist.  Scot,  passim. 


C  1  BISTORT  OF  DUVDEB. 

commemorating  the  achievements  of  oar  hero.1  The  wanton  outrages 
of  the  English  soldiery  ao  roused  the  indignation  of  Wallace  and  his 
comrade*  that  they  formed  a  confraternity  to  punish  the  aggressors. 
Having  bean  insulted  by  Selby,  the  son  of  the  constable  of  the  Castle, 
Wallace  drew  his  dagger  and  struck  him  dead  on  the  spot ;  and,  though 
surrounded  by  the  English,  he  effected  his  escape,  after  despatching 
two  or  three  others  who  sought  to  intercept  his  flight.  Blind  llarry 
thus  narrates  the  fray  : — 

44  Upon  a  day  to  Dunde  be  WM  sand, 
Off  cruelnes  full  little  yai  hym  kend. 
Ts  constable,  a  fellotm  nuu>  of  war, 
Tat  to  ye  SootU  be  did  full  tnekill  der, 
Selbie  be  becht,  .li^.itfuU  and  owtrage, 
A  sone  be  bad  ner  zx  ser  of  age  : 
Into  ye  toune  be  u«yt  ilka  day, 
Tbre  man  or  four  yar  went  witb  hym  to  play  ; 
A  bely  acbrew,  wanton  in  hi*  entent, 
Wallace  be  aaw,  and  towart  him  be  went ; 
Liklie  be  was,  right  bige,  and  weyla  beseyne, 
I n till  a  wyde  of  gudly  garmand  greynne  ; 
He  callyt  on  hym,  and  said,  yow  Scott,  abyds, 
Quha  dcwill  ye  grathU  in  ao  gay  a  wvde ; 
Ane  Erscbe  mantill  it  was  yi  kynd  to  WOT, 
A  SontU  thewittil  under  yt  belt  to  bar, 
Bouch  rowlyngs  apon  yi  harlot  fete — 
Qiff  me  yi  knyff,  quhat  dou  yi  ger  aa  mete  f 
Till  him  he  sied,  hys  knyff  to  Uk  him  fra. 
Fast  by  the  collar  Wallace  couth  hym  U  ; 
Undyr  hy>  hand  ye  knyff  be  hradit  owt, 
For  all  hya  man  yat  eemblyt  hym  about ; 
Bot  help  himself,  be  wist  of  no  remade, 
Without  reakew  he  stykit  him  to  dede. 
Te  aquier  fell — Of  hym  yar  was  na  mar 
Hys  men  folowad  on  Wallace  wondyr  aair ; 
The  press  was  thick,  and  cummerit  yaim  full  fast, 
WalUce  was  spedy,  and  gretelye  als  agast ; 
Ye  bludy  knyff  bar  drawin  in  his  hand, 
He  sparyt  nane  yat  be  befor  bym  fan<l." 

For  this  deed  Wallace  waft  outlawed,  and  forced  to  betake  himself  to 
concealment  and  disguise.  His  undaunted  courage  and  fertility  of 
resources,  combined  with  a  patriotism  as  ardent  as  it  was  disinterested, 

1  "  Ta  Actis  and  Heidii  of  ye  Dluster  and  Vailseand  Camptoun.  Scfair  Wilbam 
Wallace."  The  Ma  is  preserved  in  the  Advocates'  Library,  bearing  the  data  of 
1488.  Of  the  author  aiaMstf  nuthia*  but  the  half  of  bk  name  •  known. 


,     WALLACE  AT  DUNDEE.  27 

soon  brought  to  his  side  a  band  of  men  whom  oppression  had  rendered 
desperate. 

For  a  time  they  seem  to  have  practised  a  guerilla  warfare  upon  the 
convoys  and  foraging  parties  of  the  English ;  and  "Wallace  himself 
was  in  the  habit  of  visiting  in  disguise  the  garrisoned  towns  to  ascer- 
tain the  strength  of  the  enemy,  and  the  support  to  be  expected  from 
his  countrymen.  After  the  battle  of  Dunbar,  he  had  become  well 
known  as  the  champion  of  the  national  cause,  and  a  goodly  circle  of 
patriots,  among  whom  was  Alexander  Scrymseoure  of  Dudhope,  rallied 
to  his  standard.  After  a  series  of  successes  against  the  English  in  the 
south  and  west  of  Scotland,  Wallace  found  himself  at  the  head  of  an 
army  capable  of  taking  the  field.  He  captured  Glasgow  ;  and,  march- 
ing rapidly  to  Scone,  surprised  and  put  to  flight  the  English  forces 
there ;  then,  passing  into  the  western  Highlands,  his  progress  was 
everywhere  marked  by  victory.  In  the  autumn  of  1297,  he  appeared 
in  Angus,  and,  after  capturing  Forfar  and  Brechin,  proceeded  to  invest 
Dundee ;  but  had  scarcely  taken  up  his  position  when  he  was  apprized 
of  the  approach  of  an  English  army  under  the  Earl  of  Surrey.  Leav- 
ing the  citizens  to  prosecute  the  siege,  Wallace  hastened  to  meet  the 
enemy,  and,  on  the  llth  September,  gained  the  celebrated  battle  of 
Stirling.  Eeturning  to  Dundee  in  the  flush  of  victory,  the  garrison 
saw  the  hopelessness  of  resistance  and  surrendered.  The  strongholds 
of  Dumbarton  and  Berwick  having  also  yielded,  the  country  was 
cleared  of  the  invaders.1 

The  inhabitants  of  Dundee  appear  to  have  had  both  the  will  and 
the  means  to  encourage  the  liberator  of  Scotland,  for  we  find  them 
presenting  Wallace  on  this  occasion  with  a  handsome  gift  of  money 
and  arms.  There  are  traces,  too,  of  a  special  interest  being  taken  by 
the  illustrious  patriot  in  the  town  where,  but  a  few  years  previously, 
the  march  of  events  had  hurried  him  from  study  to  warfare.  "  There 
lately  was  found,"  says  Mr  Burton,2  "  in  the  old  commercial  city  of 

1  Blind  Harry  says  that  Wallace  directed  Scrymseoure  to  demolish  the  castle  of 
Dundee,  in  order  to  prevent  the  English  from  again  holding  it — 
"  Masons,  minouris,  with  Scrymseoure  furth  send, 
Rest  down  Dundee,  and  tharoff  maid  ane  end." 

If  so,  it  must  have  been  speedily  rebuilt,  as  we  find  it  standing  two  sieges  within 
a  few  years  afterwards.  It  has  also  been  narrated  that  it  was  retaken  by  an  Eng- 
lish captain  named  Morton  before  its  demolition,  and  again  relieved  by  Scrym- 
seoure  ;  but  the  narrative  given  above  is  the  one  adopted  by  the  latest  writers 
as  authentic. 

*  Hist.  Scot.  ii.  296  ;  Wallace  Papers,  159. 


TUB  HUTOBT  OF  DUKPBB. 

I.uWk,  a  short  document,  which  hap|*ns  to  be  the  only  authentic 
reatige  of  Wallace's  moveraonU  immediately  after  the  battle  [of  Stir- 
ling]. It  ia  dated  llth  Oct.  1297,  and  is  a  communication  to  the 
town*  of  Lubeck  and  Hamburg,  in  the  name  of  Andrew  de  Moray  and 
'NY  ili ;.im  Wallace,  generals  of  the  army  of  the  kingdom  and  community 
of  Scotland.  They  thank  the  worthy  friends  of  their  country  in  these 
towns  for  services  and  attentions  which  the  unfortunate  condition 
of  their  country  had  hindered  ita  people  from  duly  acknowledging. 
They  assure  their  distant  trading  friends,  however,  that  commerce  with 
the  ports  of  Scotland  will  now  be  restored ;  for  the  kingdom  of  Scot- 
land, thanks  be  to  God,  has  been  recovered  by  battle  from  the  power 
of  ti  li.  We  have  seen  that  Scotland  was  becoming  an  ao- 

tiv.-ly  trading  nation  before  IUT  troubles  broke  out;  and  this  little 
document  is  a  touching  testimony  to  the  prevalence  of  those  peaceful 
pursuits,  which  were  so  cruelly  crushed  by  the  remorseless  invaders." 
Tliis  letter  bears  to  have  been  written  "  in  Scotland;"  but  ita  date  and 
purjMjrt  seem  to  identify  it  with  Dundee.  A  few  weeks  later,  Wallace 
proceeded  to  the  south  to  organise  the  reprisals  which  his  famine- 
stricken  country  11..  ii  were  making  upon  the  English  territory.  Keturn- 
irom  his  incurs!. >n  l.i.|--n  with  spoil,  he  was  chosen,  by  a  com.  n- 
ti"ii  in  Selkirkshire,  Guardian  of  Scotland;  and  it  is  interesting  to 
kn-.w  that  immediately  on  assuming  this  function,  he  issued  a  writ — 
tin-  <>uly  "IM  which  1ms  been  preserved  of  his  reign — rewarding  Alex- 
andi-r  Serym-.-iiurv  for  his  faithful  services  to  tin  national  cause.1 
Meanwhile  tho  En^lL-h  kin#  was  moving  northwards  auoth* : 
midable  army  of  80,000  foot,  and  7000  mounted  tueu-at  ar.  .  With 
a  force  lees  than  one  third  in  nuniK-r,  nnd  utterly  «li>j.r 
equipment^  Wallace  pn-j>ared  to  dispute  his  progress,  -animate 

generalship  tin-  So.tti.-h  leader  had  wdl  mji  .succeeded  in  thwarting 
the  invaders,  when  it  is  said  the  trearh.  ry  <>!  two  earls  revealed  his 
tactics  to  the  enemy.  Edward  hum  ea,  and  con- 

fronted the  Scots  at  Falkirk  mi  tin-  L'L'd  .Inly.  Uns.  The  w«ue  c«.uJd 
scarct'ly  be  douhtful  :  y.-t  th<-  military  genius  of  Wallace  BO  h n 
his  troops  as  to  hurl  bock  for  a  time  the  onsets  of  the  English  cavalry ; 
and,  hut  for  the  <l«--*-rti<'n  <>f  a  division  under  the  Lord  of  Baden<«  h, 
the  tii  l<i  nii/ht  n»t  have  been  lost  As  it  was,  Wallace  conducted  his 
shattered  forces  in  safety  to  the  north,  hunting  Stirling  on  hie  way; 

*  See  Appendix,  Note  A. 


EDWARD'S  INVASION — 1303.  29 

and  Edward,  after  a  fruitless  victory,  dragged  his  starving  army  back 
to  Carlisle. 

Eesigning  the  Guardianship,  owing,  it  is  said,  to  the  jealous  hostility 
of  the  nobles,  Wallace  passed  over  to  France,  probably  in  the  hopes 
of  obtaining  succour  from  Philip  ;  and  there  is  some  reason  to  believe 
he  proceeded  to  Eome — the  Papal  influence  being  then  all  powerful ; 
for  Edward,  in  replying  to  remonstrances  from  Eome  charging  him  with 
violating  the  rights  of  Scotland,  complains  of  certain  "  enemies  of 
peace  and  sons  of  rebellion"  then  residing  there — referring  to  an  em- 
bassy from  Scotland. 

In  the  autumn  of  1302,  Wallace  was  again  in  Scotland,  and  is 
supposed  to  have  assisted,  if  he  did  not  lead,  the  Scots  in  surprising 
an  English  force  at  Eoslin.  In  1303,  Edward  led  an  army,  spoken  of 
as  large  beyond  the  possibility  of  resistance,  for  the  final  subjugation 
of  Scotland.  His  progress  was  a  triumphant  procession ;  for,  as  Tytler 
says,  "  the  historian  has  only  to  tell  a  tale  of  sullen  submission  and 
pitiless  ravage ;  he  has  little  to  do  but  to  follow  in  dejection  the 
chariot  wheels  of  the  conqueror,  and  to  hear  them  crushing  under  their 
iron  weight  all  that  was  free  and  brave  in  a  devoted  country."1  Esta- 
blishing his  head-quarters  at  Dunfermline,  where  he  destroyed  one  of 
its  finest  buildings,  because  the  Scots  had  held  rebellious  meetings 
within  its  walls,  Edward  proceeded  northward  as  far  as  Caithness, 
marking  his  track  with  robbery,  devastation,  and  ruin.  In  June,  he 
appeared  in  Dundee,  took  the  castle,  and  sacked  the  town, — the  inha- 
bitants submitting  to  a  power  which  it  was  impossible  for  them  to 
resist.  Tradition  affirms  that  the  terrified  citizens  collected  all  that 
was  valuable  and  dear  to  them,  and  took  refuge  in  the  churches.  But 
the  fury  of  Edward  and  his  soldiery  could  not  be  averted  even  by  the 
shelter  of  the  sanctuary,  and  the  hapless  people  escaped  the  sword  only 
to  be  devoured  by  the  flames.  Passing  onwards  to  Brechiu,  Edward 
was  detained  at  the  siege  of  its  castle  for  twenty  days  ;  and  it  sur- 
rendered only  after  Sir  Thomas  Maule,  its  gallant  commander,  was 
killed  on  the  walls.  After  penetrating  as  far  as  Kildrummy  in  Aber- 
deenshire,  the  English  returned  to  Dundee  on  the  20th  October,  but 
their  stay  on  this  occasion  had  been  brief,  for  we  find  them,  on  1st 
November,  at  Cambuskenneth. 

In  these  days  of  calamity  for  Dundee,  we  may  well  conceive  the 
citizens,  reduced  as  they  were  to  the  verge  of  despair,  hoping  against 

1  History,  i.  173. 


'•''  BBROBT  OF  DtnrDBB. 


hope  for  help  fVom  their  former  deliverer.  History  sheds  an  oncer- 
tain  l;;ht  U|K.H  the  movements  of  th»«  patriot  at  this  juncture:  he 
hovureJ  about  with  a  handful  of  faithful  followers,  haraming  the  enemy, 
and  retreating  to  the  hills  wb.rn  pursuixl.  l'u(l<>u>>ti.l  ••M.I.-MIV,  how- 
ever, has  recently  been  fuund  uf  the  presence  of  Wallace  in  the  neigh- 
rhood  of  the  town  about  this  period ;  and  which  at  least  gives 
I  >r< -liability  to  the  trailiti<>n  associating  his  name  with  Auchterhouse. 
The  "  Calendarium  Genealogicum  "  contains  a  fragment  from  the  an- 
cient records  of  England  narrating  that  an  inquest  was  held  at  Perth, 
in  September  13U5,  by  tin-  l,irl  <>1  Stratherne,  custodierof  the  northern 
•  list net  of  Scotland,  at  which  a  certain  Michael  de  Miggel  (Meigle) 
excused  himself  for  non-attendance  at  a  previous  court  by  taking  oa& 
that  he  had  been  forcibly  seized  by  William  le  Waleys.  Michael 
twice  got  off,  and  was  twice  recaptured  by  armed  accomplices  of  the 
said  Waleys,  narrowly  escaping  with  his  life.  The  date  is  indicated 
only  by  <///</<///(,  ••  lately."1  As  the  betrayal  of  Wallace  by  Menteith 
occurred  near  Glasgow  in  July  1305,  the  raid  ujnm  the  knight  of 
Meigle  must  have  occurred  some  time  previously  ;  and  thus  gives 
colour  to  Blind  Harry's  circumstantial  account  of  Wallace's  presence 
at  Ochtyrhouss,  with 

"  Schir  Jhon  Ramsay,  thai  worthie  WM  and  wycht"* 

We  hare  dwelt,  perhaps,  too  long  on  the  brief  period  during  which 
the  name  of  Wallace  was  associated  with  our  history,  but  the  sequel 
is  soon  told.  After  fifteen  yean  of  incessant  effort — during  which,  at 
a  vast  expenditure  of  blood  and  treasure,  he  had  hurled  five  armies 
into  Scotland — Edward  now  beheld  the  country  garrisoned  everywhere 
by  his  troops, — its  king  a  captive, — ite  nobility  sworn  to  his  rule, — its 
people  prostrate  under  a  load  of  misery  and  suffering.  One  ruthless 
passion  only  remained  unsatisfied :  one  man  alone  stood  firm  and  un- 
daunted, a  solitary  figure  amidst  the  wreck  of  the  nation's  hopes — one 
who  could  neither  be  conquered  nor  corrupted,  and  whose  patriotism 

1  Calt»d.  Of*^  p.  703,  quoted  in  Burton's  ffitL,  L  884.— Mr  Burton  calls  this  a 
tantalising  reference  to  Wallace's  movements ;  but  a  local  knowledge  of  Auditor- 
boose,  on  the  SidUw  Hills,  within  four  or  fire  miles  of  the  fertile  Undaof  sfstgle, 
steam  to  indicate  the  solution  now  submitted,  which  is  surely  more  probable  than 
straining  the  C/IK/MM,  ae  he  suggests,  to  the  time  when  Wallace  was  in  power,  eight 
years  before. 

*  Harry's  Wallace,  p.  243,  where  Barklay,  Ruwan,  and  Schyr  Thomas  an  men- 
tioned as  other  compatriots. 


EXECUTION  OF  WALLACE.  31 

became  almost  suDjime  in  its  isolation.  For  "Wallace  there  was  no 
amnesty  :  he  was  inexorably  marked  out  for  death.  When  treachery  at 
last  gave  up  the  victim,  and  every  refinement  of  cruelty  had  been  ex- 
hausted in  his  execution — when  the  ghastly  head  was  set  up  on  London 
Bridge,  and  his  mutilated  limbs  bleached  over  the  gates  of  Scottish 
towns — Edward  believed  the  last  act  of  the  drama  was  played.  Never 
was  tyrant  more  deceived  ;  for,  within  a  few  months  after  these  bloody 
trophies  of  the  Scottish  hero  were  displayed  to  his  countrymen,  the 
nation  awoke,  and  with  a  giant  effort  once  more  achieved  its  freedom. 


ACCESSION  OF  ROBERT  I. — DECLARATION  OF  THE  CLERGY  IN  HIS  FAVOUR —CONFIRMS 
THE  PRIVILEGES  OF  DUNDEE— CASTLE  TAKEN  BY  SHI  EDWARD  BRUCE — CHARACTKR 
OF  KING  ROBERT — ACCESSION  OF  DAVID  I. — NAVAL  WORTHIES — DISPUTES  BETWEEN 
THE  CONSTABLE  AND  BURGESSES— RIVALRY  OF  PERTH— FURTHER  CHARTERS 
GRANTED. 

THE  execution  of  Sir  William  "Wallace  took  place  on  the  24th  August, 
1305.  In  June  of  the  year  preceding,  his  friend  Lamberton,  Bishop 
of  St  Andrews,  met  Robert  Bruce  at  the  Abbey  of  Cambuskenneth. 
A  concurrence  of  events  made  this  interview  a  momentous  one  for 
Scotland.  Wallace  was  being  hunted  down  ;  Comyn,  who  succeeded 
him  as  Guardian,  and  represented  the  Balliols,  had  formally  resigned 
the  government  to  Edward ;  and  the  elder  Bruce,  a  supporter  of  the 
English  king,  had  just  died.  His  son,  as  Earl  of  Carrick,  had  now 
great  territorial  influence  to  back  his  undoubted  claim  to  the  throne. 
Hitherto  irresolute,  and  even  hostile  to  Wallace  and  the  national  party, 
the  Bishop  is  said  to  have  so  mingled  his  reproaches  on  Bruce,  with 
entreaties  to  redeem  the  past,  as  to  have  moved  him  to  tears.  By  a 
solemn  league  they  bound  themselves  to  stand  by  each  other  at  all 
hazards.1  Edward,  through  the  treachery  of  Comyn,  whom  Bruce  had 
taken  into  his  confidence,  became  aware  of  this  compact ;  and  the 
better  to  watch  Brace's  movements,  required  his  presence  at  London, 
where  he  resided  at  the  time  of  Wallace's  execution.  Whether  or  no 

1  Palgrave  gives  it  at  length  in  his  Documents,  &c.,  p.  323. 


BISTORT  Of  DUKDKE. 

that  spectacle  had  moved  his  pity,  and  hastened  his  resolution  to  act, 
is  not  known  ;  but,  on  the  3d  of  February,  1306,  he  secretly  left 
don,  and  Inn  uu  fries,  where  he  met  and  slew  Comyn  before 

the  altar  of  the  chun  1.  :••  was  now  cast ;  and  on  the  27th  of 

March,  Brace  was  solemnly  crowned  at  Scone.  His  reign  began  in  dis- 
aster; for,  on  the  19th  June,  another  English  army  uuler  Pembroke 
had  reached  I  1  defeated  the  royaliat  forces  at  Methven.  Altar 

various  movements  in  the  Highlands,  the  King  with  a  handful  < 
lowers  passed  t»  tin-  Western  Isles.  In  i:><>7.  he  crossed  into  Galloway, 
from  which  he  was  obliged  to  retire  to  the  north.  At  Invenuy, 
although  so  enfeebled  by  sickness  thai  he  had  to  be  supported  on  his 
horse,  he  defeated  the  English,  '2 1th  May,  1308  ;  after  which  fortune 
favoured  his  arms,  and  many  of  the  barons  joined  his  standard.  On 
his  way  southward,  he  captured  the  castle  of  Forfar,  but  Dundee  does 
not  seem  to  have  been  secured.1  In  the  following  year,  howe\ 
gave  him  a  moral  support  of  great  value,  in  the  form  of  a  declaration 
-i  a  national  council  of  tin-  clergy,  held  within  the  church  of  the 
Minorite  Friars,  which  asw-rt.-.l  th«-  independence  of  Scotland  under 
King  Robert.2  By  thus  attaching  the  clergy  to  his  cause,  and  by  a 
generous  policy  towards  the  nobles  who  adhered  to  him,  the  king 
rapidly  consolidated  the  power  acquired  by  his  arms.  On  Jan.  1311, 
he  laid  siege  to  Perth,  w  Inch,  after  a  desperate  resistance  of  six  weeks' 
duration,  was  captured  by  a  night  assault,  the  king  himself  leading 
the  storming  party,  by  wading  the  moat  with  the  water  up  to  his 
neck,  and  the  second  who  scaled  the  wall.  Dundee  appears  to  have 
been  invested  about  this  period,  and  so  obstinately  held  by  William 
de  Monttich.-t.  the  governor,  that  a  treaty  was  concluded  to  gi 
up  within  a  stipulated  time.  Edward  no  sooner  heard  of  this  than  he 
ordered  it  to  be  disregarded  under  the  penalty  of  death  :  he  also  wrote 
flattering  letters  to  the  officers  and  authorities  of  the  town  exhorting 
them  to  persevere  in  their  resistance ;  and  fresh  orders  were  sent  to 
Newcastle  and  Berwick  to  hurry  forward  supplies  and  reinforcements 
by  sea.*  King  Robert  being  absent  in  the  Isle  of  Man,  his  impetuous 

«  The  CMtk  WM  ttfll  held  by  the  EnglUh  on  the  12th  M.r.  1 809,  of  which  <Uto 
onion  were  iwued  in  London  to  farwmnl  mipptie*  of  can,  malt,  peue,  beano,  aod 
wine  to  eight  garruoni  in  SowlUuJ,  of  which  Dundee  WM  one.— &*.  Scot.  m.  K., 
p.  63. 

*  See  Appendix,  Koto  B. 

•  Rotuli  Scot.  I ,  p.  106, 


KING  ROBERT'S  VISIT — 1314.  33 

brother,  Sir  Edward  Bruce,  attacked  and  captured  Dundee  (1312-13), 
and  immediately  after  invested  Stirling,  the  last  stronghold  remaining 
in  the  hands  of  the  English.  A  similar  agreement  for  capitulation 
was  here  made,  which  the  king  on  his  return  perceived  to  be  in  the 
highest  degree  prejudicial  to  his  interest,  but  disdained  to  imitate  the 
mean  conduct  of  Edward  in  the  case  of  Dundee.  The  consequence 
was  that  a  grand  army  was  launched  into  Scotland  for  the  relief  of 
Stirling,  and,  on  24th  June,  1314,  was  fought  the  memorable  battle 
of  Bannockburn,  which  gave  Bruce  the  undisputed  sovereignty  of 
Scotland.  After  restoring  the  monarchy  to  its  former  lustre,  and  esta- 
blishing himself  upon  the  throne  of  his  ancestors,  King  Eobert  visited 
the  different  districts  of  his  kingdom,  rectifying  and  correcting  the  dis- 
orders which  a  state  of  almost  incessant  war  had  introduced.  In  the 
eighth  year  of  his  reign,  namely,  in  1314,  we  find  him  residing  in 
Dundee,  and  exercising  the  best  prerogative  of  royalty — the  dispensa- 
tion of  kindness.  While  here,  among  other  gifts,  he  bestowed  the 
keeping  of  the  forest  of  Stocket  on  the  burgh  of  Aberdeen,  the  charter 
of  which  is  dated  at  Dundee,  24th  October  of  that  year. 

In  April  1320,  the  king  convened  a  parliament  at  Arbroath,  which 
answered  the  Pope's  threatened  excommunication,  by  a  memorable 
assertion  of  national  independence,  which  declared  that  "  so  long  as 
there  shall  but  one  hundred  of  us  remain  alive,  we  will  never  sub- 
ject ourselves  to  the  dominion  of  England.  For  it  is  not  glory,"  they 
continue,  "  it  is  not  riches,  neither  is  it  honour ;  but  it  is  liberty  alone 
that  we  fight  and  contend  for,  which  no  honest  man  will  lose  but  with 
his  life."1  Among  the  signatures  to  this  deed  we  find  several  local 
names  : — David,  Lord  of  Brechin,  Sir  David  Lindsay  of  Finhaven, 
Sir  John  Fenton  of  Baikie,  Sir  William  Montealt  of  Fearn,  Sir  Wil- 
liam Ramsay  of  Auchterhouse,  and  Sir  William  Montfitchet,  formerly 
governor  of  Dundee  in  the  English  interest.  Strange  to  say,  the  same 
Lord  of  Brechin,  a  nephew  of  King  Eobert,  and  the  recipient  of  royal 
favours,  was  put  on  his  trial  five  months  after,  before  the  "  Black 
Parliament"  at  Scone ;  and  being  convicted  on  the  clearest  evidence 
of  connivance  in  a  plot  to  assassinate  his  sovereign,  expiated  his  trea- 
son on  the  scaffold,  along  with  three  of  his  accomplices.]2 

The  burgesses  of  Dundee,  finding  themselves  deprived  of  every  record 

1  Miscell.  Scotica.,  p.  125.  The  original  is  in  the  hall  of  the  Register  House  at 
Edinburgh. 

*  Tytler,  I.,  p.  322.     Hailes,  II.,  p.  96. 
C 


34  natQBT  or  DUN  DBS. 

of  the  privilege*  which  they  had  enjoyed  from  the  munificence  of  former 
sovereigns,  in  conjequenoe  of  their  total  destruction  by  the  EhglUh, 
made  application  to  Robert,  that  'the  right*  granted  them  by  hi*  pre- 
decessors might  be  recognised.  Willing  to  redress  the  grievances  oi  his 
subjects,  a  commission  was  issued,  the  translation  of  which  is  : — 

"  Robert,  by  the  grace  of  God,  King  of  Scots,  to  all  our  good  sub- 
jects to  whom  these  present  letter*  shall  come,  greeting :  Know  ye 
that  we  have  appointed  Ik-man  1.  !.\  tho  grace  of  God,  Abbot  of 
Arbroath,  our  chancellor,  ami  A!  1  raaer,  our  chamberlain,  our 

.  «•<!  and  faithful  lieutenants,  to  recognise  the  liberties  which  the 
ItutveftROH  <>f  Dundee  had  and  possessed  in  the  time  of  Alexander, 
Scots,  of  blessed  memory,  our  predecessor  last  deeeased,  and 
t>f  other  kings  of  Scots,  our  predecessors ;  and  to  make  return  to  us, 
and  to  our  council,  of  such  things  as  shall  be  recognised  and  found  by 
them  in  the  premises.  Wherefore,  we  charge  and  command  you  that 
you  wait  upon  and  make  answer  to  our  foresaid  chancellor  and  cham- 
berlain, as  holding  our  place  in  the  premises.  Witness  mywlf.  at 
Arbroath,  the  22d  day  of  June,  in  the  20th  year  of  our  reign"  [1 : 

The  two  commissioners  accordingly  repaired  to  Dundee :  and,  on 
the  day  after  tin-  Nativity  d  D  the  Baptist  [25th  June,  1.",. 

examined  on  oath  the  following  persons  : — Alexander  Straton,  William 
de  Strabroke,  David  de  Inverpoffcr,  Patrick  and  John  de  Ogilvie, 
Henry  de  Fithie.  P.-itrick  '.in,  James  de  Straton,  John  de 

Greinlay,  Adam  de  Pilmor,  and,  besides  these,  many  respectable  bur- 
gesses of  Berwick.  Aberdeen,  St  Andrews,  Forfar,  Arbroath,  and 
Montroae ;  and  found  full  and  complete  evidence  that  the  burgesses 
of  Dundee  enjoyed,  in  the  times  of  Alexander  and  of  former  kings, 
the  same  liberties  of  buying  and  selling,  by  land  or  water,  with  those 
of  the  other  free  towns  in  Scotland.  <  >n  this  recognition,  Robert 
granted  to  Dundee  an  infeftment  and  charter,  dated  at  Edinburgh,  on 
the  4th  March,  1 327. '  King  Robert  appears  to  hare  been  again  residing 
in  the  town  in  1326  ;  for,  on  20th  April  of  that  year,  he  issued  a  com- 
mission, appointing  ambassadors  for  renewing  with  Charles,  King  of 
ice,  the  ancient  league  between  that  kingdom  and  Scotland.  In 
July  of  the  same  year,  the  first  Parliament  was  held  at  Cambuskeuneth, 
in  whidi  liur^hal  representatives  are  positively  known  to  have  «niTfrH, 
when  Dundee  doubtless  exercised  the  privilege  of  which  it  had  just 
obtained  legal  recognition.  At  this  time,  and  after,  Dundee,  along 

1  A  translation  of  thi*.  the  old«t  •urriring  charter  of  the  town,  it  given  ia 

wUr  C. 


CHARACTER  OP  BRUCE.  35 

with  "Edinburgh,  Perth,  and  Aberdeen,  had   the   honour  of  being 
security  for  the  performance  of  national  treaties. 

[The  good  King  Eobert,  become  prematurely  old  by  the  hardships  of 
war  and  incessant  toil  for  the  welfare  of  his  people,  was  now  approach- 
ing his  end.  But  the  aim  of  his  life  was  accomplished.  He  had  so 
roused  and  guided  the  spirit  of  his  countrymen,  that,  after  two-and- 
thirty  years  of  war,  in  which  the  fleets  and  armies  of  England  had 
contended  in  vain,  the  freedom  of  Scotland  was  at  last  and  for  ever 
recognised  by  the  treaty  of  Northampton.  A  son  had  been  born  to 
him,  to  whom  the  English  princess  was  given  in  marriage ;  and,  after 
welcoming  the  youthful  pair  at  Edinburgh,  the  king  retired  to  Cardross, 
and  calmly  awaited  the  hour  of  his  departure.  It  came  on  the  7th 
of  June,  1329,  and  found  him  commending,  with  his  last  breath,  to 
Douglas  and  his  faithful  comrades,  the  care  of  his  beloved  country. 
"  Happier  than  the  lawgiver  of  Israel,  he  had  been  permitted  to 
accompany  his  chosen  people  to  the  last  through  all  their  troubles, 
till  he  had  established  them  free  denizens  of  a  free  country,  the  land 
of  their  children's  love, — he  had  crowned  his  work  of  patriotism,  he 
had  won  the  wreath  of  glory..  His  star  hovered  over  him  awhile,  as 
he  leaned  against  the  goal,  weary  .with  the  race,  but  at  last  departed 
fairly,  lingeringly,  but  for  ever ;  while  slowly,  amid  a  nation's  sobs,  he 
sank  into  the  the  arms  of  death,  a  willing  prey.  Well  indeed  might 
Scotland,  well  may  mankind,  revere  King  Robert's  name ;  for  never, 
save  Alfred  the  Great,  did  monarch  so  profit  by  adversity.  Vacillating 
and  infirm  of  purpose,  a  courtier,  and  a  timeserver  at  the  footstool 
of  Edward  during  the  days  of  Wallace,  and  betrayed  into  sacrilege  and 
bloodshed  on  the  very  steps  of  the  altar,  he  redeemed  all  by  a  con- 
stancy, a  patriotism,  a  piety,  alike  in  his  troubles  and  his  prosperity, 
which  rendered  him  the  pride  and  example  of  his  contemporaries,  and 
have  been  the  theme  of  history,  and  of  a  grateful  posterity,  in  all  suc- 
ceeding ages.  The  Christian,  the  patriot,  the  wisest  monarch,  and  the 
most  accomplished  knight  of  his  age,  and,  more  endearing  than  all,  the 
owner  of  a  heart  kind  and  tender  as  a  woman's,  we  may  indeed  bless 
his  memory,  and,  visiting  his  tomb,  pronounce  over  it  his  epitaph  in  the 
knightly  words  with  which  Sir  Hector  mourned  over  Sir  Lancelot : — 
'  There  thou  liest,  thou  that  wert  never  matched  of  earthly  knight's 
hands  !  And  thou  wert  the  most  courtly  knight  that  ever  bare  shield  ! 
And  thou  wert  the  kindest  man  that  ever  struck  with  sword  !  And 
thou  wert  the  goodliest  person  that  ever  came  among  press  of  knights  ! 


36  BIHTORT  or 

And  thou  wert  the  meekest  man,  and  the  gentlest,  that  ever  ate  in  hull 
among  ladies !  And  thou  wert  the  sternest  knight  to  thy  mortal  foe 
that  ever  put  spear  in  rest !'  Such,  and  more  than  thin,  was  Bruce.*1 
The  childhood  of  Davi<l  II.  necessitated  a  Regency ;  during  which  the 
turbulence  and  jealousy  of  the  nobles,  fomented  by  the  machinations 
of  the  EnglUh,  deeply  afflicted  the  country.  Pretending  outwardly 
to  respect  the  treaty,  Edward  secretly  encouraged  a  son  of  Balliol's 
to  invade  Scotland  ;  when,  through  th<  in<  r  HMe  mismanagement  of 
the  Scottish  forces  under  the  Regent,  the  English  gained  a  battle  at 
1  >u|>plin  M<>or,  and  seized  Perth,  which  was  then  a  place  of  great  mill- 
1. 1 r\  i : 1 1 1  ><  irtance.  An  English  fleet  having  entered  the  Tay  to  co-operate 
with  the  invaders,  was  followed  by  a  squadron  of  ten  vessels,  under 
John  Crab,  a  Flemish  captain  in  the  Scottish  service ;  and  a  naval 
battle  was  fought  within  sight  of  Dundee,  on  the  24th  August,  1332. 

tint,  Crab  was  successful,  capturing  the  Beaumondaoogge,  the 
largeat  of  the  enemy's  vessels ;  but  the  remainder  of  the  enemy's  fleet 

I  it  with  such  obstinacy  that  Crab,  after  seeing  several  of  hia  ship* 
in  Humes,  had  to  make  sail  for  Berwick.* 

In  the  following  year,  the  young  king  and  his  consort  passed  over 
to  France,  leaving  the  kingdom  distracted  by  war,  and  struggling 
UM.I.-I  the  domination  of  Edward  and  his  vassal,  Balliol.  In  1339, 
William  Bullock,  an  adventurous  ecclesiastic,  who  had  forsaken  the 
cloister  for  the  camp,  gave  up  the  castle  of  Cupar  to  the  national  party, 
and  went  to  assist  in  reducing  Perth.  Finding  th.it  the  besiegers  liad 

•  rived  to  drain  the  fosse,  Ughtred,  the  governor,  and  hia  garrison, 
capitulated,  and  were  shipped  down  the  Tay  to  England.  The 
castle  of  Dundee  appears  also  to  have  been  yielded  to  the  Steward 
of  Scotland  at  this  time,  only  four  strongholds  south  of  th<>  Forth 
being  mentioned  as  remaining  in  the  hands  of  the  English.'  Of 
these,  Edinburgh  was  deemed  all  but  impregnable ;  but  it  fell  to 
a  stratagem  with  which  Dundee  had  some  connection.  In  April, 
1341,  Bullock,  in  concert  with  the  Knight  of  Liddesdale,  who 
lurked  in  the  neighbourhood  with  two  hundred  soldiers,  procured 
Walter  Curry,  a  merchantman  of  Dundee,  along  with  one  William 
Fairley,  to  run  their  ship  into  the  Forth,  and,  under  pretence  of 
being  an  English  victualling  vessel,  to  offer  supplies  of  wine  and 

>  Lord  Liodmj— Uvm,  1,  p.  45. 
•  Hail«s  11.,    j,  i;.i  .  Waliinghftm,  |>.  ISO. 
II,  p.  206. 


CHARTER  BY  DAVID  II. — 1358.  37 

corn  to  the  garrison.  The  offer  was  accepted,  and  Curry  and  his 
band  drove  their  waggons  under  the  gateway,  which  was  adroitly 
blocked  so  as  to  prevent  the  portcullis  from  being  let  down.  Cast- 
ing off  the  grey  frocks  which  concealed  their  arms,  the  warder  was 
instantly  stabbed  ;  and  at  a  blast  of  the  horn,  Douglas  and  his  troop 
rushed  up,  and  engaged  in  a  desperate  conflict  with  the  garrison, 
which  resulted  in  the  death  of  all  save  the  governor  and  six  squires, 
who  cut  their  way  out. 

In  the  mouth  of  June,  the  king  returned  from  France,  and  began  a 
reign  which  proved  to  be  as  disastrous  for  Scotland  as  that  of  his 
illustrious  father  was  glorious.  In  a  rash  inroad  upon  English  terri- 
tory, David  was  taken  prisoner  near  Durham  in  1346,  and  held  in 
captivity  for  eleven  years,  from  which  he  was  only  released  upon  a  ran- 
som equal  to  the  enormous  sum  of  a  million  and  a  quarter ;  for  payment 
of  which,  besides  hostages  of  the  chief  men  in  the  country,  the  bur- 
gesses of  Edinburgh,  Dundee,  Perth,  and  Aberdeen  were  held  bound.] 

On  the  20th  January,  1358,  David,  willing  to  show  his  gratitude 
to  the  citizens  of  Dundee,  for  their  exertions  in  procuring  his  freedom, 
gave  them  a  new  charter,  confirming  all  their  former  privileges  and 
immunities,  and  conferring  more.  This  charter,  which  erected  the 
town  and  royalty  into  a  Sheriffdom,  independent  of  the  authority  of 
the  Sheriff  of  Angus,  was  confirmed  in  1642  by  the  Great  Charter  of 
Charles  I.  The  liberties  of  Dundee,  ascertained  by  the  Charter  of 
David,  were  extensive ;  for  instance,  Cupar  in  Angus,  Kettins,  Kirrie- 
muir,  and  Alyth,  were  prohibited  holding  markets,  and  all  persons 
discharged,  under  the  highest  penalties,  from  attending  them,  these 
places  being  declared  to  be  within  the  liberties  of  Dundee. 

This  profusion  of  privileges  shows  the  estimation  in  which  Dundee 
was  held  by  our  ancient  sovereigns ;  but  they  soon  created  contention 
between  the  Scrymseoures  of  Craigie1  (who  held  the  hereditary  dig- 
nity and  office  of  Constable  of  Dundee),  and  the  burgesses,  who  were 
often  subjected  to  the  consequences  of  their  tyrannical  measures  and 
ambitious  designs.  The  extent  of  the  Constable's  authority  over  the 

1  The  Scryinseours  have  been  improperly  designed  of  Dudhope,  which  came  into 
their  sole  possession  only  in  1495,  upwards  of  a  hundred  years  after  this  dispute, 
at  which  time  they  were  proprietors  of  lands  in  various  parts  of  the  kingdom.  At 
this  time  also,  part  of  the  lands  of  Craigie  adjoining  the  town  was  theirs  ;  we 
have,  therefore,  designed  them  accordingly.  They  were,  indeed,  possessed  of  a 
part,  if  not  the  \vh  -le,  of  the  lands  of  Upper  Dudhope,  which  seems  to  have  been 
the  cause  of  their  being  designated  of  ])udhope. 


HISTORY  or 

ii "t  htthert<>  been  aceun'  i^d,  and  seram!  attempts 

to  ascertain  it  had  !»•.-  '  by  disorderly  and  tumultuous  results. 

-.  :»n-l  huTgesaae,  anxious  for  peace  and  tranquillity. 
t<>  piwent  :r.  hostile  c>  •,  entered  into  an  agreement 

with  Sir  James  Scrymseoure,  then  Constable,  in  the  year  13^9,  which 
API*  4ored  harmony  an«l  «jui< -t.     The  article*  of  agreement 

respected  the  regulations  of  the   inn<i  •!  •  .  .ikots,  the  renunciation  of 
tin  ri-liS  which  the  Countable  claimed  of  being  sole  judge  in 

•lie  burgesses ;  the  investigation  of  any  flagrant 
crime  committal  (hiring  the  fair,  and  tho  pum-lu  ..-nt  to  be  awarded 
by  tin-  Con<t;iM'-.  in  conjunction  with  the  liailies.  on  the  Cattle  HilL 
[The  fourteenth  century  was  the  golden  age  of  chivalry;  when  knight*, 
found  themselves  out  of  practice  in  real  warfare,  roamed  about  in 
i  entures  at  tills  ami  tournaments,  eager  to  "perform  points 
.n«,  and  manifest  their  pmwoss  to  the  world."    A  notaole  instance 
of  this  passion  occurnvl  in  1390,  when  Sir  I>uvi<l  LitvUiy,  <>f  r.lmesk, 
Railed  from  the  Craig,  in  the  good  ship  St  Mary  <>f  Dundee,  with  a 
me  of  twenty  •  -us,  inclmlin^  two  knight*,  squires,  valets, 

to   have  .;   toiirm-y  with  Lonl  Wrll«-s  <.n    b-mlon   Hriclge.1     Sir 
1  was  received  with  great  state  by  King  Richard ;  and  on  the 
George,  the  two  champions  appeared,  cased  in  complete 
armour,  and  mounted  on  spl.-ndid  h"rs«-s,  Ix-fore  a  great  concourse  of 
tatow.     The  trumpet  sounded,  and  at  the  tirst  *h"«-k  Lord  Wellea 
shivered  his  spear  on  the  helmet   of  the   s,-.  •:  ~h  knight,  who  sat  so 
firmly  that   the  spN'ctators  cried  he  was  locked,  or  ti<  d  to  his  saddle, 
:.iry  to  the  law  of  arms.     Sir  David  rode  up  to  the  king,  and  dis- 
proved the  accusation  by  leaping  from  his  horse,  making  his  obeisance, 
and  vaulting  Wk  into  his  seat  "  n-ht   d-  liv.-ilv."  without  touching 
the  stirrup.     With  frush  spears  they  charged  again,  and  yet  again, 
when  the    Knglish  knight  was  struck  clear  out  of  the  saddle,  and  1. 11 
heavily  t"  the  ground.     A  foot  combat  ensued,  in  which  Welles  was 
discomfited,  for  Sir   David  fastened  his  dagger  between  the  joints  of 
his  antagonist's  armour,  and.  by  sheer  strength,  lifted  him  off  his  feet, 
and  tiling  him  (4)  the  ^r-und.     Then  came  the  courtesy  of  chivalry  : 
the  victor  raised  his  foe,  and  "  presented  him  to  the  queen  as  his  gift, 

1  The  pftMporta  are  printed  in  the  RotoU  Scotia,  voL  IL,  103,  sad  include  one 
for  the  St  Huj,  freighted  with  MUM M  imUyrmm  karmetimm  dt  y*em  pro  eorport 
Dmid  Lyndaey  dt  Scotia  militif.  Thi«  new  suit  of  armour  M  the  fin*  cargo  to 
our  jM>rt  <4>jxauiii£  ua  teuuni 


DISPUTE  WITH  PERTH.  39 

wishing,  like  a  true  knight,  that  mercy  should  proceed  from  woman." 
The  queen  gave  liberty  to  the  vanquished  ;  and  Lindsay  visited  him 
daily  until  he  recovered  : — 

And  sa  he, 

With  honour  and  with  honesty, 
Retourit  syne  in  his  land  hame, 
Great  worship  ek&d  till  bis  fame.1 

To  perpetuate  the  remembrance  of  his  victory,  and  in  gratitude  to  the 
martial  saint  to  whose  favour  he  attributed  it,  Sir  David  founded  a 
chantry  of  five  priests,  or  vicars  choral,  within  Our  Lady  Kirk  at 
Dundee,  to  sing  hymns  to  the  dragon-slayer's  power  for  ever.]2 

When  Sir  David  returned  to  Dundee,  a  quarrel  was  being  conducted 
in  a  less  chivalrous  spirit,  between  its  citizens  and  those  of  Perth, 
attended  with  the  bitterest  animosity,  and  sometimes  even  with  blood. 
The  circumstances  which  originated  this  dispute  are  unknown ;  but 
the  avowed  causes  were  rank  and  precedency  in  conventions,  and  the 
limits  of  their  respective  ports  on  the  Tay.  The  inhabitants  of  Perth 
maintained  that  their  port  included  the  whole  river,  and  that  no  ship 
adventuring  in  the  water  of  Tay,  within  Drumlaw,  ought  to  break 
bulk  until  it  reached  the  bridge  of  Perth.  This  assertion,  with  the 
grounds  upon  which  it  was  founded,  contradicted  the  judgment  of 
some  persons  who  wished,  and  who  had  done  their  utmost  to  get  the 
dispute  amicably  adjusted ;  and  the  contending  parties  determined  to 
have  recourse  to  Robert,  Duke  of  Albany  (Eegent  of  the  kingdom  dur- 
ing the  greater  part  of  the  reign  of  Robert  III.)  and  his  council,  to 
decide  the  question  at  issue.  Before  them  the  pretensions  of  Perth 
were  warmly  urged  and  insisted  on  by  their  advocate  ;  but  he  was 
opposed,  by  the  advocate  of  Dundee,  with  so  much  force  and  weight 
of  argument  that  the  Regent  and  his  council  were  induced  to  give 
judgment  in  favour  of  the  latter.  The  decision  is  dated  in  the  Friar 
Church,  at  Edinburgh,  on  the  19th  May,  1402,  and  is  expressed  in  the 
following  simple  but  energetic  terms  : — 

"  "We  pronounce,  determine,  and  decretis,  that  the  burch  and  bur- 
chesses  of  Dundie,  and  yair  successoris,  have  freedom  to  by  ony  schip 
or  schipps  yat  come  in  the  water  of  Tay  on  a  venture,  yat  lykes  to  lois 
at  yair  heaven,  notagainstandand  ony  privileges  aledgat  befoir  us  in  the 
contrair,  throuch  the  procuratoris  of  the  burch  of  Perth.  Quhairfore, 
we  put  silence  to  yame  of  Perth,  and  to  yair  successoris  for  evirmair. 

i  Wyntown,  II.,  p  353.     Tytler,  III.,  p.  70. 
8  Lindsay's  Lives,  I.,  p.  93. 


40  BISTORT  or  DOTCDML 

In  witnes  of  quhilckis  thingU,  we  have  gart  Mt  oar  saill  hairto,  day, 
jear,  and  place  aforesaid*." 

[At  thU  period,  the  two  most  powerful  noble*  in  Scotland  were  Da- 
Earl  of  Crawford,  and  William,  Earl  of  Douglas ;  who,  under  a  league 
of  friendship,  were  rapidity  acquiring  an  influence  thai  threatened  to 
extinguish  the  royal  authority.  King  James  II.  was  a  minor;  hot 
his  tutor,  Kennedy,  Bishop  of  St  Andrews,  justly  called  the  Wallace 
of  his  century,  stood  forward  to  thwart  the  ambition*  nobles.  Resent- 
ing this  interference,  Crawford  collected  his  retainer*  and  allies,  and, 
crossing  into  Fife,  harried  the  bishop's  lands  with  fire  and  sword, 
returning  to  Dundee  and  Finhaveu  with  immense  booty.  The  bishop 
finding  other  remonstrances  ineffectual,  had  recourse  to  excommunica- 
tion with  mitre  and  staff,  boll,  book,  and  candle  for  a  year — "  which 
the  Earl  lightly  vili}>«  u<lt  <l,  a-  u  thing  of  no  strength,  without  fear  of 
God  and  man."  lVt«iv  ih<  y.-ar  expired,  the  Earl's  son  became  in- 
volved in  a  dispute  with  the  Ogilvies  as  to  the  bailiary  of  the  Abbey 
of  Arbroath  ;  and  on  Sunday  the  13th  of  January,  1445-6,  a  great 
muster  of  the  hostile  clans  stood  ranged  in  order  of  battle  under  the 
Abbey  walls.  Just  as  the  battle  was  to  commence,  a  horseman  on  a 
panting  charger  galloped  between  the  lines  :  it  was  the  old  Earl,  who 
had  hurried  from  Dundee  to  avert  the  strife  between  those  who  had 
hitherto  been  allies,  and  were  still  bound  by  near  relationship.  Before 
his  mediation  could  be  heard,  an  Ogilvie  darted  a  spear  through  his 
neck,  inflicting  a  mortal  wound.  A  furious  battle  ensued,  in  which  500 
Ogilvies  were  shun,  and  their  chief  taken  prisoner.  The  wounded 
Earl  was  carried  back  to  Dundee,  where  he  expired,  it  was  remarked, 
on  that  day-twelvemonth  that  he  ravaged  ••  St  An<lrvws'  land."1  H> 
body  lay  for  some  time  unburied,  for  as  the  chronicler  quaintly  says — 
"  no  man  durst  yird  him  ;"  but  the  bishop  relented,  and,  taking  off 
the  excommunication,  the  bones  of  his  enemy  were  interred  in  the 
Franciscan  ChapeL  His  son  and  successor,  Alexander,  "  Karl  Beanlio," 
or  "  Beard  the  best  of  them,"  went  so  far  in  opposition  to  the  king  as 
to  become  a  party  in  a  conspiracy  to  dethrone  him  ;  and,  after  the 
assassination  of  Douglas  by  the  king's  own  hand,  Crawford  flew  into 
open  rebellion,  assembled  a  great  company  of  his  allies,  kindred  and 
friends,  with  "  the  haill  folks  of  Angus  ;"*  and,  on  the  18th  May, 

*Lud»7'i  Lhrw,  I,  P.  180. 
»  PiUcoUi.,  |>. 


EARL  BEARD  IE.  41 

1452,  engaged  the  king's  forces  near  Brechin,  when  he  was  defeated, 
and  his  lands,  life,  and  goods,  declared  forfeit  to  the  State.  It  affords 
us  some  idea  of  the  fierce  character  and  large  resources  of  the  feudal 
lords  at  this  time  to  learn  that  Earl  Beardie  still  defied  the  Govern- 
ment, and  employed  himself  in  chastising  those  who  would  not  aid 
him  in  his  rebellion.  The  king,  however,  having  reduced  the  Doug- 
lasses in  the  south,  and  pardoned  their  chief,  Crawford  at  length  "  tuik 
purpose  to  humhle  himself."  He  did  so  in  a  fashion  little  to  he 
expected  from  one  of  so  reckless  and  daring  a  character.  On  the 
king's  progress  through  Angus,  "the  Earl  of  Crawford  came,  bare- 
headed and  bare-footed,  to  the  king,  clad  as  he  had  been  ane  miserable 

caitiff,  dolorous,  and  in  poor  arrayment, and  sa,  accompanied 

with  ane  small  number  of  folks,  sad,  with  dreary  countenance,  cast 
himself  in  the  king's  gait ;....,  with  tears  bursting  out  abund- 
antly, he  fell  on  his  knees."  The  king  generously  pardoned  the  sup- 
pliant, who  vowed  to  return  his  clemency  by  faithful  service.  Six 
months  afterwards,  Earl  Beardie,  then  residing  in  the  family  residence, 
"  tuik  the  hot  fever,  and  died,  1454,  and  was  buried  with  great  triumph 
and  pomp  in  the  Grey  Friars'  of  Dundee,  in  his  forebeers'  sepulchre."] 
"About  this  time"  [1460],  continues  Pitscottie,  whose  antiquated 
orthography  is  retained,  "  thair  was  ane  briggant  tane  with  his  hail 
familie,  quho  hauntet,  and  dwelt  in  a  place  of  Angus  called  the 
Fiend's  Den.  This  mischevious  man  had  an  execrable  fashion  to 
tak  all  young  men,  and  children  that  aither  he  could  steal  quietlie, 
or  tak  away  by  any  other  moyen,  and  bring  thame  home  and 
eat  thame,  and  the  younger  they  war  he  held  the  more  tender  and 
the  greater  delicate.  For  the  quhilk  damnable  abuse,  he,  with  his 
wayff  and  bairns,  were  burnt,  except  a  young  lass  of  ane  year  old,  wha 
was  saiffed,  and  brought  to  Dundie,  quhair  she  was  fostered  and 
broucht  vp.  But  quhan  she  cam  to  woman's  yeires,  she  was  con- 
demned and  brunt  quick  for  the  same  cryme.  It  is  said,  that  when 
she  was  coming  forth  to  the  place  of  execution,  thair  gathered  ane 
great  multitude  of  people,  and  speciallie  of  women,  cursing  her  that 
she  was  so  unhappie  to  committ  so  damnable  deids.  To  whom  she 
turned  about  with  a  wud  and  furious  countenance,  saying  '  Quhair- 
foir  chyd  ye  me,  as  I  had  committed  an  unworthie  crime  t  Give  me 
credence,  and  trow  me,  if  ye  had  experience  of  eating  of  man's  and 
woman's  flesh,  ye  wold  think  it  so  delicious  that  ye  would  nevir  for- 
bear it  agane  /  and  so  with  an  obstinate  mind  this  unhappie  creature, 


42  HISTORY  or  urxou. 

without  sign  or  outward  token  »t  i  • ; «  ntance,  died  in  tne  eight  of  the 
people."1  This  execution  is  said  to  have  taken  place  before  the  old 
Town-House  in  the  Seagate. 

In  the  year  1490,  an  expedition  of  three  ship*,  fitted  out  in  Eng- 
land under  the  orders  of  Stephen  Bull,  to  act  against  Scotland,  was 
net  by  Sir  Andrew  Wood,  the  celebrated  Scottish  naval  commander, 
whose  force  consisted  of  but  two  vessels,  the  Flower  and  Yellow  Car- 
vel An  engagement  took  place  in  the  Firth  of  Forth,  which  lasted 
till  nightfall,  when  the  combatants  mutually  drew  off.  Next  morning 
the  battle  was  renewed  with  such  olwtinacy  that  the  ships,  locked 
together,  ilritW  unheeded  before  an  ebb  tide  and  south  wind  round 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Tay,  when-  tin-  valour  of  the  Scottish  sailors  at 
length  prevailed  ;  and,  on  the  evening  of  the  llth  of  August,  Wood 
brought  his  prizes  into  Dundee,  vh.-rv  the  dead  were  interred,  and  the 
wounded  on  both  sides  carefully  attended  to  by  the  inhabitants. 

[In  the  reign  of  James  IT.,  great  exertions  were  made  to  fit  out 
vessels  of  war,  the  maritime  power  of  the  Portuguese  and  the  dis- 
coveries of  Columbus  having  given  a  stimulus  to  naval  enterprise  and 
adventure.  Jiinies  issued  an  ordinance  requiring  vessels  of  twenty 
tons  and  upwards  to  be  built  in  all  the  seaports  of  Scotland,  and 
enjoining  the  magistrates  to  impress  all  stout  vagrants,  and  other- 
wise provide  for  the  manning  of  the  ships.'  Dundee,  from  its  peculiar 
situation  and  trading  resources,  doubtless  contributed  its  quota  to  the 
infant  navy  ;  and  it  was  probably  in  1512,  the  year  before  the  disas- 
trous battle  of  Fl«Nld««n — when  the  country  rang  with  the  din  of  pre- 
parations for  war  by  land  and  sea,  and  the  king  visited  every  part  of 
the  country  to  encourage  the  equipment  of  his  fleet — that  this  monarch 
confirmed  by  charter  all  the  privileges  bestowed  on  the  town  by  his 
predecessors. 

James  V.  was  long  kept  in  durance  by  the  Douglas  family  :  tmt 
having  adroitly  effected  his  escape  from  Falkland,  while  the  uncle 
of  the  Earl  of  Angus,  one  of  his  keepers,  was  in  Dundee  on  a  visit 
to  his  mistress — the  young  king,  then  only  seventeen,  rode,  with- 
out drawing  bridle,  to  Stirling  Castle,  and  assumed  the  Govern- 
ment His  administration  was  marked  by  great  vigour  and  activity, 
and  in  a  few  years  he  had  gained  the  confidence  of  his  subjects.  In 

1  PitaoottM't  History,  122,  ad.  1749.    Th«  Den  of  PiUirly.   on  UM  farm  of 
Dcnfind,  u  pointed  to  by  tradition  M  UM  haunt  of  Uua  oinnihal,  "  briggint."— ED. 
»  MThsnosft  Anod*  of  ComoMro*  1L,  p.  17. 


VISIT  BY  JAMES  v. — 1529.  43 

1529,  he  made  a  progress  through  the  kingdom  ;  in  the  course  of  which 
the  Earl  of  Athole  entertained  the  royal   party  in  a  rural  palace  so 
magnificently  furnished  as  to  recall  the  creations  of  romance,  and  which, 
on  the  departure  of  the  guests,  was  given  to  the  flames  to  show  how 
much  had  been  done  in  the  king's  honour  alone.     The  royal  party 
then   passed   by  Perth  to    Dundee,  where    they   were    "honourably 
received  and  well  entertained  by  the  constable  and  the  honest  burgesses 
thereof,  and  remained  there  three  days,  and  syne  passed  to  St  An- 
drews."    The  following  anecdote,  given  by  Pitscottie,  illustrates  the 
manners  of  the  times ;  the  scene  being  so  different  from  the  cruel 
martyrdom  of  Patrick  Hamilton  on  the  same  spot,  only  a  few  months 
previously  : — "  In  this  year  came  an  ambassador  out  of  England,  Lord 
William  Howard,  with  a  bishop  with  him,  and  many  other  gentlemen, 
to  the  number  of  threescore  horse,  which  were  all  able  men,  and  waled 
men  for  all  kind  of  games  and  pastime,  shooting,  louping,  running, 
wrestling,  and  casting  of  the  stane  :    But  they  were  well  saired  ere 
they  past  out  of  Scotland,  and  that  by  their'  own  provocation  ;  but 
ever  they  tint  :    Till,  at  last,  the  Queen  of  Scotland,  the  king's  mother, 
favoured  the  Englishmen,  because  she  was  the  King  of  England's 
sister ;  and  therefore  she  took  an  enterprise  of  archery  upon  the  Eng- 
lishmen's hands,  contrary  her  son  the  king,  and  any  six  in  Scotland 
that  he  would  wale,  either  gentlemen  or  yeomen,  that  the  Englishmen 
should  shoot   against   them,  either  at  pricks,  revers,  or  buts,  as  the 
Scots  pleased.     The  king,  hearing  this  of  his  mother,  was  content,  and 
gart  her  pawnd  a  hundred  crowns  and  a  tun  of  wine  upon  the  Eng- 
lishmen's hands  ;  and  he  incontinently  laid  down  as  much  for  the 
Scottishmen.     The  field  and  ground  was  chosen  in  St  Andrews,  and 
three  landed  men  and  three  yeomen  chosen  to  shoot  against  the  Eng- 
lishmen, to  wit — David  Wemyss  of  that  ilk  ;  David  Arnot  of  that  ilk  ; 
and  Mr  John  Wedderburn,  vicar  of  Dundee.    The  yeomen,  John  Thom- 
son, in  Leith  ;  Steven  Taburner ;  with  a  piper  called  Alexander  Bailie. 
They  shot  very  near,  and  warred  the  Englishmen  of  the  enterprise, 
and  wan  the  hundred  crowns1  and  the  tun  of  wine  ;  which  made  the 
king  very  merry  that  his  men  wan  the  victory."] 

1  The  crown  was  a  gold  crown,  equivalent  to  one  pound  Scots,  or  Is.  8d.  ster- 
ling, a  considerable  sum  in  those  days. 


Section  V. 


rut  airoRMATio!*— WBHABT  nuucaai  AT  DI-JIDW—  POPTLAB  roxvortov— B  on* 

MUSED— TH*  PLAOCE— WMHABT  a*TUBNS<— CAADUtAL  MAToy'ft  BOST1UTT— M*a- 
TTBOOM  OP  WUHABT,  AJTD  DEATH  OP  BEATOX— P1O»EJCB*  OP  THI  BKPOBMATIoJI— 
•IB  DAVID  UVDSAT — THE  WfcDDEBBUBXS  -  DRAMATIC  WBlTUfOS,  AXD  *  DC X DEB 


HAVING  taken  a  hasty  view  of  the  more  remarkable  transactions  that 
have  happened  in  Dundee,  or  with  which  it  wa»  connected  in  early 
times,  we  are  now  arrived  at  the  important  era  at  which  the  reforma- 
tion of  religion  began  to  take  root  in  Scotland.  An  event  of  such 
high  moment,  in  every  point  of  view,  involved  in  it*  consequences 
every  district,  and  interested  every  person  in  the  kingdom ;  and,  to 
the  honour  of  the  inhabitant*  of  Dundee,  it  is  recorded  that  they  were 
among  the  tint  to  welcome  the  dawn  of  religious  liberty,  and  east 
asido  the  corrupt  and  ^unnft^g  yoke  of  superstition.  It  has  been 
remarked  that  the  Scottish  Church  was  the  last  to  own  the  power  -if 
Papal  supremacy  in  all  its  latitude,  nor  did  a  long  time  elapse  1. 
she  shook  off  its  influence,  and  became  pure  and  free.  Although  the 
impartial  historian  must  admit  that  external  political  movements  h.id 
a  large  influence  in  .spirit u:il  matters  at  this  period,  yet  it  is  indisputable 
that  there  was  a  pn<lis|>«sition  among  the  people  for  the  reformation  ; 
and  a  weight  of  gratitude  is  due  to  the  great  and  energetic  men  who 
availed  themselves  of  the  popular  feeling  to  overturn  the  monxt 
system  which  had  been  the  work  of  numerous  ages  of  darkness 
to  mature..  Innumerable  efforts  were  made  by  the  *up]M>rt<»ni  and 
abettors  of  the  declining  cause  to  prop  it  up,  but  these  efforts  rather 
hastened  its  downfall  In  Dundee,  the  winning  grace,  the  majestic 
and  persuasive  power  of  the  preaching  of  Georgu  Wwliart,  tir-t  infused 
into  the  minds  of  the  inhabitants  that  zeal  f»r  n  li^ioti  by  which  they 
were,  for  a  long  series  of  years,  so  peculiarly  distinguished. 

[Wiahart  is  believed  to  have  been  the  younger  son  of  the  laird  of 
Pitarrow — probably  the  Sir  James  who,  in  1513  and  subsequently, 
was  justice-clerk  to  James  V.,  and  came  of  the  Ouucard*,  an  old 
family  of  Norman  descent.  The  date  of  his  birth  is  uncertain,  but 
most  have  been  about  150&-15.  At  the  University  of  Aberdeen,  then 


GEORGE  WISHART.  45 

just  founded,  he  acquired  his  first  education,  and  afterwards  passed  to 
France  and  Germany,  where  he  became  imbued  with  the  doctrines  of 
the  Reformation.  Returning  to  Montrose,  he  became  associated  with 
M.  Marsilliers,  a  teacher  of  Greek,  supported  by  Erskine  of  Dun, 
whom  Wishart  succeeded.  Having  freely  taught  and  circulated  the 
Greek  Testament,  he  was  summoned  by  Hepburn,  Bishop  of  Brechin, 
for  heresy,  in  1538,  and  obliged  to  retire  to  England  for  safety.  Taking 
up  his  abode  at  Bristol,  where,  as  we  learn  from  the  city  records,  he 
"  sett  furth  the  most  blasphemous  heresy  that  ever  was  herd,  openly 
declarying  that  Christ's  mother  hath  not  nor  coulde  merite  for  him,  nor 
yett  for  us." — Wishart  was  arraigned  before  the  Archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury, and  condemned  to  bear  his  faggot,  on  two  Sundays,  in  the 
churches  where  he  had  preached.1  This  occurred  on  20th  July,  1539  ; 
after  which  he  passed  to  Cambridge,  and  entered  with  renewed  ardour 
upon  his  studies,  at  the  same  time  throwing  himself  into  the  Reformation 
movement  with  such  men  as  Latimer  and  Bilney.  Here  he  remained 
for  nearly  six  years,  earning  great  distinction  for  his  learning  and  piety, 
which  was  so  fervent  as  to  verge  on  asceticism.  Emery  Tylney,  one 
of  his  pupils  at  Cambridge,  thus  quaintly  describes  Wishart  at  this 
period  : — "  A  man  of  tall  stature,  polde-headed,  and  on  the  same  a 
round  Frenche  cappe  of  the  best ;  judged  of  melancholic  complexion 
by  his  physiognomic ;  black-haired,  long-bearded,  comely  of  person- 
age, well  spoken  after  his  country  of  Scotland,  courteous,  lowlie,  lovelie, 
glad  to  teach,  desirous  to  learn,  and  was  well  travelled  :  having  upon 
him  for  his  habit  or  clothing  never  but  a  mantle  frise  gown  to  the 
shoes,  a  black  Milan  fustain  dublet,  and  plain  black  ho  sen,  coarse 
new  canvasse  for  his  shirts,  and  white  falling  bands,  and  cuffs  at  the 
hands.  All  the  which  apparell  he  gave  to  the  poor,  some  weekly, 
some  monthly,  some  quarterly,  as  he  liked,  saving  his  French  cappe, 
which  he  kept  the  whole  year  of  my  being  with  him.  He  was  a  man, 
modest,  temperate,  fearing  God,  and  hating  covetousness ;  for  his 
charity  had  never  end,  night,  noone,  nor  daye."2 

Returning  in  July,  1543,  with  the  Commissioners  sent  to  England 
to  negotiate  with  Henry  VIII.  a  marriage  between  the  Prince  of  Wales 
and  the  Princess  Mary  of  Scotland,  Wishart  resumed  the  preaching  of 
the  reformed  doctrines  first  at  Montrose  and  then  at  Dundee.  His 
learning  commended  him  to  the  attention  of  the  better  sort,  while  his 

1  M'Crie's  Knox,  Appendix,  p.  327. 
1  Quoted  in  Fox's  Martyrology,  p.  1155,  edit.  1596. 


46  fnrroET  or 

singular  eloquence  and  devotion  to  the  work  attracted  the  common 
people  in  crowds  to  hit  mi  nitration*.  The  Epistle  to  the  Romans 
.e  sabject  of  hie  public  lectures  in  Dundee,  the  success  of 
which  roused  the  hostility  of  the  Romish  clergy,  and  of  Cardinal  Bee- 
ton,  who,  besides  being  the  unscrupulous  head  of  the  Church  party,  was 
th«  n  deep  in  political  intrigues  for  the  ascendency  of  Freuch  influence 
in  Scotland.  At  his  instigation,  Robert  Mill,  one  of  the  magistrates 
of  the  town,  one  day  at  the  close  of  his  sermon,  gave  the  preacl 
charge,  in  the  name  of  the  Queen-Regent,  to  leave  the  town,  and  trouble 
tin-  people  no  more  with  his  preaching.  The  ostensible  reason  for  this 
injunction  was  found  in  th<-  ]»-pular  outbreak  which  took  place  in  the 
•  11 1  of  August,  wh.-n  tin-  houses  of  the  Black  and  Grey  Friars  were 
demolished.1  Wiahart  n-plifl  to  it : — "  God  is  my  witness  that  I 
never  sought  your  trouble,  but  your  comfort ;  yea,  your  trouble  is 
more  dolorous  to  me  than  to  yourselves.  But  I  am  assured  that  to 
refuse  God's  word,  and  to  chase  from  yon  his  messenger,  shall  nothing 
preserve  you  from  trouble,  but  shall  bring  you  into  it :  for  God  shall 
send  you  messengers  who  will  not  be  afraid  of  burning,  nor  y. 
banishment  Should  trouble  unlocked  for  come  upon  you,  acknow- 

th<>  cause,  and  turn  to  God,  for  he  is  merciful."  Descen<; 
fr»m  the  pulpit,  and  resisting  the  invitation  of  some  friends  who 
pressed  him  to  accompany  them  to  the  north,  the  reformer  retired  to 
tin-  West  of  Scotland,  and,  under  the  protection  of  the  Earl  of  Glen- 
cairn,  spread  the  new  faith  in  Ayrshire;  but  Beaton's  emissaries 
followed  him  wherever  he  appeared.  On  one  occasion,  when  about  to 
preach  at  Mauchline,  he  found  the  Sheriff  and  a  band  of  soldiers  in 
possession  of  the  church.  Tin-  friends  of  W  is  hart  were  eager  to  dis- 
lodge their  opponents,  but  he  forbade  the  contest,  saying — "  Christ 
Jesus  is  as  potent  in  the  fields  as  in  the  kirk  ;  and  I  find  that  Himself 
oftcner  preached  in  the  desert,  at  the  sea-side,  and  other  places  judged 
me,  than  he  did  in  the  T- mple  at  Jerusalem.  It  is  the  word  of 
peace  which  God  sends  by  me  ;  the  blood  of  no  man  shall  be  shed 
this  day  on  account  of  preaching  it."  Retiring  outside  the  village  to 
a  moor,  Wiahart  mounted  a  dyke,  and  preached  for  more  than  three 
hours  to  an  eager  assembly. 

In   1  .Ml.  while  engaged  in  these  ministrations  in  Ayrshire,  intelli- 
•>•  reached   him   from  Dundee  of  the  outbreak  of  a  contagious 
distemper,  and  the  earnest  desire  of  the  people  for  his  presence.     1 

U.  .lm«tV.  M*ry,  II,  p.  401. 


THE  PLAGUE. 154:4.  47 

regarding  the  entreaties  of  his  friends,  he  at  once  decided  to  return. 
"  They  are  now  in  trouble,  and  need  comfort,"  he  said  ;  "  and,  per- 
chance, the  hand  of  God  will  make  them  now  to  magnify  and  reverence 
that  Word,  which  before,  for  fear  of  men,  they  set  at  licht  part."  His 
appearance  in  Dundee  was  hailed  with  great  joy ;  and,  on  the  day 
after  his  arrival,  the  people  assembled  at  the  East  Port — the  affected 
being  outside,  lodged  in  huts  or  booths,  long  called  the  Sickmen's 
Yards,  and  the  healthy  within  the  gate.  Ascending  to  the  parapet, 
Wishart  gave  out  as  his  text  the  appropriate  words  of  the  107th  Psalm 
— "  He  sent  his  Word  and  healed  them."  What  a  striking  subject 
for  the  painter  would  that  scene  present — the  crowds  of  eager  upturned 
faces  on  either  side  of  the  old  gateway,  and  the  tall  figure  of  the  preacher 
swaying  on  the  top  !  "  By  this  sermon,"  says  Knox,  "  he  raised  up 
the  hearts  of  all  that  heard  him  that  they  regaMit  not  death,  but  jugit 
them  mair  happie  that  sould  depart,  than  such  as  sould  remain  be- 
hynd."  But  it  was  not  by  preaching  alone  that  Wishart  commended 
himself  to  the  people  of  Dundee  in  the  hour  of  calamity  :  his  humility 
and  benevolence  were  as  conspicuous  as  his  piety  and  eloquence.  He 
was  unwearied  in  his  labours  among  the  sick  and  the  poor,  and, 
regardless  alike  of  contagion  or  personal  privations,  he  parted  not  only 
with  his  money,  but  his  body-clothes  also,  to  supply  the  necessities 
of  others.  It  is  not  to  be  wondered  at,  therefore,  that  the  strongest 
attachment  was  felt  for  such  a  man,  whose  pure  life  and  unselfish 
character  so  fitly  illustrated  the  Divine  message,  and  put  to  deeper 
shame  the  pride,  the  dissolute  lives,  and  lying  legends  of  the 
priests. 

As  might  be  supposed,  Cardinal  Beaton  would  not  long  brook  the 
presence  of  such  a  man  in  his  neighbourhood.  Dundee  had  become 
a  nest  of  heresy ;  and  as  fines  and  fulminations  had  for  some  years  been 
tried  upon  its  burgesses  in  vain,  a  crushing  blow  was  now  to  be 
inflicted.  On  the  20th  January,  1544,  the  Cardinal,  with  his  cousin 
Arran  the  Governor,  the  Queen  Mother,  and  a  large  retinue,  set  out 
from  Edinburgh  on  a  progress  to  put  down  sedition  and  heresy — Stir- 
ling, Perth,  and  Dundee  being  specially  marked  out.1  At  Perth  the 
Inquisition  was  conducted  "  with  a  ferocity  of  persecution  which  ulti- 

1  In  the  Lord  Treasurer's  accounts,  preserved  in  the  Register  House,  occurs  an 
entry  for  hiring  fifty -four  cart-horses,  to  pass  to  Stirling  with  the  artillery,  and 
thence  to  Perth  and  Dundee,  "  for  punissing  of  certane  hereticks,  within  the  said 
townes."  For  other  interesting  entries  showing  the  punishments  by  fines  on  the 
burgesses,  see  Appendix  D. 


48  BISTORT  OF  DtnTDEB. 

mately  defeated  it*  object"1  Four  men  were  convicted  of  such  ofiwuooa 
M  refusing  to  pray  for  the  saints,  eating  a  goose  on  a  Friday,  and 
adorning  an  effigy  of  St  Francis  with  a  pair  of  ram's  horns  and  a  cow's 
tail,  and  cruelly  hanged ;  and  a  poor  woman,  who  had  refused  to  ask 
the  aid  of  the  Virgin  Mary  while  in  travail,  was,  by  a  savage  distinc- 
tion, drowned  in  a  deep  pool  The  Cardinal  and  his  party  now  pro- 
ceeded towards  Dundee,  but,  when  within  s  few  miles  of  the  town, 
were  unexpectedly  stopped  by  the  Earl  of  TfottMsy  Lords  Gray  and 
Glammis,  with  so  large  a  band  of  armed  retainers  as  to  induce  a  hasty 
return  to  Perth.  After  deposing  Lord  Kuthven,  the  Provost  of  Perth, 
which  led  to  mure  bloodshed,  Beaton  took  his  way  by  Forfar  to 
Arbroath,  where  lie  seized  ft  poor  friar  named  John  Rogers  for  preach- 
ing Protestant  doctrines.  This  victim  the  Cardinal  took  with  him 
to  St  Andrews,  and,  after  a  few  days'  confinement  in  the  sea-tower, 
his  body  was  found  one  morning  on  the  rocks  below. 

When  minor  offenders  were  being  thus  relentlessly  butchered,  there 
could  be  no  doubt  that  the  Cardinal  longed  eagerly  to  have  George 
Wishart  within  his  grasp.  Fully  aware  that  his  popularity  in  Dundee 
would  make  any  open  attempt  to  silence  or  capture  him  impossible, 
he  had  recourse  to  the  base  expedient  of  assassination.  Tin-  omis- 
sary  chosen  for  this  foul  purpose  was  a  priest  named  Wighton  or 
Wight  man,  who  came,  aud,  mixing  with  the  crowd  to  hear  Wishart 
preach,  waited  an  opportunity  for  his  dastardly  purpose.  There 
is  some  doubt  as  to  the  scene  of  this  incident — one  historian  plac- 
ing it  within  a  church,  the  more  common  narrative  connecting  it 
with  the  East  Port.  After  a  sermon,  as  the  preacher  descended  from 
tin-  gate,  his  quick  eye — for,  as  Kn<>x  rv marks,  "  he  was  maiat  scharp 
of  eye  and  judgment" — perceived  a  suspicious  figure  at  the  foot  of 
the  steps  muffled  in  a  cloak.  Grasping  his  concealed  arm,  saying, 
44  My  I'rieiul,  what  would  ye  do  f '  he  took  from  him  a  dagger,  and  the 
wretched  man  was  so  startled  that  he  fell  on  his  knees  and  confessed 
his  purpose,  and  only  escaped  being  torn  in  pieces  by  the  enraged 
spectators  through  Wisliart  clasping  him  in  his  arms,  exclaiming — 
••  I..-t  him  alone,  he  hath  hurt  me  in  nothing,  but  hath  given  us  to 
n.l.TstiiiKl  what  we  have  to  fear  !  For  the  time  to  come  we  will 
h  )>•  tt.-r."  Thereafter  a  two-handed  sword  was  generally  carried 
I  him  by  some  trusty  friend. 

*  TytW.  v  .  p.  *M. 


EXECUTION  OP  WISHART.  49 

The  subsequent  brief  but  eventful  career  of  Wishart  is  well  known ; 
how,  when  the  pestilence  subsided  in  Dundee,  he  proceeded  to  Mon- 
trose,  renewed  his  testimony  there,  and  administered  the  Sacrament  at 
Dun  ;  how  Beaton  made  one  more  grasp  at  him — this  time  by  a  band 
of  sixty  horsemen ;  how,  eluding  the  ambuscade,  he  went  to  Edinburgh 
by  appointment  with  his  Ayrshire  friends,  to  uphold  his  doctrine  in 
a  public  disputation,  which  was  frustrated  ;  how  he  preached  at  Leith 
with  one  John  Knox  for  a  hearer,  who  thenceforth  as  a  true  disciple 
carried  the  sword.  Then  came  the  last  ministrations  at  Haddington, 
the  midnight  seizure  at  Ormiston  by  Both  well,  and  his  betrayal  to  the 
implacable  Cardinal,  who  had  dogged  him  to  the  spot.  The  mock 
trial  at  St  Andrews  followed,  and  the  day  after,  the  28th  of  March, 
1546,  witnessed  that  sad  spectacle  on  the  Castle  Green.  Chained  to 
the  stake,  exhorting  his  friends  "  that  this  grim  fire  he  feared  not," 
the  noble  "Wishart  called  to  the  executioner,  "  Come  hither,  my  heart," 
and,  kissing  his  cheek,  added,  "  take  this  as  token  that  I  forgive  thee. 
Do  thine  office."  The  powder  exploded,  the  faggots  blazed  up,  and 
soon,  amid  the  averted  faces  of  the  Cardinal's  soldiery,  and  the  cries 
and  groans  of  the  spectators,  the  scorched  and  strangled  body  of  the 
martyr  was  reduced  to  ashes.  There  was  one  face  not  averted  ;  one 
onlooker  reclined  in  pomp  at  his  palace  window,  in  whose  breast  no 
spark  of  human  pity  seemed  to  dwell,  but  for  whom  a  few  short  weeks 
brought  a  terrible  fate,  scarcely  less  tragic  than  that  of  his  victim — a 
cardinal  who  was  sent  suddenly  to  his  account  without  the  martyr's 
consolation  or  the  martyr's  fame. 

To  comprehend  fully  the  events  of  these  troublous  times  we  must 
glance  at  the  position  of  the  parties  contending  for  supremacy  in  Scot- 
land. The  Cardinal  had  been  educated  in  Paris,  and  was  rewarded 
for  his  services  at  the  French  Court  by  the  rich  bishopric  of  Mirepoix ; 
while  the  Court  of  Borne  showered  its  highest  honours  upon  him.  He 
negotiated  the  marriage  of  James  V.  with  a  French  princess,  and — 
though  his  forgery  of  that  monarch's  will  miscarried  in  its  object  of 
making  him  head  of  the  Government,  as  he  was  of  the  Church  in 
Scotland — he  contrived  so  to  influence  the  Queen  Dowager  and  succes- 
sive regents  as  to  be  virtually  absolute  in  the  country.  His  great  aim 
was  the  alliance  of  Scotland  with  France  and  the  Catholic  Powers,  a 
policy  which  he  pursued  in  defiance  of  a  treaty  with  England,  which 
provided  among  other  things  for  the  marriage  of  the  Prince  of  Wales 
with  the  infant  Queen  of  Scotland.  Provoked  at  this  breach  of  faith, 
D 


V)  HiHTonr  or  ncxun. 

at  the  time  he  was  contending  with  Frmnoo  and  the  whole  weight  of 
•:..!•:•••  ;:        '    ' '  :•..:.-. 

regard  Beaton  and  hi*  faction  with  unooncealed  hostility.  In  Scotland, 
again,  the  cruelty  and  arrogance  of  the  Cardinal  induced  many  to 
look  to  the  friendfihip  <>f  Kngland  at  the  only  means  off  frustrating  the 
schemes  of  this  ambitions  prelate  ;  and  Koox,  among  others,  earnestly 
adopted  this  view.  So  obnoxious  had  Beaton  become  to  Henry,  that,  in 
1544,  overtures  were  made  to  and  welcome*!  by  him  for  the  slaying  or 
capture  of  the  Cardinal — a  plot  in  which  some  writers  have,  on  the 
slenderest  evidence,  assumed  the  complicity  of  Wishart.1  The  feel 
t«-l  by  his  martyrdom,  and  the  triumph  of  the  Cardinal, 
P'viv.-.l  the  conspiracy,  which  was  deliberately  approved  by  the  Eng- 
!.-h  diplomatist*. 

A  few  days  after  Wishart's  execution,  the  Cardinal  crossed  the 
Tay,  and  proceeded  with  great  pomp  to  Finhaven,  to  marry  one  of 
his  illegitimate  daughters  to  the  eldest  son  of  the  Earl  of  Crawford. 
In  the  midst  of  the  festivities,  news  reached  him  of  the  approach 
of  an  English  fleet,  when  he  hastened  back  to  8t  Andrews,  and  pro- 
ceeded to  strengthen  the  fortifications  of  his  palace.  Early  on  the 
iiiuming  of  the  'JOlh  of  May,  1546,  Norman  and  John  Lesley,  Kirkaldy, 
Melville,  and  Cannichael,  with  their  followers,  obtained  entrance  with 
tli.-  workmen,  and,  making  themselves  masters  of  the  castle,  speedily 

1  ThU  WM  first  hinted  at  by  Tytler,  on  the  disoorery  of  a  letter  of  the  Earl  of 
Hertford,  dated  at  Newcastle,  17th  April,  1544.  narrating  Out  such  proposals  had 
been  brought  to  him  by  "  a  Sootiahman  called  Wyshert,"  whom  he  sent  forward 
to  King  Henry  ;  but  that  author  in  hi*  history  does  not  commit  himself  to  more 
than  the  pouib'tlity  of  this  messenger  and  George  Wishart  being  identical,  and 
admits  in  another  place  that  the  plot  was  not  of  a  religions,  but  a  purely  mercenary 
and  selfish  character.  Burton,  in  hi*  later  History,  dwells  on  all  the  prvkMlitia 
of  identity,  without  adrerting  to  the  weighty  rinasMarstfains  that  point  the  other 
way.  With  all  deference  to  these  eminent  historians,  it  may  be  urged  in  vindica- 
tion of  the  reformer —apart  altogether  from  the  strong  presumption  do*  to  his 
whole  life  and  character— (1),  the  improbability  of  an  ecclesiastic,  and  one  at  that 
time  tolerably  well  known  in  England,  being  so  designated:  (2),  the  ««is>eao«  of 
another  Wishart  (a  relatire  of  the  reformer's)  of  so  different  a  character  that  it 
was  a  common  remark— "The  laird  of  Petteraw  was  aae  earnest  professor  of 
Christ,  but  the  meikle  deril  receive  the  comptroller  :"  and  (S),  as  no  break  appears 
in  Wishart's  preaching  in  Scotland  from  his  return  in  July,  1513,  to  his  death  in 
1546,  he  could  not  have  been  at  the  English  Court  during  the  summer  of  I  .'• 
being  then,  in  point  of  net,  ia  Dundee.  The  full  statements  on  both  aide*  of  this 
one***  MM*  will  be  found  in  Tyt  W«  Hist^  roL  T.,  p.  840—8,  and  Appendix  ; 
Burton's  Hint.,  ml.  Hi .  p.  444  ;  Cunningham's  Church  History,  I.,  p.  2M  .  EJiur. 
Christian  Monitor,  v..l.  Hi.,  p.  475  ;  M  Crie's  Sketches  Church  IflsC,  p.  41. 


SIR  DAVID  LINDSAY.  51 

despatched  their  wretched  victim ;  and,  after  exhibiting  his  lifeless 
body  to  the  crowd  which  had  assembled  round  the  walls,  at  the  same 
window  from  which  Beaton  had,  two  months  before,  beheld  the  exe- 
cution of  "Wishart,  it  was  flung  into  the  dungeon  of  the  sea  tower. 

The  survey  of  the  agencies  which,  under  Providence,  developed  the 
Reformation  in  Scotland  would  be  incomplete  without  allusion  to  the 
satirical  poets  and  play-wrights  of  the  sixteenth  century,  of  whom  Sir 
David  Lindsay,  of  the  Mount,  held  the  foremost  place.  He  was  tutor 
and  companion  to  James  Y.,  in  whose  youth  he  lay  "  nichtly  by  the 
kingis  cheek,"  and  afterwards  enjoyed  that  monarch's  favour  and  pro- 
tection. To  this,  and  the  circumstance  that  he  professed  to  aim  at 
reforming  the  abuses  of  the  Church  from  within,  must  be  ascribed  his 
escaping  the  vengeance  of  the  Romish  party,  when  the  less  effective 
labours  of  so  many  others  were  visited  with  death.  Lindsay  made  it 
the  aim  of  his  life  to  restore  purity  in  the  Christian  faith,  to  emanci- 
pate his  countrymen  from  priestly  bondage,  and  ameliorate  their  social 
and  political  condition.  His  weapons  were  satire  and  invective,  keen 
and  broad,  even  to  coarseness  ;  but  his  riotous  wit,  delivered  in  the 
homely  vernacular  of  the  day,  earned  the  sympathies  of  the  people  by 
storm ; — "  his  sarcasm,  sharpened  for  a  hit,  never  misses  its  aim,  but 
strikes  the  victim  right  in  the  face."  His  productions  were  read  by 
"  every  man,  woman,  and  child  in  Scotland,"  and  acquired  such  popu- 
larity as  to  become  school-books  for  generations  after — "  Oot  o'  Davie 
Lindsay  into  Wallace,"  marking  the  progress  of  the  pupil,  as  the  phrase 
"  Te'll  no  find  that  in  Davie  Lindsay,"  indicated  the  confidence  of  the 
people  in  his  wisdom. 

Contemporary  with  Lindsay,  and  working  in  a  similar  vein,  Dundee 
produced  the  Wedderburns.  Their  history,  long  obscure,  has  recently 
been  so  far  elucidated  that,  with  the  reprint  of  their  principal  work, 
"  THE  GUDE  AND  GODLIE  BALLATES,"  l  we  may  estimate  the  service 
they  rendered  to  the  infant  cause  of  the  Reformation.  The  grand- 
father of  these  authors,  James  Wedderburn,  burgess  in  Dundee,  settled 
here  in  the  reign  of  James  III.,  and  had  two  sons,  David  and  James. 

1  The  Wedderburns  and  their  Work,  by  Prof.  Mitchell,  Edinr ,  1867,  and 
Mr  Laing's  preface  to  the  reprint,  Edinr.,  1868.  The  "  Dundee  Psalms,"  as  they 
were  called,  passed  through  many  editions  towards  the  end  of  the  16th  century,  yet 
the  book  had  a  narrow  escape  to  reach  our  times.  One  copy  of  the  edition,  1621, 
was  the  only  remnant  known  to  exist  until  a  few  years  ago.  when  a  copy  of  the 
edition  of  1578  was  found,  and  is  now  in  Mr  Christie  Miller's  library,  at  Britn-ell 
House,  Bucks,  from  which  Mr  Laing's  interesting  reprint  was  taken. 


.'•2  HJJJTOBY  or  DCXUK& 

The  latter  married  Janet  Forrester  of  Neva) ,  and  had  at  leant  two 
— John,  Town  Clerk ;  and  Robert,  who  figure*  in  a  vrry  questionable 
transaction,  as  u^wnr*  from  "  ane  respitt  maid  to  Robert  Wedderburn, 
•one  to  J ante*  Wedderburu,  burxi«w  uf  Dundee,  for  the  alau^lit* -r  »t 

umquhill Malisoun,  and  for  all  actioun  and  cryiue  that  may 

follow  therupoun,  and  for  xix.  win  to  indure,"  Ac.1  Of  the  other 
members  uf  the  family,  the  account  by  Calderwood,  writing  under  the 
year  1540,  is  a*  follows  : — '•  Thin  yeere,  James  Wedderburne,  eldest 
none  to  Jaiuea  Wedderburne,  merchant  at  Dundie,  called  Jamea 
\V.  .1.1.  rJuinif  at  the  West  Kirk  Stile,  was  delated  to  the  king,  and 
uaptioun  directed  to  take  him.  Ha  departed  aecretlie  to 
France,  and  remained  at  Kowan  [Rouen]  and  ueep  [l>i.  I-JM-J  till  he 
deceased.  He  had  beenu  brought  up  in  Sanct  Leonard's  Colledge  in 
In-  y<>uth,  in  the  time  of  the  government  of  Johne,  Duke  of  Albania, 
and  waa  reaaonablie  weill  instructed  in  i>inl<*«ophie  and  human  it  L. 
I'lu-rvafter  he  went  to  France,  where  he  played  the  merchant.  After 
Ida  returne,  he  waa  instructed  in  religioun  by  James  Hewat,  a  Biacke 
trier  at  Dundie.  He  continued  the  doctrine  which  the  other  had 
reeeaved  in  his  youth,  in  St.  Leonard's  Coiled^*.*,  under  Mr  Gawin 
Logie.  This  James  had  a  good  gift  of  poesie,  and  made  diverse  come- 
deis  and  tragedeia  in  the  Sootish  tongue,  wherein  In-  mj.|»-<l  the  abuses 
..IK I  8Uperetitioun  of  the  time,  fib  composed  in  l.>rm«-  «•!  tragedie  the 
beheading  of  Johne  the  Baptist,  which  was  acted  at  the  West  Port  <>f 
Dundie,  wherein  he  carped  roughlie  the  abusses  and  currupti->iins  of 
the  Papists.  He  compiled  the  Historic  of  DionysiuA  the  Tyrant: 
forme  of  a  cornediu,  which  was  acted  in  the  play-neld  of  the  said 
burgh,  wherein  he  likewise  nipped  the  Papists.  He  rounterfooted 
also  the  conjuring  of  a  ghaist,  which  was,  indeed,  practised  by  r'ricr 
Laing,  beside  Kingorne — which  Frier  Laing  had  beene  Confessor  to 
the  King.  But,  after  this  conjuring,  the  king  waa  constrain*!.  :•  r 
shame,  to  remove  him.  When  he  waa  at  Deepe,  the  factors  at  Deepe — 
Johne  Meldrum,  Henrie  Tod,  Johne  Mowat,  Gilbert  Soot,  delated  him 
to  the  Bishop  of  Rowan  ;  but  the  Bishop  refused  to  •ndillii  with  him, 
becaus  they  could  prove  nothing  against  him.  They  informed  the 
Bishop  and  c  ban  nuns  of  Rowan  that  he  waa  declared  an  heretick  in 
SooUand.  The  Bishop  desired  them  to  send  for  the  proceeae,  and  that 
being  tryed,  he  sould  have  no  residence  there.  We  heare  no  farther, 
but  that  he  remained  as  (actor  at  Deepe,  and  deiug,  *aid  tu  liis  soue 

1  Rag.  Sec.  Sigiili.  vol.  xu,  foL  49,  (Uabtiigow,  tiiii  Janowj,  1 W7-8.) 


THE  WEDDEUBURNS.  53 

— '  We  have  beeue  acting  our  part  in  the  tneater  :  you  are  to  succeed, 
see  that  you  act  your  part  faithfullie.' 

"  Mr  John  Wedderburn,  his  brother,  brought  up  also  in  the  course 
of  philosophic,  under  Mr  Gawin  Logic,  being  persuaded  by  his  friends, 
albeit  against  his  will,  he  tooke  on  the  order  of  preesthood,  and  was  a 
preest  in  Dundie.  But  sooue  after  he  beganne  to  profess  the  [reformed] 
religioun.  Being  summoned,  he  departed  to  Almaine  [Germany], 
where  he  heard  Luther  and  Melancton,  and  became  verie  fervent  and 
zealous.  He  translated  many  of  Luther's  dytements  into  Scotch  meeter, 
and  the  Psalmes  of  David.  He  turned  manie  bawdie  songs  and  rymes  ' 
in  godlie  rymes.  He  returned,  after  the  death  of  the  king,  in  Dec. 
1542,  but  was  againe  persued  by  the  Cardinall,  and  fled  to  England. 

"  Mr  Robert  Wedderburne,  the  youngest  brother,  brought  up  also 
under  Mr  Gawin,  excelled  his  brother  both  in  humanitie  and  know- 
ledge of  the  Scriptures.     He  succeeded  to  Mr  Robert  Barrie,  vicar  of 
Dundie.     He  went  to  Parise,  where  he  remained  cheeflie  in  companie 
of  those  that  were  instructed  in  religioun.  .  .  .  After  the  death  of  the 
Cardinall  he  returned  to  Scotland.     The  vicar,  his  mother's  brother, 
being  departed,  he  gott  possessioun  of  the  vicarage,  but  remained  for 
the  most  part  with  the  Laird  of  Calder.     When  he  was  cornming 
home  out  of  the  east  countries,  in  a  Danskein  ship,  the  shippe  was 
driven  by  contrarie  winds  upon  Norway,  where  the  passengers  landed 
at   Ripperwicke,  and  remained  certane  dayes.     In  the  meane   time, 
upon  the   Saturday  before  Whitsonday  even,  1546,  after   continual! 
disputing  and  reasoning  among  the  passengers — some  Popish,  and  some 
Protestants — he,  and  the  rest  of  his  fellows,  tooke  the  boldnesse,  not- 
withstanding they  understood  nothing  of  the  Cardinall's  death,  to 
make  his  pourtraiture  or  statue,  of  a  great  oaken  blocke,  and  thereupon 
write  his  name  in  paper  affixed  thereon.     They  accuse  him,  condemn 
him,  and  burne  his  statue  in  a  great  lire  of  timber.     The  Cardinall  was 
slaine  that  same  verie  day,  in  the  morning,  in  his  owne  Castell  of 
Sanct  Andrewes."1 

Of  the  plays  or  dramatic  pieces  of  James  Wedderburn,  no  trace  has 
been  discovered.  Their  effect  at  the  time  must  have  been  consider- 
able, when  we  reflect  that  printed  books,  then  just  beginning  to  b* 
circulated,  and  coming  mostly  from  England,  were  inaccessible  to  the 
people  at  large  ;  while  plays  in  the  vernacular,  spiced  with  the  humour 
and  satire  of  the  day,  and  produced  with  such  rude  accessories  of  the 

1  Calderwood's  MS,  History  in  Advocate's  Library. 


BIBTOBT  OF  DUWDtt. 

stage  as  won  then  available,  could  not  (ail  to  influence  the  multitude. 

u  these  were  forbidden,  the  songs  and  ballad*  of  the  time  wen 
•eued  M  a  medium  for  upreading  the  new  faith.  "  The  air,  the  mea- 
sure, the  initial  line,  or  the  chorus  of  the  ballads  mo*t  commonly  sung 
by  the  people  at  that  time  were  transferred  to  hymn*  of  devotion. 

iturul,  iii-!--h<-ato,  and  gross  as  this  association  appoan  to  us,  these 
8] >i ritual  songs  edified  multitudes  in  that  age.  We  must  not  think 

this  originated  in  any  peculiar  depravation  of  taste  in  our  reform  - 
ttual  songs,  constructed  upon  the  same  princij.lt , 

common  iu  Italy,  and  the  same  practice  was  adopted  in  Holland 
a*  in  Scot  him  I."1  In  Germany,  Luther  gave  a  mighty  impetus  to  the 
>i<  publication,  in  1524,  of  his  "  Gesangbuch;"  and  then 
is  every  reason  to  believe  that  the  Wedderburns,  in  their  banishment, 
obtained  materials  for  their  compilation  from  continental  sources.  "  It 
id  tjuite  impossible,"  says  Mr  Luin^.  "with  the  scanty  information  we 
possess,  to  assign  tin-  various  Spiritual  Songs  and  Psalms  to  the  respec- 
tive authors  or  translators.  Each  of  the  three  Wedderburns  may  have 
contributed  to  this  Miscellany — 

Tn»  paribus  rtudiia,  tret  pieUt*  pare.. 

It  their  names  are  to  be  associated,  I  would  conjecture  that  the  second 
|Mirtii>n  was  chi«-My  the  work  of  Mr  .lohn,  while  residing  in  Germany  ; 
iin«l  that  tip-  tlnr-1  p  >r;i'>n,  consisting  of  parodies  or  alterations  of 
]Hipular  Songit  or  Ballads,  might  more  properly  be  assigned  to  his 
younger  brother,  the  vicar  of  Dundee.  Judging  from  the  language, 
we  might  have  attributed  the  composition  of  most  of  these  '  Godlie 
Initiates'  to  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century  ;  but,  looking  at  the 
history  of  the  reputed  authors,  the  year  1540  would  require  to  be 
given  as  the  more  precise  date."1  In  concluding  this  notice  of  the 
Wedderburns.  tin-  following  pieces  from  th<>  "(iii'lc  and  Godlie  lial- 
latea"  may  be  quoted  as  specimens  of  their  style : — 

1  ANE  SANO  OF  THE  BIRTH  OF  CHRIST, 
To  be  $**g  witk  Ou  t**e  of  Balmlaiam. 

I  COME  tram  hmvin  to  toll. 
The  bmt  nowrlli*  th»t  ever  bof«U  ; 
To  yow  thir  tjrthingb  trew  1  bring. 
And  1  will  of  them  WT  and  nng. 

«  MTVie^  Work%  v..|   U  j..  326. 

•  Vntmtx,  p.  40.  Mr  Laing  al»i,  with  apparent  reason,  awribw  to  Robert  Wed- 
derburn  the  authonhip  of  a  curivNU  proae  work,  "  Tuc  Cuiup^jut  of  SootlaDd," 
prinUxlat  St  Andraw*  i  .  .,  i<p.  1-  to  44. 


"GUDE  AND  GODLIE  BALL ATES."  55 

This  day  to  yow  is  borne  ane  Chylde, 
Of  Mary,  meik,  and  Virgin,  mylde  ; 
That  blyssit  bairne,  bening  and  kynde — 
Sail  yow  re  Joyce,  baith  hart  and  myndo. 

It  is  the  Lord  Christ,  God  and  man, 
He  will  do  for  yow  what  he  can  ; 
Himself  your  Saviour  will  be, 
Fra  sin  and  hell  to  mak  yow  free. 

He  is  your  richt  salvatioun, 
From  everlasting  dampnatioun. 
That  ye  may  ring  in  gloir  and  blis 
For  ever  mair  in  hevin  with  his. 

Ye  sail  him  find,  but  mark  or  wying, 
Full  sempill  in  ane  cribe  lying  ; 
Sa  lyis  he  quhilk  yow  hes  wrocht, 
And  all  this  warld  maid  of  nocht. 

Let  us  rejoyce  and  be  blyith, 
And  with  the  Hyrdis  go  full  swyith, 
And  se  quhat  God  of  his  grace  hes  done, 
Throw  Christ,  to  bring  us  to  his  throne. 

My  saull  and  lyfe,  stand  up  and  se 

Quha  lyis  in  ane  cribe  of  tre  : 

Quhat  Babe  is  that,  sa  gude  and  fair  ?  .  • 

It  is  Christ,  Goddis  Sone  and  air. 

Welcome  now,  gracious  God  of  micht, 
To  sinners,  vyle,  pure,  and  unricht ; 
Thow  come  to  saif  us  from  distres — 
How  can  we  thank  thy  gentimes  ? 

0  God,  that  maid  all  creature, 
How  art  thow  now  becummin  sa  pure, 
That  on  the  hay  and  stray  will  ly, 
Arnang  the  assis,  oxin,  and  ky  ? 

And  war  the  warld  ten  tymes  sa  wyde, 
Cled  ouir  with  golde  and  stanis  of  pryde, 
Unworthie  it  war  yit  to  the", 
Under  thy  feit  ane  stule  to  be. 

The  silk  and  sandell  the"  to  eis, 
Or  hay,  and  sempill  sweilling  clais, 
Quhairin  throw  gloris  greitest  king, 
As  thow  in  hevin  war  in  thy  ring. 

Thow  tuik  sic  panis,  temporall, 
To  mak  me  riche  perpetual!  ; 
For  all  this  warldis  welth  and  gude 
Can  nathing  riche  thy  Celcitude. 


56  HttTORT  OF  BOTTOM. 

O  my  dair  hart,  young  Jeau  sweh\ 
Prepair  thy  creddil  in  my  sprsH, 
And  I  aall  rook,  the  ia  my  hart, 
And  nerer  mair  fra  Uri  depart. 

Bot  I  aall  praise  tM  erer  moir, 
With  aangia  await  unto  thy  gloir  ; 
The  kneia  of  my  hart  aall  bow, 
And  sing  that  richt  Balulalow. 

Gloir  be  to  God  etarnallia, 
Quhilk  gare  his  only  Sone  for  me  ; 
The  Angellk  joyia  for  to  heir— 
The  gracious  gift  of  this  New  Tear. 

tarn, 


OAT  weill  U  throuchlie  a  worthy  thing  ; 
O    Of  Say  weill,  greit  rertew  furth  dob  spring ; 
flay  weill,  from  Do  weill,  difieria  in  Utter ; 
Say  weill  U  giide,  but  Do  weill  ia  better. 

Say  weill  U  repute  be  man  cum  deal*  ; 
Bot  do  weill  onlie  to  God  dot  appeaie  : 
Say  weill  aayia  godUe,  and  doU  mony  pleaee ; 
Bot  do  weill  levis  godlie,  and  doea  thu  warid  eaee. 

Say  weill,  mony  unto  Ooddia  word  cleric  ; 
Bot  for  laik  of  do  weill,  it  quicklie  levia  ; 
Bot  gif  aay  weill  &  do  weill  war  joynit  in  a  fnune, 
All  war  done,  all  war  won,  gottin  war  the  game. 

Say  weill  in  danger  of  deith  ia  cauld, 
Do  weill  U  harneet,  and  wondroua  bauld  ; 
Than  aay  weill  for  feir  nail  trimbill  and  quaik  ; 
Do  weill  aall  be  jocund,  and  joly  cheir  mak. 

Say  weill  ia  slipper,  and  makia  mony  wylia  ; 
Do  weOl  ia  eemely,  without  oay  gyba  ; 
Quhen  aay  weill  at  aum  tymei  ealbe  brocht  base, 
Do  weill  aall  tryumphe  in  eyerie  place. 

Say  weill  to  silence  aum  tyme  ia  bound  ; 
Do  weill  ia  fre  in  crane  atound  ; 
Say  weill  hea  freindia  baith  heir  and  thair  ; 
Bot  do  weill  ia  weloum  ererie  quhair. 

Say  weill  mony  thingis  in  hand  doia  tak, 

Ifc  weill  ane  end  of  them  doia  mak  : 

Qiihan  aay  weill  with  mony  ia  quyte  down*  caat, 

Du  weill  k  truaita,  and  will  atand  faai. 


FOREIfJX  INTERVENTION.  57 

Say  weill  him  self  will  sum  tyme  avance  ; 
Bot  do  weill  dois  nouther  jet  nor  paunce  ; 
Bot  do  weill  dois  profite  this  warld  moir 
Than  say  weill  and  his  ane  hundreth  scoir. 

Say  weill  in  wordis  is  wondrous  trick  ; 
Bot  do  weill  in  dedis  is  nymbill  and  quick  : 
Lord,  quick  and  trick  togidder  knit, 
And  sa  sail  thay  pype  ane  mirrie  fit. 

Say  weill,  mony  will  they  be  sa  kynde  ; 
Bot  Do  weill,  few  will  unto  thair  freind  : 
May  Say  weill,  than  do  weill,  I  tell  yow  in  deid, 
Bot  Do  weill  is  mair  honest  in  tyine  of  ueid. 

Say  weill  and  Do  weill  ar  thingis  twane, 
Thryse  happy  is  he  in  quhome  thay  remane. 
FINIS. 


gtttiovt 


ENGLISH  EXPEDITION — TAKE  BHOUGHTT  CASTLE  AND  OCCUPY  DUNDEE — BOTH  RETAKEN 
— PROGRESS  OF  THE  REFORMATION — PAUL  METHVEN — PROTECTED  BY  PROVOST  HALY- 
BURTON,  WHO  JOINS  THE  LORDS  OF  THE  CONGREGATION  AGAINST  THE  QUEEN-REGENT 
— THEY  TAKE  PERTH,  DESTROY  SCONE,  AND  BESIEGE  LEITH — VISIT  OF  KNOX — THE 
REFORMATION  ESTABLISHED  BY  LAW. 

AFTER  the  death  of  Beaton,  the  castle  of  St  Andrews  was  garrisoned 
by  Norman  Leslie  and  his  associates,  under  whose  steel  the  Cardinal 
fell.  This  circumstance  brought  a  French  armament  to  that  part  of 
the  country,  to  which  the  garrison  at  length  surrendered,  and  was  con- 
veyed to  France.  In  the  meantime,  Henry  VIII.,  for  the  reasons 
already  referred  to,  invaded  Scotland ;  and  in  the  course  of  this  inva- 
sion, Leith,  Edinburgh,  and  other  places  severely  suffered.1  Shortly 
after,  upon  ,the  death  of  Henry,  and  during  the  ascendancy  of  the 
French  party  in  Scotland,  the  Duke  of  Somerset,  at  the  head  of  a 
powerful  army,  accompanied  by  a  well-appointed  fleet,  again  invaded 
the  country,  and  penetrated  to  the  neighbourhood  of  Edinburgh, 

1  No  fewer  than  eight  monasteries,  including  Melrose,  Kelso,  Dryburgh,  &c., 
besides  other  religious  houses  and  many  churches,  were  on  this  occasion  given  to 
the  flames  by  the  English,  although  their  destruction  has  long  been  erroneously 
associated  with  the  name  of  Kuoz  and  the  reformers.— ED. 


68  BMTORT  OP  DUICDEI. 


he  encountered  the  Scottish  forces.  At  the  first  onset,  the 
English  cavalry  were  broken  and  dispersed  ;  but  the  Scot*,  disadvitn- 
tageously  ported,  and  severely  galled  by  the  English  shipping,  wore 
totally  routed.  This  fatal  battle  of  Pinkie  was  fought  on  the  l.v.h 
September,  1547. 

tory  so  complete  and  unexpected  as  this  elated  tl 
army  to  such  a  degree  that  its  commander  immediately  dispatch*  I 
Andrew  Dudley,  one  of  his  officers,  with  a  strong  detachment  <>f  hi* 
array,  northwards  to  Dundee,  in  order  to  secure  it  and  the  adjacent 
country.1  Dudley,  at  the  head  of  his  detachment,  through  the  treach- 
ery of  Lord  Gray,  then  in  command,  got  possession  of  Brought  v 
Castle,  which,  from  its  situation,  was*  well  fitted  to  interrupt,  if  not 
to  command,  the  passage  into  the  River  Tay,  and  prepared  to  cany 
his  instructions  into  effect  This  event  occurred  near  the  end  <>f 
September  ;  and  an  act  of  Secret  Council,  dated  1  1th  October  the 
same  year,  states  that  "our  auld  ynemeis  of  Inglaud  hes,  be  wa 
d<-id,  taken  the  Craig  and  place  of  Brouchty,  and  raraforaat  them." 
Tin-  garrison  proceeded  to  plunder  the  surrounding  country  with  im- 
punity ;  but  this  state  of  matters  did  not  long  continue.  The  Earl  of 
A  i  ran,  Regent  of  the  Kingdom,  having  assembled  a  considerable  mili- 
tary and  naval  force,  attempted  to  dislodge  the  garrison  ;  but  all  his 
endeavours  were  completely  baffled,  and  he  was  compelled  to  raise  the 
siege.  Meantime,  as  the  English  were  threatening  an  assault  on  I  >un- 
de«,  the  Lords  of  Secret  Council  ordered  three  hundn-d  infantry  to  be 
raised,  and  to  be  equipped  at  the  expense  of  the  8U]>en<>r  <  Im-gy  and 
tin-  inhabitants  of  the  town—  whirh  expense  amounted  to  £12<><i  ;  and. 
in  addition,  levied  a  hundred  horsemen  in  the  »hires  of  Perth.  Angus, 
and  M  earns.  By  the  same  order  of  Council,  a  hundred  inon  were 
raised  in  the  town  to  attend  the  Laird  of  Dun;  and  these,  with  the 
citizens  in  general,  were  to  keep  ward  and  watch  against  the  English. 
A  division  of  these  levies  was  put  under  the  orders  of  the  Provost, 
.1  ....  II  dylmrl  :..  Hi  :•  .:'•  A  Ul  ft)M»  to  thf  fa  I  .  . 

Captain  Learmont,  for  the  protection  of  the  town  ;  but  the  Provost, 
whose  father's  services  against  the  French  we  have  already  noticed, 
effjne  also  to  have  favoured  the  English  alliance.* 

T  A  fleet,  under  Admiral  Wyndham,  entered  toe  Tay,  to  co-operate  with  the 
troop*.—  ED. 

*  See  Tjrtler,  ri  ,  p.  43  :—  "  They  offered  to  hold  Dundee  against  all  the  dforta 
of  the  Governor,  and  in  return  requested  MUM  good  preacher  to  be  aeot  them. 


SIEGE  OF  RROUGHTY  CASTLE.  59 

By  this  time  the  Earl  of  Argyle,  with  a  considerable  body  of  High- 
landers, had  renewed  the  siege  of  Broughty  Castle,  which  was  carried 
on  with  some  vigour ;  but,  at  length,  being  unable  to  make  any  im- 
pression on  the  fortress  or  its  defenders,  he  concluded  a  truce  with  the 
Governor.1  Before  the  expiration  of  this  truce,  the  garrison  received 
such  succours  as  obliged  Argyle  to  relinquish  his  position  and  retire  ; 
induced,  besides,  by  the  conduct  of  his  troops,  who  had  broken  up 
and  returned  home,  having  lain  before  the  Castle  so  long  as  they  were 
bound  to  serve.  Finding  all  obstacles  now  removed,  the  garrison, 
according  to  a  French  writer  of  that  time,2  took  possession  of  the 
adjoining  hill  of  Balgillo.  On  this  hill,  says  our  author,  they  built  a 
very  fine  fortress,  and  spared  neither  expense  nor  labour  to  make  it 
admirable,  and  to  furnish  it  with  men  and  ammunition.3  Assured,  by 
the  erection  of  this  fort,  that  they  had  opened  to  themselves  an  easy 
and  secure  entrance  into  the  very  centre  of  Scotland,  they  despatched 
from  both  strongholds  between  sixteen  and  seventeen  hundred  lancers, 
foot  and  horse,  to  Dundee,  which  they  entered  without  opposition ; 
for,  though  this  town,  to  use  the  words  of  our  author,  "  is  one  of  the 
most  beautiful,  rich,  and  populous  in  the  kingdom,  and  though  it  were 
easy  to  make  it  impregnable,  yet  the  Scots  have  ever  been  careless  to 
fortify  their  country  :  Those  in  Dundee  had  no  other  defence  than  the 
walls  of  their  private  houses."  M.  d'Esse,  who  had  been  some  time 
in  Scotland  previous  to  this,4  at  the  head  of  six  thousand  French  and 
German  auxiliaries,  learning  the  situation  of  the  town,  sent  forward 
Count  Ehinegrave,  with  two  companies  of  German,  and  M.  des  Etauges, 
with  one  of  French  soldiers,  and  prepared  to  follow  with  the  remainder 
of  his  forces. 

This  expedition  was  not  so  secretly  arranged  but  that  the  English 
got  information  of  it,  and  prepared  to  retreat  to  Broughty  and  to  their 

with  a  supply  of  English  Bibles  and  other  godly  books.    MS.  letter,  State -paper 
Office,  Nov.  1,  1547."— ED. 

1  The  true  reason  appears  to  have  been  "  a  seasonable  bribe  of  one  thousand 
crowns,"  paid-to  Argyle  through  Lord  Gray,  whose  receipt  has  been  found  in  the 
State-paper  Office,  5th  Feb.,  1548. — ED. 

2  M.  de  Beaugue,  an  officer  who  served  in  the  auxiliary  force  sent  from  France 
to  assist  the  Queen-Regent.     This  gentleman  published,  at  Paris,  in  1556,  an 
account  of  the  operations  at  Broughty  and  elsewhere,  which  was  translated  and 
published  at  Edinburgh  about  the  beginning  of  last  century,  by  Dr  Patrick  Aber- 
cromby,  author  of  the  Martial  Achievements  of  the  Scots  Nation. 

3  This  fort  was  only  finally  demolished  since  1816. 

*  He  landed  at  Leith  with  his  troops  on  the  16th  June,  1548. 


i  BISTORT  OF  DCXDE& 

fort  at  Dalgillo.     Having  occupied  Dande**  eight  day*,  and  d 
that  time  having  t»-gun,  and  actively  carried  on,  the  erection  of  fortih- 
eatkras,  they,  at  the  approach  of  d'Esse,  demolished  their  work*,  rill,  d 
the  town,  set  it  on  fire,  and  retired  mfrly  without  the  lorn  of  a  single 
man.     Tlio  French,  when  they  entered,  found  no  opposition,     Itw<>ul<l 
•earn  that  the  great  body  of  the  inhabitant*  had  also  evacuatM  the 
place,  as  the  only  persona  the  invadera  found  were  a  few  men 
a   number  of  women,  employed   in  attempting  to  extinguish    the 


Establishing  his  head-quarters  at  Dundee,  M.  d'Ease  made  several 
ineffectual  attempts  to  reduce  Droughty  ;  but,  th<>ugh  nnsHOCHsaful  at 
that  IK 'int.  he  was  elsewhere  more  fortunate.  Ordering  the  town  to 
be  fortified,1  and  placing  in  it  a  garrison,  consisting  of  seven  companies 
of  French  and  two  of  Scots,  and  providing  them  with  every  necessary 
for  a  siege,  he  appointed  M.  d'Estauges,  one  of  his  officers,  Govern*  >r ; 
at  the  same  time  he  sent  the  remainder  of  his  troops  into  winter  quar- 
ters at  various  places,  and  repaired  himself  to  Edinburgh.  Not  long 
after  liis  departure,  d'Estauges,  with  a  reconnoitring  ]>arty.  venturing 
too  near  KiL'ill".  n  >kinni-h  took  place*  wr  f  the  garrison,  who 

had  sallied  <>ut  with  u  design  to  cut  him  off,  which  they  effected,  took 
him  prisoner,  and  thereby  greatly  damped  the  impetuous  ardour  of  the 
French. 

After  thU,  the  garrisons  of  Brought}-  and  Balgillo  became  more 
formidable,  and  cxt«-ndi-d  t heir ravages,  which  IM-J.-H-  had  been  confined 
to  the  country  around  thnn,  across  the  Tay  into  Fife  ;  where,  in  a 
night  attack,  on  2"nh  I  >••« ..  I">t7.  they  burnt  the  Abbey  of  Balmcr 
At  length,  the  Frviu  h  C..urt,  indignant  witli  the  dilatory  proceedings 
•  >!  d'Ks>. .  d«->j>at<  h-  d  aiiutln-r  ullio-r.  M.  I'.ml  d«-  Tliermes,  to  supersede 
him.  The  new  conunandrr  in-chief,  «upjN.n«-d  l>y  the  citizens  of  Dun- 
dee, and  the  iiri-hlH.uriiig  gentlemen  with  their  followers,  invested 
tin-  two  fort*,  ami  pressed  their  advances  with  so  much  energy  that 
garrisons,  neglected  l>y  their  countrymen,  and  falling  short  of  pro- 
-ns  and  stores,  were  constrained  to  surrender  on  the  20th  Feb., 
1550,  after  having  occupied  Brought}-  from  about  tin-  end  i.f  S 
1547,  and  Balgillo  from  its  erection  in  the  succeeding  year ;  but  their 
French  successors  only  remained  in  them  two  months. 

buMt  DO  greater  antiquity  Uun  the  y«mr  1548.     Their 
to  Eng&h,  and  tkdr  oompUtia.  to  Fimek 


PAUL  METHVEN.  Gl   . 

Notwithstanding  these  convulsions,  which  continually  disturbed  the 
public  tranquillity  of  the  kingdom,  the  Eeformation  continued  to  make 
steady  progress.     The  death  of  Wishart  neither  checked  its  growth  nor 
depressed  the  spirits  of  its  supporters  ;  and  now,  fourteen  years  after  that 
event,  the  cruel  martyrdom  of  Walter  Mill,  a  man  upwards  of  eighty, 
and  of  the  most  blameless  life,  sent  a  thrill  of  horror  and  indignation 
through  the  realm.     The  people  of  Dundee  were  now  enjoying  the 
ministrations  of  Paul  Methven,  a  native  of  the  town,  among  the  first 
and  most  intrepid  heralds  of  the  Reformation,  whom,  of  course,  the 
priesthood  attempted  to  silence  and  destroy.     [Methven  was  originally 
a  baker,  and,  though  destitute   of  education,  his  natural  eloquence, 
described  as  extraordinary,  combined  with  intimate  knowledge  of  the 
Scriptures,  and  great  courage  and  energy,  made  him  a  conspicuous  pro- 
pagator of  the  new  faith.     He  began  his  public  teaching  about  1555-7, 
and  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  the  first  reformed  church  in  Scot- 
land, formed  in  Dundee  in  1558,  was  under  his  auspices.1     He  was 
twice  summoned  before  the  queen-regent  and  bishops ;  and,  failing 
to  appear,  was  banished  in  November  of  that  year,  and  the  severest 
penalties  denounced  on  such  as  should  give  him  aid  or  comfort.     His 
fellow-townsmen,  disregarding  these  menaces,  still  attended  his  preach- 
ing, and  sheltered  him  in  their  houses.    An  order  for  his  apprehension 
was  transmitted  to  Provost  Halyburton,  who  declined  to  apprehend 
the  preacher,  being  himself  favourable  to  the  reformed  doctrine.     A 
decisive  step  was  now  taken  :  Methven   and  three  others  were  sum- 
moned to  stand  their  trial  before  the  Justiciary  Court  at  Stirling,  on 
the  10th  May,  1559,  for  "  usurping  the  ministerial  office,  for  adminis- 
tering the  Sacrament  in  a  manner  different  from  that  of  the  Catholic 
Church,  during  three  several  days  of  the  late  feast  of  Easter,  in  the 
burghs  and  boundaries  of  Dundee,  Montrose,  and  other  places ;  and 
for  convening  the  subjects,  preaching  to  them,  seducing  them  to  their 
erroneous  doctrines,  and  exciting  seditions  and  tumults."     Resolving 
to  make   their  appearance,  sureties  were  given  for  the  preachers — 
George  Lovell,  burgess  of  Dundee,  being  the  surety  for  Methven.2 

Another  actor  now  appeared  on  the  scene.  On  the  2d  May,  John 
Knox  returned  to  Edinburgh  from  the  Continent,  and  in  a  letter, 
dated  the  day  after,  he  thus  writes  : — "  I  am  come,  I  praise  my  God, 
even  in  the  brunt  of  the  battle.  For  my  fellow-preachers  have  a  day 
appointed  to  answer  before  the  queen-regent,  when  I  intend  (if  God 

1  Fasti  Eccles.  Scot.,  part  vi,  o.  683.      »  Justiciary  Records,  May  10.   1559. 


6S  IflHTOBY  OF  DUKDA 

impede  not)  aim  to  be  present,  by  life,  by  death,  or  eke  by  both,  to 
glorify  Hi*  godly  name."    Resting  but  a  single  day  in  Edinburgh,  he 
hurried  to  Dundee,  where  he  found  the  leading  Protestant*  assembled 
ready  to  accompany  their  ministers  to  Stirling ;  whither  Knox  also 
resolved  to  proceed,  although  the  panic-stricken  clergy  had  proclaimed 
him  an  outlaw  and  a  rebel1     On  reaching  Perth,  the  Protestants 
judged  it  prudent  to  send  forward  Enkine  of  Dun  to  acquaint  the 
authoritit-H  at  Stirling  with  the  peaceable  object  and  manner  of  t 
o -iiiing.     The    Regent  persuaded  Enkine  to  write  and  dissuade  his 
party  from  proceeding,  on  the  solemn  assurance  that  the  trial  would 
be  departed  from ;  on  which  the  Protestants  relied,  many  dispersing 
to  their  homes.     On  the  day  named  for  the  trial,  the  queen  basely 
ordered  the  summons  to  be  called — the  preachers  were  outlawed  for 
non-appearance,  put  to  the  horn  as  fugitives  from  justice,  and  th<-ir 
sureties  fined — £2000  falling  upon  Dundee  in  respect  of  Methven. 
Escaping  from  Stirling,  Enkine  carried  to  Perth  the  intelligence  of 
this  disgraceful  transaction,  which,  it  may  well  be  supposed,  incensed  the 
Protestants  in  th<-  hi-h.-st  degree.     Knox,  happening  on  the  same  day 
to  preach  against  the  idolatry  of  the  mass  ami  image-worship,  an  alter- 
n  ensued  between  a  priest  and  some  idle  persons  remaining  in  the 
church,  which  ended  in  the  images  and  ornaments  being  torn  down  ; 
and,  swelling  into  a  mob,  the  town  was  soon  in  a  tumult,  before  which 
tli--  religious  houses  were  stript  and  demolished.     Magnifying  this 
unpremeditated    riot  into  a  rebellion,  the  queen-regent  collected  an 
army,  and  advanced  on  Perth  to  lay  waste  the  town  with  fire  and 
swonl ;  but  the  Protestants  of  the  north,  after  disclaiming  all  sym- 
pathy with  violence  and  disorder,  asked  only  tin-  ]>eaceable  exercise  of 
their  liberties,  and  took  such  prompt  action  to  defend  these  that  the 
regent  found  it  expedient  to  offer  terms,  which  wen  readily  accepted. 
By  the  exertion*  of  Knox,  the  leaden  of  the  Protestant  party  sub- 
scribed the  first  Covenant,  binding  themselves  to  united  action  in  the 
event  of  the  Regent  again  breaking  faith- with  them,  which  she  speedily 
i lid  on  obtaining  possession  of  Perth,  and  finding  the  forces  oppoeed- 
to  IHT  diabaaded* 

Tli-'  Lords  of  the  Congregation,  finding  all  remonstrances  unarail- 

.  and  knowing  that  she  had  formed  a  systematic  j»lan  f»r  supprea- 

niKitiuii  with  th"  utmost  rigour,  appointed  a  meeting  at 

Andrews,  whither  Knox  nl«o  r»  .ml  boldly  preached  for 

•  Mfrie .  Liu-,  |..  120. 


DUPLICITY  OF  THE  QUEEN-REGENT.  63 

four  days  successively,  although  the  regent  was  marching  an  army  to 
invest  the  town.1     In  this  critical  juncture  the  Protestants  of  Angus 
.came  to  the  rescue,  with  a  contingent  of  nearly  a  thousand  men,  under 
the  gallant  Provost  Haly burton  of  Dundee,  and  joined  the  Lords  of  the 
Congregation  in  a  strong  position  they  had  taken  up  on  Cupar  Muir.] 
When  information  of  their  strength  and  well-chosen  position  was  com- 
municated to  the  queen,  she  was  afraid  to  hazard   an  engagement, 
although  her  army  was  nearly  equal  in  numbers,  and  was  principally 
formed  of  French  soldiers  inured  to  war,  while  her  opponents  were 
little  else  than  a  body  of  trades-people,  who  had  left  their  peaceable 
occupations  for  the  dangers  of  battle  ;  but  there  were  important  differ- 
ences between  the  two  armies — the  former  consisted  of  mercenaries 
in  a  bad  cause,  the  other  was  marshalled  in  defence  of  all  that  they 
counted  dear  and  valuable.     Under  these  circumstances,  the  regent 
proposed  a  truce  for  eight  days,  and  that  commissioners  should  be 
appointed,   and   meet,  to  redress   grievances  and  effect  a  reconcilia- 
tion.    The  truce  was  agreed  to,  but  no  commissioners  were  ever  sent, 
or  even  appointed  on  her  part ;  and  this,  along  with  the  general  tenor 
of  her  faithless  conduct,  and  total  disregard  of  the  most  solemn  engage- 
ments, so  provoked  and  alarmed  the  Reformers  that  they  resolved  to 
push  matters  to  the  utmost  extremity,  and  to  retain  their  arms,  which 
the  duplicity  and  cruelty  of  their  enemies  had  compelled  them  to  take 
up  in  self-defence,  until  all  their  grievances  of  every  kind  should  be 
redressed.     Learning  that  the  regent  was  proceeding  to  fortify  the 
passage  of  the  Forth,  so  as  to  cut  them  off  from  their  friends  in  the 
south,  they  first  proceeded  to  Perth,  where  John  Charteris  of  Kinfauns, 
a  creature  of  the  regent,  at  the  head  of  the  Popish  faction  in  that 
town,  had  deprived  Lord  Ruthven,  provost,  of  his  authority ;  and  to 
show  his  devotion  to  the  regent,  and  firm  attachment  to  the  ancient 
system,  vexed  and  harassed  the  inhabitants  in  the  most  oppressive 
and  insupportable  manner.     Investing  Perth,  the  Reformers,  and  in 
particular  the  contingent  from  Dundee,  pressed  the  siege  with  much 

1  Kiiox  appeared  to  have  made  some  trusty  friends  in  Dundee  ;  for,  in  a  letter 
dated  at  St  Andrews,  23d  June,  1559,  he  thus  writes  :  "  If  any  remain  at  Geneva, 
let  either  this  same  or  the  double  of  it  be  sent  unto  them,  and  likeways  unto  my 
dear  brother,  Mr  Goodman,  whose  presence  I  more  thirst  for  than  she  that  is  my 
own  flesh.  Will  him  therefor,  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  Jesus  (all  delay  and  excus 
set  apart),  to  visit  me  ;  for  the  necessity  is  great  here.  If  he  come  be  sea,  let  him 
be  addressed  unto  Dundie,  and  let  him  ask  for  George  Levell,  for  George  Rollock, 
or  Wm.  Carmichael." — Calderwood  MS.  quoted  in  M'Crie's  Knox,  Appendix, 
p.  425. 


64  u;   f'  'iir  «r  MM.,  K. 

rigour.  They  bombarded  the  town  with  their  artillery  from  the  bridge, 
while  Lonl  Ituthven  attacked  it  on  the  west.  All  the  resistance  that 
Charteris  and  hia  party  could  give  was  unavailing,  and  in  a  abort  time 
he  was  compelled  to  sunvmliT.  Thin  occurred  on  the  U»;th  of  June, 
1559.  Lord  Kuthven,  the  popular  provoat,  wan  reinstated  in  hia 
authority  as  civic  magistrate,  and  the  current  of  event*  began  to  flow 
more  amoothly.  The  citizen*  of  Dundee,  justly  proud  of  an  achieve- 
ment to  which  they  had  mainly  contributed,  proceeded  next  day  to 
Scone,  about  two  miles  distant,  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Tay,  when 
one  of  their  number  having  been  run  through  the  body  with  a  sword 
by  a  son  of  the  Bishop  of  Moray,  contrary  to  express  stipulations 
against  violence,  they  were  so  enraged  with  this  new  breach  of  faith, 
that  they  set  fire  both  to  the  palace  and  the  abbey,  which,  in  a  short 
time,  were  reduced  to  ashes,  notwithstanding  all  the  endeavours  of 
th.-ir  leaders,  among  whom  was  John  Knox,  to  save  these  ancient 
buildings.1 

In  the  midst  of  these  events  the  queen-regent  had  strengthened  the 
fortifications  of  Leith,  and  placed  in  them  a  body  of  her  French  auxi- 
liaries, greatly  to  the  annoyance  of  the  inhabitants,  both  of  that  town 
and  of  the  capital ;  but  the  Lords  of  the  Congregation,  flushed  with 
the  success  that  att.-n.l.-.l  their  arms  at  Perth  and  Stirling,  determined 
that  her  career  should  meet  an  effectual  check.  In  pursuance  of  this 
resolution,  their  troops  advanced  and  occupied  Edinburgh,  on  the 
29th  June,  and  Provost  Haly burton,  with  the  citizens  of  Dundee 
and  a  considerable  number  of  volunteers,  crossed  the  Firth  to  join 
them.  Having  resolved  to  attack  Leith,  artillery  was  place*!  at  vari- 
ous commanding  points.  Several  skirmishes  took  place,  in  one  of  which 
the  French,  learning  that  the  Scots  had  few  cavalry,  sallied  out 
with  the  intention  of  cutting  off  the  assailants,  assuring  themselves  of 
an  easy  victor}-.  The  citizens  of  Dundee  for  some  time  fought  with 
their  wonted  bravery ;  but  the  volunteers  who  accompanied  them 
Diving  way,  they  were  overpowered  by  numbers,  and  obliged  to  retreat. 
The  retreat  was  hardly  begun,  when  a  voice  from  the  rear  cried  out 
that  the  Kivnch  had  made  for  Edinburgh,  to  secure  and  shut  the  gates 
against  them.  The  consternation  occasioned  by  this  unwelcome  excla- 
mation was  extreme.  Every  one  hurried  in  the  utmost  confusion  from 

*  "  It  may  emfely  be  wid  that,  if  the  Queen-Regent  had  kept  her  prnmieM,  and 
bad  not  attempted  to  our}-  her  |->int  hy  Krench  money  and  French  troop*,  the 
Reformation  in  s  •  .  u«? «  character  different  from  what  it  i 

Oly  took."-  BurU.u  •  llwt.,  iv,  p.  74. 


DEATH  OF  HALYBURTON 1560.  65 

the  impending  danger ;  but  their  terror  at  length  subsiding,  they  rallied, 
turned  upon  their  pursuers,  cut  many  of  them  in  pieces,  took  the 
remainder  prisoners,  and  carried  them  off  in  triumph. 

[In  this  encounter  the  gallant  Provost  Halyburton  was  slain,  in  the 
marsh  between  Kestalrig  and  Holyrood  Park.1  The  siege  being 
protracted  by  the  arrival  of  reinforcements  from  France,  while  the 
Castle  of  Edinburgh,  to  which  the  regent  had  retired,  was  held  by 
her  supporters — the  Lords  of  the  Congregation  retired  westward, 
taking  Knox  with  them,  pending  the  arrival  of  aid  from  Queen  Eliza- 
beth. The  reformer,  however,  was  not  idle  :  he  visited  all  the  chief 
towns,  preaching  and  organising  congregations — among  other  places, 
at  Perth,  Brechin,  Montrose,  and  Dundee.  Although  Paul  Methven 
was  at  this  time  in  Dundee,2  it  appears  that  William  Christison  was 
the  recognised  minister.  He  was  formally  confirmed  in  the  charge  on 
19th  July,  in  the  following  year,  attended  the  first  General  Assembly 
in  December,  and  no  fewer  than  thirty-eight  afterwards,  being  also 
elected  Moderator  in  July  1569.3  The  lay  members  from  Dundee  in 
the  first  Assembly  were  Bailies  "George  Lovell,  and  William  Car- 
michael.] 

During  the  siege  of  Leith,  death  put  a  period  to  the  inglorious 
career  of  the  queen-regent  [10th  June,  1560] ;  and,  both  parties  being 
weary  of  war,  a  peace  was  concluded,  by  which  the  downfall  of  Popery, 
for  which  so  much  blood  had  been  shed,  was  completely  secured. 
The  concessions  granted  to  the  reformers,  or  rather  the  rights  which 
they  had  conquered,  and  the  extreme  willingness  of  the  people  to 
return  to  their  allegiance,  gave  the  fullest  assurance  of  the  continuance 
of  public  tranquillity.  This  prospect  seemed  to  be  strengthened  by 
the  arrival,  in  August  1561,  of  the  young  queen,  Mary,  widow  of 

1  In  1813,  while  making  some  alterations  in  St  Giles'  Church  Edinburgh,  for  a 
police  office  ( !),  several  monumental  slabs  were  lifted,  one  of  which  bore  the  name 
of  JAMES  HALYBURTON,  which  doubtless  marked  the  resting-place  of  the  brave 
provost  of  Dundee. — Scots  Magazine,  Aug.  1813. 

2  He  removed  to  Jedburgh  in  1560,  where  he  committed  an  act  of  conjugal 
infidelity,  for  which  he  was  tried  by  the  Church  courts,  suspended  for  two  years 
from  the  ministry,  and  ordained  to  do  penance  on  the  "  publick  spectakill"  in  the 
churches  of  Jedburgh,  Edinburgh,  and  Dundee.     Great  as  the  services  of  Methven 
had  been,  the  inflexible  rectitude  of  Knox  would  not  abate  one  jot  of  the  punish- 
ment for  this  one  false  step,  and  the  unhappy  preacher,  after  going  through  the 
ordeal  in  Jedburgh,  broke  down    in  Edinburgh,  and  left  the  country. — Booke  of 
the  Kirke,  I.,  p.  31. 

8  Fasti  Eccles.  Scot.,  vi..  t>.  684. 
£ 


BlftTORT  or  r 

Francis  II.  of  Franc* — at  the  negotiation  of  whose  marriage  Prornut 
llalyburton  assisted,  M  one  of  the  Commissioner*  appointed  )> 
Kfitates  of  Scotland,  to  arrange  matters  with  the  French  Governor  nt. 
The  aocomplUhment  of  peace,  an  event  long  earnestly  wiahed  for,  >>ut 
unneoeaaarily  delayed  by  the  duplicity  and  treachery  of  the  queen- 
regent,  was  attended  with  the  welcome  solemnity  of  a  general  national 
thanksgiving.  Soon  after  ita  celebration,  reformed  clergymen  were 
appointed  in  ;  -al  towns  in  the  kingdom  to  occupy  the  churches 

rendered  vacant  by  the  legal  dissolution  of  the  ancient  Establishn 
and  the  people  at  large  rejoiced  to  find  the  new  doctrines,  for  which 
they  and  their  fathers  had  so  often  contended,  and  shed  their  blood 
<>ii  the  battle-field,  and  which  had  been  sanctioned  by  the  general  con- 
sent of  the  nation,  now  established  by  the  authority  of  the  law. 

[Queen  Mary  landed  in  Scotland  on  the  19th  August,  1561,  and  in 
December  of  that  year  she  appears  to  have  paid  a  visit  to  Dundee, 
and  again  in  November  of  the  year  following,  on  her  return  from  the 
expedition  to  Aberdeen  against  Huntly.  In  September,  1565,  a  few 
weeks  after  her  marriage  with  Darnley,  she  made  a  progress  through 
Fife,  wasting  the  lands  of  Kirkaldy  of  Grange,  who,  with  the  queen's 
br«t  tier  and  many  of  the  nobility,  had  opposed  this*  alliance.  Ad  vane- 
ing  by  St  Andrews  to  Dundee,  the  queen  imposed  heavy  fines  on  these 
towns  for  the  sympathy  and  support  they  had  acconl*-.!  t»  the  Lords 
of  the  Congregation.1  Dundee  was  mulcted  in  2000  merks,  and  Pro- 
vost Haly burton  was  proclaimed  a  rebel,  and  put  to  the  horn,  having 
made  himself  obnoxious  to  the  queen's  party,  by  his  steady  support  of 
the  Protestant  cause,  as  commissioner  to  the  General  Assembly  and 
otherwise.  The  next  two  years  of  Mary's  troubled  reign  were  marked 
by  the  murder  of  her  Italian  favourite,  Ritzio,  and  her  husband  Darn- 
ley,  in  which  latter  deed  modern  historians  have  too  clearly  traced  the 
complicity  of  the  misguided  queen.  The  mock  trial,  which  was  tardily 
granted  to  allay  the  popular  indignation  at  this  crime,  was  followed 
next  day  by  a  parliament,  at  which  Rothwell,  now  the  mainstay  of  the 
queen,  set  about  clearing  his  way  to  the  place  of  the  husband,  whose 
murder  he  had  so  lately  compassed.  His  policy  was  to  conciliate  all 
parties  in  the  State,  and  this  parliament  proceeded  to  dispense  gifts 
and  concessions  on  a  great  scale.  Among  other  things  it  sought  to 

'  Tytler,  viL,  p.  7  ;  Burton,  iv,  p.  284.  -This  riait  has  been  erroneously  nfo- 
red  to  as  the  occasion  when  Mary  gifted  crown  property  for  hocpiul  purposes  ; 
but  tWt  Juuter,  M  ita  date  showa,  was  not  granted  until  » w.,  year*  afterwards. 


QUKKX  MART'S  CHARTER.  67 

propitiate  the  reformed  party  by  an  Act  in  favour  of  religious  peace 
and  toleration,  giving  the  leaders  substantial  gifts  of  estates.  Dundee 
came  in  for  a  share  of  the  largess ;  for,  on  the  second  day  of  the  parlia- 
ment, the  15th  April,  1567,  by  charter  under  the  Great  Seal,  Queen 
Mary,  "  in  consideration  of  the  duty  incumbent  on  the  sovereign  to 
provide  for  the  ministers  of  God's  word,  and  that  hospitals  should  be 
preserved  within  the  burgh  of  Dundee  for  poor,  mutilated,  and  miser- 
able persons  and  orphans,"  granted  to  the  magistrates — (1,)  All  lands, 
houses,  and  revenues  which  belonged  to  any  chaplainries,  altarages,  or 
prebends,  in  any  church,  chapel,  or  college,  within  the  liberty  of  the 
burgh;  (2,)  The  possessions  and  revenues  which  belonged  to  the  Domini- 
cans or  Friars  preachers,  the  Franciscans,  and  the  Nuns  called  the  Gray 
Sisters  of  the  burgh  ;  (3,)  All  lands  and  houses  given  for  endowment  of 
altarages  or  chaplainries,  wherever  situated  ;  and,  (4,)  All  duties  pay- 
able by  the  magistrates  to  any  church  outwith  the  burgh,  for  church 
services.  These  several  subjects  were  xiuited  into  one,  to  be  called  in 
future,  "  The  Queen's  Foundation  of  the  Ministry  and  Hospitality  of 
Dundee."1  The  charter  took  effect  immediately,  and  a  Collector  of 
the  Queen's  Donation,  as  it  was  then  called — subsequently  the  Hos- 
pital Fund — was  appointed  by  the  magistrates,  one  David  Eamsay 
being  the  first  official.  Here,  as  elsewhere  in  the  kingdom,  the  neigh- 
bouring barons  had  helped  themselves  to  the  property  of  the  religious 
houses,  and  some  time  elapsed  before  possession  was  obtained  of  all 
the  properties  embraced  in  the  Charter,  for  which  a  considerable  sum 
of  money,  and  other  valuable  considerations,  had  to  be  forthcoming  to 
the  Earl  of  Crawford  and  Sir  James  Scrymseoure. 

Within  a  month  from  the  date  of  Mary's  gift  and  the  mock  trial  of 
Bothwell,  that  daring  and  unprincipled  nobleman  had  divorced  his 
wife,  and  become  the  third  husband  of  the  queen  :  another  month 
saw  the  infatuated  pair  confronting  the  forces  of  the  incensed  nobility 
on  Carberry  Hill ;  where,  deserted  by  their  supporters,  they  were  com- 
pelled to  separate — the  queen  being  sent  to  Lochleven,  and  Bothwell 
making  his  escape  to  Orkney.  It  has  been  related  that  he  turned 
pirate  ;  but  recent  researches  give  a  different,  though  .scarcely  less 
flagitious  end  to  his  career.2  A  squadron  was  fitted  out  for  his  cap- 

1  Report  on  "  Stipend  Case,"  by  Cosmo  Innes,  p.  7.  The  original  charter  has 
been  lost  sight  of  since  1604,  but  its  tenor  is  proved  by  subsequent  deeds,  which 
recapitulate  its  provisions. 

5  Marryat's  Travels  in  Jutiftiv.l,  quoted  in  Burton,  iv.,  p.  455. 


68  •wrrmr  or  DUXDRK. 

tore,  of  which  three  Tessels,  the  James,  Primrose,  and  Robert,  wert 
furnished  from  the  port  of  Dundee ;  but  he  eluded  the  pursuit  by 
purchasing  the  craft  of  a  pirate,  named  David  Wodt,  in  which  he 
escaped  to  1  Denmark.  A  report  of  his  death  was  circulated  ;  but  the 
Danish  archivnn  show  that  he  there  married  aud  deserted  a  third  wife  ; 
and,  after  tan  years  of  a  wild  and  debauched  life,  ended  his  days  in 
1577  in  the  Castle  of  Draxholm.] 


Ztction  Vtt. 
qrav  MAST'S  rmr— CHAR-TO  ORAJOTD — BOTHWHX — omaui.  AMXWBUBS— TRB 

MI9UTU  AJCD  MAGISTRATES—  VISIT  BT  JAMBS  VI. — KARL  OF  OOWBH  AJTD  JAMBS 
MXLYILLS—  DOMBSTIC  8TATB  OP  SCOTLAVD— CHABTBB  OBAJTrKO  BT  JAMBS  n.— COB- 
TBVTIOB  BBTWBJOI  DUHDKE  AKD  PKBTB  REXKWED-  GREAT  CHARTER  OBABTBD  BT 
CHABLBS  I.— THE  FKST— DI8BDC8IOXS  BETWEKX  THB  OONSTABLS  AKD  BCROBWO — 
DirTERKKCO  ADJUSTED. 

THE  success  which  attended  the  Reformation,  though  it  humbled  iU 
enemies,  and  paralyzed  their  efforts,  did  not  altogether  annihilate 
their  hopes.  The  triumph  of  tin-  n-f»ruiers  over  tln-ir  crv*t-fullen 
opponents  manifested  itself  in  the  destruction  of  th<»  inuiiutstic  build- 
ings, and  the  images,  vestments,  and  mass-books  of  the  priests ;  but 
the  church  fabrics  were  preserved  for  use  in  the  reformed  worehip. 
The  new  ecclesiastical  Establishment  found  itself  possessed  of  powerful 
influence,  and  congratulated  itself  on  the  ascendancy  which  it  had 
acquired  and  held  over  the  public  mind — while  the  simplicity,  purity, 
and  good  sense  of  its  peculiar  mode  of  worship,  aud  the  influence  it 
had  exerted  on  the  practice  of  its  professors,  rendered  it  well  adapted 
to  arouse  and  sustain  the  religions  spirit  of  the  people  at  large.  The 
citizens  of  Dundee,  who  were  remarkable  for  the  warmth  of  their  seal 
from  the  beginning  of  the  Reformation,  partook  largely  of  this  influence, 
and  now  enjoyed  the  benefits  resulting  from  that  steady  aud  auooes*iul 
adherence  to  the  principles  which  they  had  so  often  exemplified  in 
the  past  struggles. 

For  many  ages  before  the  time  of  Queen  Mary,  the  common  )>u rial- 
place  was  St  Clement's  Church-yard  (now  occupied  by  the  Town-house 
and  other  buildings),  but  this  being  in  the  centre  of  the  t<>\vr.  tra* 
apt  to  flip,  ..  i>r  .lisoase.  To  avoid  this  the  queen  directed 


OKIGIN  OP  THE  "  HOUFF.  "  69 

the  inhabitants  and  their  successors  to  inter  their  dead  in  the  cemetery 
of  the  Minorite  or  Franciscan  Friars,  and  the  ground  formerly  occupied 
with  their  convents  and  gardens,  all  of  which  lay  without  the  town- 
wall,  and  from  that  time  to  the  present  has  been  universally  known  by 
the  term  "  Houff."  This  name  first  occurs  in  an  Act  of  Head  Court, 
dated  4th  October,  1566,  entituled  "Anent  the  Houff  dykes,"  impos- 
ing a  penalty  of  eight  shillings  Scots  upon  every  person  found  climb- 
ing on  or  over  the  walls. 

[The  rivalry  between  Perth  and  Dundee  again  culminated  in  con- 
tention for  the  next  place  after  Edinburgh  in  the  equestrian  procession 
known  as  the  "  Riding  of  the  Estates."  At  a  parliament  held  by  the 
Regent  Murray,  a  tumult  arose  upon  the  street,  which  was  not  quelled 
without  difficulty ;  and  an  investigation  being  ordered,  it  was  found 
that  "  James  Wedderburn  and  George  Mitchell,  burgesses  of  Dundee, 
and  William  Rysie,  bearer  of  the  handsenyie  [ensign]  thereof,"  were 
nowise  culpable,  and  they  were  accordingly  allowed  to  depart.2  At 
the  same  time,  another  native  fell  into  trouble,  from  which  he  did  not 
escape  so  easily.  "  Robert  Jack,  merchant,  and  burgess  of  Dundee, 
was  hangit  and  quarterit  for  false  lyons,  call  it  hardheades,  plakis,  bal- 
beis,  and  other  fals  money,  whilk  he  had  brocht  out  of  Flanders."2 
For  another  class  of  offences,  the  evidence  of  which  was  much  less 
tangible,  the  punishment  was  equally  severe.  In  December  1569,  the 
Good  Regent  made  a  progress  northwards  to  put  down  sorcery  and 
witchcraft,  giving  two  poor  creatures  to  the  flames  in  St  Andrews, 
and  returning,  "he  causit  burn  ane  other  company  of  witches  in 
Dundee."]3 

The  years  1571  and  1572  were  remarkable  for  a  bloody  contest 
between  the  two  noble  families  of  Gordon  and  Forbes,  the  progress 
of  which  was  distinguished  by  a  variety  of  successes  and  reverses  to 
both  the  contending  parties,  until,  in  1572,  the  battle  of  Crabstane 
was  fought,  whicli  decided  the  feud  in  favour  of  the  Gordons.  In  the 
following  summer,  Sir  Adam  Gordon,  of  Auchindoun,  commanding  the 
forces  of  his  chief,  the  Earl  of  Huntly ,  entered  the  Meams,  and  carried 
fire  and  sword  before  him,  as  well  as  great  terror  upon  the  troops  sent 

1  January  9,  1567-8.     See  Birrel's  Diary., 

2  The  "hardhead"  was  originally  a  French  coin  called  hardie,  of  the  value  of 
three  halfpence  ;  "babees"  were  so  called  from  bas  billon,  a  low  piece  of  money. 
— Chambers,  Domestic  Annals,  i.,  p.  48. 

J  Diurual  of  Occurreuts,  1513-75. 


7  I  Hl-r..HT  Of  DUNDEE. 


to  interrupt  hi*  pro^n**,  who  were  surprised  and  defeated  by  him  at 

Brechin.     Proceeding  thence  to  Montrose,  he  entered  it  after  aome 

ineffectual  opposition,  planted  in  it  a  gun-won,  besides  another  in  the 

Castle  of  Dun,  and  advanced  to  the  westward,  through  Angus,  with  the 

intention  »f  n-du'-m..'  1  Mmdee.     The  townsmen,  apprised  of  hia  design, 

drew  considerable  reinforcements  from   Fife.     Auchindoun,  on  learn  - 

'h.l  not  .-  .L-I  l-r   it  prudent  to  prosecute  his  design  ;  bat, 

Hi  in..-  him-  If  with  the  havoc  In:  had  made,  and  the  booty  he 

had  acquir  <l,  he  returned  to  the  north. 

A  few  yean  after  this  namely,  in  .Inly,  1580,  we  find  the  General 

Assembly  of  t'i<-  <  hnn  h  met  in  tlu»  town.     At  this  meeting,  it  was 

resolved  that  the  office  of  a  bishop,  as  it  was  then  used  and  under- 

st'»"l.  hmi  neither  foundation  imr  warrant  in  the  Word  of  God  ;  and 

ii  an  nnlinanoe  was  made,  that  all  persons,  whether  presented 

to  that  office,  <>r  th.it  should  bo  prencuu-d  at  any  time  thereafter, 

should  1"  to  resign  tin-  same,  an  an  office  to  which  they  are 

died  of  (  iod  ;  and  also  to  desist  ami  cease  from  pitching,  admi- 

ni-trition  of  the  sacraments,  and  from  UMM_:  the  office  of  a  pastor  in 

any  way,  until  they  should   IK-  a<linitted  anew  by  the  General  Assem- 

lily,  under  the  pain  of  excommunication.     The  same  ordinance  or  act 

directed  that  the  patrimony  of  the  Chun  h,  ]xMtse*t*Ml  by  the  bishops, 

ild  )M»  discussed  and  advised  u]x>n  )>\  the  succeeding  Assembly.1 

[In  the  year  1588,  the  town  was  doomed  to  lose  its  active  Chief 
Magistrate*,  and  the  cause  of  Protestant  u<m  it*  gallant  and  zeaJous 
assert  or,  James  Halyburton,  the  worthy  -m  of  a  worthy  sire,  who  died 
in  the.  seventieth  year  of  his  age,  after  having  held  the  office  of  Provost 
thirty-tliree  yean.  1  1  is  father,  as  we  have  already  seen,  met  his  death 
while  gallantly  resisting,  with  hi*  I>und<-<-  Volunteers,  a  sortie  of  the 
Kn-nch  garrison  of  I.eith  ;  and  the  >..n  proved  himself  a  keen  and 
consistent  supporter  of  the  national  cause  f»r  which  hU  father  1-11. 
"  Within  five  years  thereafter,  the  Amemhly  ap|M>inte<l  him  commissioner 
f<>r  th«-  district  of  Angus.  During  the  following  year,  he  was  denounced 
an  enemy  and  rebel  to  the  «[iieeu  ;  ami  two  years  later  we  find  him  one 
of  th<-  (  oinii)itt«H>  of  the  Lords  of  the  Articles,  sanctioning  the  queen's 
deiuUsion  of  the  Crown,  the  kinp'-  coronation,  and  the  appointment 
of  a  regent,  id-  does  not  npj>ear  to  have  taken  any  part  in  the  Assembly 
of  1580  ;  but  in  the  following  and  .subsequent  years  he  >..,>  appoint  vd 
to  the  hi^h  office  of  Km^'-  Co]nnu*t>ioiier  .  and  <n>wu  .iliuoMt  to  the 

»  y, 


.  OP  GOWRIE'S  CAPTURE.  71 

day  of  ms  death,  he  took  an  active  part  in  the  proceedings  of  the 
Church  courts,  in  which  he  appeared  for  the  last  time  on  the  6th 
August,  1588,  as  'the  Tutor  of  Pitcur,'  to  the  head  of  which  family  he 
was  uncle."1  His  character  cannot  be  better  described  than  in  the 
expressive  language  of  the  inscription  on  his  tomb  : — "  Provost  of 
Dundee,  defender  of  his  country,  protector  of  the  orphan,  and  a  son  of 
the  Church  of  Christ."2  This  is  the  age  of  memorials ;  and,  while 
monuments  are  raised  in  every  direction  in  remembrance  of  departed 
worth,  surely  he  whose  skill  and  valour  laid  the  foundation  of  no  small 
part  of  the  blessings  which  we  enjoy,  ought  not  to  be  forgotten  in  the 
town  he  served  so  well. 

The  brief  but  eventful  reign  of  Mary  Stuart  had  now  come  to  an 
end  with  her  flight  into  England.  She  came  among  the  Scottish 
people,  says  Froude,  "  to  use  her  charms  as  a  spell  to  win  them  back 
to  the  Catholic  Church,  to  weave  the  fibres  of  a  conspiracy  from  the 
Orkneys  to  the  Land's  End,  prepared  to  wait,  to'  control  herself,  to 
hide  her  purpose  till  the  moment  came  to  strike,  yet,  with  a  purpose 
fixed  as  the  stars,  to  trample  down  the  Reformation,  and  to  set  herself 
at  last  on  Elizabeth's  throne."3  But  her  departure  did  not  end  the 
troubles  of  Scotland.  Her  son  was  a  child,  in  whose  minority  the 
most  powerful  of  the  nobles  struggled  for  the  ascendancy,  and  dis- 
tracted the  country  with  plots  and  proscriptions  and  bloodshed.  One 
great  object  came  to  be  the  possession  of  the  young  king's  person,  out 
of  which  arose  the  raid  of  Ruthven,  and  shortly  afterwards  another 
conspiracy.  In  this  the  Earls  of  Gowrie,  Angus,  and  Mar,  with  Lord 
Lindsay  and  the  Master  of  Glamis,  were  associated  ;  but,  while  Gowrie 
waited  in  Dundee,  on  pretence  of  taking  ship  to  France,  but  in  reality 
for  the  signal  of  insurrection, .  the  Regent  Arran,  who  had  become 
acquainted  with  all  the  ramifications  of  the  plot,  despatched  Colonel 
Stewart  with  a  hundred  troopers  to  arrest  him.  Arriving  suddenly 
before  daybreak,  on  the  morning  of  the  16th  April,  1584,  the  troops 
found  the  earl  residing  in  the  house  of  a  burgess  named  William 
Drummond ;  where  he  defended  himself  with  such  vigour  that,  after 
a  twelve  hours'  siege,  it  was  not  until  Stewart  had  procured  seve- 
ral pieces  of  ordnance  from  vessels  in  the  harbour,  that  he  obtained 

1  Jervise,  Mem.  Angus,  p.  207. 

2  His  monument  was  unfortunately  one  of  those  which  perished  at  the  burn- 
ing of  the  churches  in  1841. 

3  Hist.  Eng.,  I.,  p.  361. 


BISTORT  OF  DOTTOKS. 

of  his  prisoner.  On  hi*  removal  to  Edinburgh,  he  was 
poniUMlod  to  make  a  confession,  on  the  promise  of  pardon,  which  was 
basely  used  against  him,  and  his  execution  followed  on  the  4th  of 

In  the  history  of  these  times,  one  is  struck  with  the  constant  turm-.il 
in  which  the  preachers  wen  involved,  and  the  prominent  position  th-y 
occupied  in  public  affairs.  Although  Mary  was  confined  in  England, 
her  partisans  were  neither  scrupulous  nor  inactive,  and  their  machina- 
tions wen-  encouraged  by  the  emissaries  and  gold  of  the  French  court. 
Contending  against  these  influences,  the  reformed  preachers  at  the 
same  time  found  themselves  alternately  courted  and  bullied  by  the 
contending  factions  for  the  influence  they  wielded  with  the  common 
people.  The  art  of  printing  wag  yet  in  its  infancy,  books  were  scarce 
aii-1  r<>stly,  hut  the  preachers  had  direct  access  to  the  popular  min.l, 
ami  \v.-i-.-  M.-itli'-r  slow  to  use  their  advantage,  nor  too  particular  in 
restricting  it  to  purely  spiritual  matters.  Hence,  while  successive 
regents  sought  to  deal  with  Church  questions  as  a  means  of  personal 
aggrandisement  or  political  expediency,  and  James  himself  complicated 
this  policy  with  extreme  pretensions  as  to  th«-  Divine  right  of  kings, 
tin-  elements  of  discord  between  tin-  Church  and  State  were  found, 
which  ever  and  anon  burst  out  for  generation  after,  and  seemed  almost 
ini.n-  hitter  wlu-n  Prelacy  took  tin.-  place  of  Romanism,  as  the  form  of 
worship  which  their  rulers  sought  to  force  upon  an  unwilling  and  reso- 
lute IN-..; 

I  illusion  of  the  Scriptures  in  the  vulgar  tongue  was  one  laud- 
able object  of  the  reformers.  In  1574,  it  was  resolved  to  print  the 
first  edition  of  the  Bible  within  the  kingdom,  and  for  this  purpose 
Alexander  Arbuthnot,  a  native  of  Angus,  for  whom  the  Guthries  of 
Kincaldrum  and  Halkerton  and  two  others  became  sureties,  was  asso- 
ciated with  Thomas  Bassendyne,  who  had  a  small  printing  office  in 
K'linburgh.  As  it  was  felt  that  "  the  charge  and  hazard  of  the  wark 
will  be  great  and  sumptuous,"  the  Privy  Council  was  appealed  to,  and 
decreed  that  each  parish  in  the  kingdom  should  advance  £5,  for  which 
a  copy  was  to  be  afterwards  delivered,  "  weel  and  sufficiently  bund  in 
paste  or  timmer."  Five  years  elapsed  before  the  sacred  volume  was 
ready  for  the  subscribers  ;  and  then  its  circulation  was  ensured  by  an 
enact i in-lit,  that  all  substantious  yeomen  and  burgesses,  esteemed  as 
worth  five  hundred  pounds  in  land  and  goods,  should  have  a  Bible  and 
'  TjrtW.  riii., ,,.  167 ;  Spottimrwod*  390. 


REFUGEES)  73 

Psalm  Book,  in  the  vulgar  tongue,  under  the  penalty  of  ten  pounds. 
This  appears  to  have  been  evaded  ;  for,  on  June  16,  1580,  a  commis- 
sioner was  appointed  under  the  Privy  Seal  to  visit  every  house  in  the 
realm,  "  and  to  require  the  sicht  of  their  Bible  and  Psalm  Buke,  gif 
they  ony  have,  to  be  marked  with  their  awn  name,  for  eschewing  of 
fraudful  dealing  in  that  behalf."1  This  probably  marks  the  introduction 
of  the  "  family"  Bible  into  the  homes  of  Scotland. 

From  what  has  been  said  regarding  the  influence  of  the  ministers,  it 
may  be  inferred  that  an  importance  attached  to  the  General  Assemblies 
second  only  to  that  of  the  Parliaments.  The  Assembly  frequently 
met  twice  a-year,  and  occasionally  three  times,  Dundee  being  often  the 
place  of  meeting.  In  July  1580,  the  Assembly  was  held  here  at  which 
it  was  resolved  that  the  office  of  bishop,  having  neither  foundation 
nor  warrant  in  the  Scriptures,  should  be  abolished  ;  and  that  the  patri- 
mony of  the  Church,  possessed  by  the  bishops,  should  be  resigned  for 
disposal  by  a  future  Assembly.  At  this  time  the  Presbyterians  had 
an  able  and  uncompromising  champion  in  James  Melville,  the  nephew 
and  coadjutor  of  the  great  Andrew  Meville,  and  professor  of  Divinity 
at  St  Andrews.  For  their  zealous  opposition  to  Episcopacy,  both  were 
under  the  necessity  of  leaving  the  country,  and  James,  repairing  to 
Dundee,  escaped  one  morning  in  June,  1584,  disguised  as  a  ship- 
wrecked mariner,  in  an  open  boat,  to  Berwick.  He  was  subsequently 
allowed  to  return ;  and,  though  he  evinced  his  loyalty  by  important 
services  to  the  king,  his  unflinching  opposition  to  Episcopal  innova- 
tions, which  the  offer  of  a  bishopric  failed  to  shake,  brought  upon  him 
a  second  banishment  to  England,  where  he  died  in  1614. 

A  month  or  two  before  Melville  found  himself  obliged  to  don  the 
sailor's  garb,  one  of  the  traders,  which  then  held  intercourse  with  Mid- 
dleburgh  in  Flanders,  landed  another  theologian  at  Dundee,  accom- 
panied by  four  or  five  families,  whose  advent  is  worth  a  passing  notice 
as  the  first  avowal  of  Independency  in  Scotland.  This  was  a  Cam- 
bridge student,  named  Robert  Brown,  on  whom  an  English  bishop  had 
tried  imprisonment,  with  the  usual  non-success,  as  far  as  correction  of 
opinion  was  concerned.  Escaping  to  the  Continent,  Brown  gave  his 
views  to  the  world  in  the  form  of  a  pamphlet  ;  and  he  now  came  to 
Scotland,  a  country  agitated  between  the  claims  of  Prelacy  and  Pres- 
bytery, to  show  that  both  systems  were  erroneous.  It  is  said  he 
received  some  encouragement  in  Dundee ;  but  the  probability  is,  that 
1  Maitland  Club  Miscellany,  II.  p.  19. 


7  I  BISTORT  OF  DCXDKE. 

cariosity  was  more  apparent  than  conviction.  After  maintaining  tltal 
Sessions  and  Synods  were  no  less  repugnant  to  Scripture  than  bishops, 
that  witnesses  at  baptinn  were  sinful,  and  ministers  had  no  better 
than  any  Church  member  to  conduct  public  worship,  he  paaod 
to  St  Andrews,  and  thence  to  Edinburgh. '  Them  he  came  into  colli- 
•ion  with  the  Church  court*,  and  two  dirinee  were  ehosen  to  gather 
<>ut  of  his  book  "  such  opinions  as  they  suspected  or  perceived  him  to 
err  in,  and  get  thorn  ready,  to  pose  him  an- 1  hi*  follower*  thereupon."1 
learn  that,  shortly  afterwards,  he  left  Edinburgh,  after  being  com- 
mitted to  ward  a  night  or  two  till  his  opinions  were  tried, — a  form  of 
disputation  too  characteristic  of  the  times  ;  but  which,  it  is  needless  to 
aay,  did  not  prevent  this  earnest  man  from  founding  the  Independent 
body,  which  has  since  become  an  important  branch  of  the  Christian 
Church. 

In  May,  1597,  another  General  Assembly  was  held  at  Dundee,  of 
which  Robert  Kollock,  professor  in  the  University  of  St  Andrews,  was 
elected  Moderator,  on  account  of  his  learning,  piety,  and  mix  It-ration 
— the  last  a  somewhat  rare  virtue  among  the  clergy  of  that  age.  In 
thi*  Assembly,  the  \.-u,-rahle  William  ( 'hristison,  minister  of  th-  town, 
was  relieved  of  the  pastorate,  and  th«-  otlice  of  visitor  of  the  Province, 
which  he  had  held  for  nineteen  years,  until  age  incapacitated  him  for 
the  duties.  His  successor  in  the  ministry  was  Kobeit  Howi.-,  principal 
of  Marischal  College,  Al*T<l*-<-n.  In  this  Assembly  it  was  decreed 
that  the  Earls  of  Augux,  Huntly,  anil  Krrol,  who  had  made  submission 
to  the  <  'hun-h,  should  bu  admitted  to  absolution,  having  repented  of 
t  lit  ir  refractory  and  rebellious  conduct ;  that  all  assemblies  should  con- 
vene with  consent  of  the  king  ;  that  all  conventions  should  be  air. 
rued  by  law  ;  that  no  minister  should  be  admitted  but  to  a  particular 
flock,  to  which  he  should  be  restricted,  and  be  ordained  by  imposition 
of  hands ;  that  no  minister  should  exercise  any  jurisdiction  with- 
out the  concurrence  of  his  scosion,  presbytery,  &c. ;  that  all  session* 
should  be  elected  with  the  consent  of  th.-ir  respective  congregations ; 
and  several  other  regulation*  for  the  well-being  of  the  Church,  and  the 
peace  of  the  kingdom.  Along  with  these  regulation*,  provision  was  mads 
for  furnishing  the  houses  of  the  king  and  of  the  prince  with  ministers, 
and,  generally,  any  other  church  in  the  kingdom  that  should  be  vacant. 

Having  obtained  the  appointment  of  a  Commission  of  fourteen  minis- 
ten,  a  majority  of  whom  were  well  disposed  to  the  king,  James  adroitly 
i  Chamber.'  DUHM*M  Ann*U,  L,  p.  161. 


GENERAL  ASSEMBLIES — 1  580-98. 


75 


persuaded  them  to  petition  for  clerical  representatives  in  Parliament. 
An  Act  of  Parliament,  passed  in  December  the  same  year,  enacted 
that  such  ministers  as  should  be  collated  to  bishoprics,  should  have 
place  and  voice  in  Parliament  as  freely  as  that  which  the  bishops, 
abbots,  and  conventual-priors  enjoyed  under  the  old  system.  The 
General  Assembly  took  this  matter  into  consideration  at  their  next 
meeting  in  March  1598,  at  Dundee,  immediately  after  the  close  of  the 
session  of  Parliament.  The  question  having  been  discussed  at  great 
length,  the  Assembly,  in  which  the  king  was  present  and  took  part, 
though  energetically  opposed  by  Melville  and  all  the  leading  members, 
resolved,  by  a  majority  of  ten,  that  ministers  might  lawfully  give  voice 
in  Parliament,  and  other  meetings  of  the  estates  of  the  kingdom,  ami 
that  it  was  expedient  to  have  some  of  their  number  always  present,  to 
vote  in  name  of  the  Church.  Another  question  having  been  started, 
respecting  the  number  of  clerical  members,  it  was  resolved  that  as 
many  should  be  appointed  as  were  formerly  under  the  ancient  esta- 
blishment— that  is,  fifty-one  persons  or  thereby. 

The  Assembly  having  resolved  upon  being  represented,  and  forming 
one  of  the  Three  Estates,  declared  the  election  of  the  clerical  members 
to  be  vested  partly  in  the  king  and  partly  in  the  Church ;  and  at  a 
meeting  of  the  commission  of  the  Assembly,  subsequently  held  at 
Falkland,  it  was  agreed  that,  on  a  vacancy  occurring  by  the  death  or 
deposition  of  a  dignitary,  the  Church  was  empowered  to  present  six 
properly  qualified  persons  to  the  king,  one  of  whom  he  should  select 
to  fill  the  vacancy ;  but,  if  he  happened  to  dislike  and  reject  the 
whole,  then  other  six  were  to  be  presented,  one  of  whom  must  be 
preferred  without  any  further  refusal. 

At  this  Assembly,  Eobert  Eeid,  and  the  other  refractory  ministers 
of  Edinburgh,  who  had  excited  so  much  confusion  by  their  seditious 
conduct  on  the  15th  December,  1596,  which  caused  the  king  to  leave 
the  city,  and  to  order  the  Courts  forthwith  to  do  the  same,  were 
restored  to  their  pulpits,  upon  condition  of  regulating  their  future 
conduct  with  move  decorum.  On  account  of  the  great  attendance  oi 
ministers  from  the  Lothians,  drawn  by  the  case  of  their  Edinburgh 
brethren,  the  Assembly,  before  it  broke  up,  enacted  that  no  Presby- 
tery should  send  any  more  than  three  members  at  most,  to  the  General 
Assembly,  with  one  baron  of  the  bounds,  or  ruling  elder,  and  one 
Commissioner  from  each  of  the  royal  burghs,  and  two  from  Edinburgh. 
Having  settled  all  thftse  matters  amicably,  the  Assembly  was  about  to 


76  HISTORY  or  mncnn. 

dUperse  in  the  greatest  good  humour,  when  one  of  the  memben 
attempted  to  disturb  the  harmony  of  the  proceeding*,  by  protesting 
•gainst  the  whole,  under  the  pretence  that  the  Assembly  was  over- 
awed by  the  king ;  bat,  M  no  friend  to  the  parity  of  tho  Church 
seconded  him,  the  protest  fell  to  the  ground,  and  the  Assemby  dis- 
persed with  very  grave  suspicions  resting  upon  the  sincerity  and 
single-heartedness  of  its  decisions.1 

The  ministerial  career  of  Robert  Howie  was  characteristic  of  the 
times,  From  the  records  of  the  Privy  Council,'  we  learn  that,  on  23d 
July,  1605,  he  was  declared  "  nawyse  to  be  capable  of  ony  public 
office,  function,  or  charge  within  the  said  town,"  his  offence  being  the 
aiding  and  abetting  a  faction  in  opposing  the  election  of  magistrates, 
and  disturbing  the  peace  of  the  burgh,  "  Persaving  Mr  Robert  H  , 
thair  paatour,  to  be  of  a  hott  and  >ehement  humour,  and  of  a  conten- 
tious disposition,  they  solicit  and  travollit  with  him  to  assist  them  in 
their  courses,  and  in  end  thai  have  sa  far  prevailled  with  him,  that  he, 
forgetful  of  his  awn  dewtie  and  calling,  bee  tane  the  patrocinie  and 
defence  of  their  sedition  upon  him,  and  is  now  become  the  very  heid 
and  patrone  of  that  faction,  sua  that  fra  him  only,  as  the  funtane,  the 
present  disorder  and  confusion  of  the  said  toon  hes  procedit  and 
sprung."  Then  follows  an  account  of  a  meeting  on  the  8th  December, 
1603,  of  the  ministers'  party,  within  the  Tolbooth,  at  which  they 
refused  to  obey  the  magistrates  order,  "  to  gang  to  their  ludgings" — 
the  said  Robert  H.  affirming  the  partiality  of  the  Council,  and  refus- 
ing to  recognise  any  judge*  but  the  deacons.  Sir  James  Scrymseoure 
was  then  provost,  and  appears  next  to  have  invoked  the  Presby: 
whose  mftnH.»4*  the  bellicose  minister  equally  set  at  naught.  The 

1  The  regulated  form  of  Prcsbyterial  Representation,  established  by  this  As- 
sembly, is  the  first  we  hare  Men  ;  and  it  may  not  be  improper  to  add  the  nil* 
established  by  a  subsequent  Aaseiubl y,  which,  we  believe,  is  in  force  at  the  present 
tune.— By  Act  V.,  AMembly  1694,  it  WM  ordained  thai  ail  Presbyteries,  contain- 
ing not  more  than  twelve  parishes,  ahall  send  two  ministers,  and  one  ruling  elder 
or  baron  of  the  bounds,  to  the  General  A  numbly  ;  that  all  Preabyteriea  emeeding 
twelre,  but  not  exceeding  eighteen  parishes,  ahall  aend  three  ministers  and  one 
ruling  elder  ;  that  all  Preabyteriea  exceeding  eighteen,  but  not  exceeding  twenty, 
four  i-ariahaa,  ahall  aend  four  minister*  and  two  ruling  elder*  ;  and  that  all  I'ree- 
byteriea  oontaining  above  twenty-four  pariahea,  ahall  send  fire  ministers  and  two 
ruling  elder.  ;  and  by  Act  VI.,  Assembly  1712.  it  waa  ordained  that  all  Preaby. 
teriea,  containing  more  than  thirty-eix  ministerial  charges,  should  be  represented 
by  six  ministers  and  three  ruling  elders. 

*  Discovered  a  few  yean  ago  by  Mr  Laing,  and  now  preserved  in 
Boo*.  Edinburgh, 


AJTD  THE  MAGISTRATES. 


77 


Synod  next  took  him  in  hand,  and  appointed  commissioners,  who, 
upon  investigation,  "  having  found  that  the  said  Mr  Bobert  H.  wes 
over-bussie  and  partial!,  thai  earnestlie  delt  and  travellit  with  him, 
and  with  the  uther  minister,  to  be  awthors  and  preachers  of  peace,  and 
na  wyse  to  be  caryed  nor  led  with  partiall  affection,  and  alwyse  to 
forbeir  particular  applications  to  exasperit  the  people,  quhilk  the  said 
Mr  Eobert  not  only  refusit  to  do,  bot  immediatlie  he  unlawfullie  con- 
vocat  and  assemblit  the  number  of  eight  score  persons  of  his  factiouu 
in  the  Croce  Kirk  of  Dundie,  and  thair  maist  seditiouslie  made  them 
to  understand  that  the  saids  commissioners  were  direct  to  depose  him 
frae  his  ministrie,  mynding  thereby  as  appearit  to  have  stirred  them 
up  to  have  tane  armes,  and  have  attemptit  some  desperate  and  sudden 
interpryse,  quhich  wes  verie  lyklie  to  have  fallen  out,  seing  a  number 
of  them  cryed  and  schouted,  quhat,  will  thai  depose  our  minister  1  lett 
us  mak  a  day  of  it."     Things  now  looked  serious  ;  it  is  even  alleged 
that  bloodshed  followed,  and  that  Mr  Eobert  was  heard  to  boast  he 
could  raise  three  hundred  swordsmen.     The  Master  of  Gray,  the  Laird 
of  Lauriston,  and  a  deputation  of  the  clergy  now  came  upon  the  scene, 
and  several  craftsmen  were  summoned  before  the  Privy  Council  at 
Edinburgh.     The  indomitable  Mr  Eobert  still  held  out ;  he  assem- 
bled meetings  of  the  crafts,   "  sometymes  in  the  kirk,  sometimes  in 
tavernes,  and  sometimes  in  his  own  hous,"  and  went  to  Edinburgh  as 
proloquitor  for  his  friends,  to  urge  their  cause  against  the  provost. 
No  decision  seems  to  have  been  pronounced  by  the  Lords  of  Council ; 
but  immediately  on  his  return,  Mr  Eobert  resumed  the  fray,  and,  con- 
vening "  the  haill  Tailliors  and  Sauters  in  the  kirk,  besocht  them  to 
tak  tent  to  thair  speeches,  and  to  let  the  provost  get  no  advantage  of 
them,  and  informit  them  to  make  their  ansswer  that  thai  wald  doe  as 
the  rest  of  the  crafts  did."     The  Earl  of  Montrose,  Lord  Chancellor, 
and  others  of  the  Secret  Council,  next  appeared  in  Dundee,  and,  hav- 
ing heard  parties,  ordained  the  irrepressible  minister  to  withdraw 
beyond  a  six  miles'  radius  from  the  town,  giving  effect  to  this  by  con- 
ducting him  to  St  Andrews.     But  Mr  Eobert  had  other  arrows  in  his 
quiver;  for,  on  being  joined  by  two  or  three  citizens  with  a  contribu- 
tion of  1400  merks,  he  headed  the  deputation  to  London  to  lay  the 
case  before  James  VI.     Their  success  at  head-quarters  can  only  be  in- 
ferred from  what  Mr  Eobert  stated  from  the  pulpit  when  he  shortly 
after  returned  to  Dundee — that  "  he  had  prepared  besome  breid  for 
onything  could  be  done  against  him  during  all  the  dayis  of  his  life." 


78  HWTOIIT  or  wnmwt 

The  n<-v  •>  thw  singular  episode  *how>  Mr  I.'ol^ri  nt  the  h«i«l 

of  two  or  three  hundred  of  the  citizens,  in  Perth  (.Inly.  1604),  plead- 
ing,  before  the  Convention  of  Burgh*,  that  Ihindee  was  in  bondage, 
The  Convention  remitted  the  question  to  arbitrator*,  whoMedfh'verane* 
doe*  not  seem  to  have  coincided  with  Mr  Robert's  views  ;  for  we  find 
him  again  "  declairing  to  the  people  that,  gif  thai  wald  rhuae  a  provost 
for  greatnes,  a  Laird  wait  grittar  nor  a  barron,  a  erle  grittar  nor  a  Lord, 
a  duke  glitter  nor  an  erle,  and  the  devill  we*  grateai  of  all"  The 
cogency  of  this  reasoning  is  not  very  apparent,  and  the  good  cituea* 
seem  to  have  thought  matters  had  been  pushed  far  enough,  especially 
seeing  hi*  Majesty  had  recommended  the  Constable  to  the  provost- 
ship.  Not  so  the  indomitable  Mr  Robert,  for  he  "  upbraidit  them  as 
maist  dispytefull  betrayers  of  a  guile  cause,  and  affirmit,  gif  ony  man 
wald  accept  the  provost's  office  on  him,  that  he  could  cast  off  his  awn 
gown,  and  tak  it  on  himsalfe,  gif  his  calling  wald  permit  it,  and  rather, 
or  he  [Sir  J  Scrymaeoure]  were  continuit  provost,  he  said  that  Michael 
Hall  (<{iiha  was  a  puir  contemtable  creator  of  the  toun)  sould  have  it, 
and  said  that  it  was  mair  agrieble  with  reason  that  ane  who  had  come 
in  at  the  toun  end  with  a  creill  on  his  backe,  a  year  syne,  sould  be 
pn.voHt  nor  any  gentleman."  This  appears  to  have  been  the  minister** 
last  shaft,  for  the  rival  magistracy  he  had  been  supporting  was  held  to 
be  illegal  ;  and  while  his  freedom  of  speech  and  action  were  found  not 
to  be  positively  unlawful,  the  court  held  that  he  had  "behavit  himself* 
very  factiouslie,"  and  decerned  for  his  removal  He  got  a  charge  in 
Strath  bogie  ;  but,  being  evidently  a  man  of  mark,  he  was  appointed 
principal  of  St  Mary's  College,  St  Andrews,  in  1607,  and  died  about 
yean  afterwards. 

Leaving  Church  topics,  we  may  now  turn  to  other  incident*  with 
which  Dundee  was  identified  about  this  period.  In  September,  1  684,  the 
pestilence  made  its  appearance  in  Perth,  and  raged  for  nearly  a  year, 
carrying  off  about  one-sixth  of  the  population.  It  appeared  at  Edin- 
burgh in  May  of  the  following  year,  and  was  the  signal  for  removing 
tin-  court  and  government  office*.  The  "cunyie-house"  or  Mint  was 
tran«|«>rt«-«l  to  Dundee  on  23d  June,  and  remained  till  October,  when 
the  appearance  »i  the  pert  led  to  its  removal  to  Perth.  The  Mint  is 
believed  to  have  been  located  in  St  Margaret's  Close,  and  gold,  silver, 
and  alloyed  money  was  coined,  the  i«-nnif.-  having  the  words  OPPIM  M 
1  »i  M.KE  substituted  for  OPPIDUM 


Annab  uf  Soot,  L,  p.  167. 


VISITS  OF  JAMES  VI.  79 

From  the  wealth  ana  importance  of  the  town,  it  was  on  more  than 
one  occasion  privileged  to  relieve  the  impecuniosity  of  King  James, 
whose  financial  difficulties  were  great,  until  he  succeeded  to  the  Eng- 
lish throne.     Towards  the  expenses  of  his  matrimonial  expedition  to 
Denmark,  in  the  autumn  of  1589,  Alexander  Lindsay,  son  of  the  Earl 
of  Crawford,  advanced  10,000  gold  crowns,  for  which  opportune  con- 
tribution the  sovereign  afterwards  rewarded  him  with  the  Lordship  of 
Spynie.     Dundee,  among  other  ports,  equipped  vessels  for  the  royal 
convoy,  receiving  in  consideration,  it  is  said,  a  loan,  at  seven  per 
cent.,  of  twenty  thousand  pounds  Scots,  of  the  future  queen's  dowry  ; 
— the  capital  sum  being  called  up,  however,  a  few  years  later.     In  the 
spring  of  the  same  year,  the  king  had  passed  through  Dundee  on  his 
way  to  Aberdeen,  to  chastise  the  Earls  of  Huntly  and  Crawford  for 
their  lawless  proceedings  in  the  north.     Having  submitted,  they  were 
tried  and  convicted  of  treason,  but  restored  to  favour  after  a  brief  con- 
finement, the  king  having  a  strong  partiality  for  Huntly,  of  which 
that  nobleman  soon  proved  himself  quite  unworthy.     On  7th  Feb., 
1592,  he  suddenly  surrounded,  with  a  large  force,  the  house  of  the 
Earl  of  Murray,  at  Donibristle  in  Fife,  set  it  on  fire,  and  cruelly  mur- 
dered "  the  bonny  Earl,"  in  revenge  for  an  ancestral  feud.     This  out- 
rage excited  the  utmost  indignation,  the  more  so  that  it  was  connected 
in  the  popular  mind  with  plots  in  which  Bothwell  was  associated  with 
Huntly  and  others  for  the  re-establishment  of  the  Romish  faith.    Find- 
ing himself  losing  the  confidence  of  the  people,  for  fci ;  tardiness  in 
bringing  these  turbulent  nobles  to  justice,  James  was  obliged  to  make  a 
show  of  activity,  which  he  did  by  fulminating  orders  for  their  appear- 
ance at  courts  and  conventions,  which  were  never  enforced.     In  May, 
"  the  king's  majesty  took  journey  from  Edinburgh  on  a  sudden  towards 
Dundee,  where  intelligence  was  given  him  of  the  Earl  of  Bothwell's 
having  taken  shipping  at  Eroughty,  intending  to  pass  to  Caithness. 
His  majesty  remained  eight  days  or  thereby  at  Dundee,  where  he  used 
a  trial  against  some  persons  for   the  reset  of  Bothwell."1     Though 
afterwards  brought  to  the  form  of   trial,  no  effective  measures  were 
taken  against  Bothwell  or  Huntly,  unless  we  may  count  a  raid  against 
the  latter  in  1594.     The   king  entrusted  this  to  the  Earl  of  Argyle, 
himself  remaining  at  Dundee  for  intelligence  of  the  expedition,  which 
proved  to  be  a  failure.     Argyle,  we  are  told,  "  returned  to  hir*  majesty 
about  the  7th  or  8th  of  October,  accompanied  only  with  tAvo  men, 
1  Moyses'  Memoirs,  ed.  1755,  p.  186. 


M)  HIKTORT  OF  DOlfDBt 

the  weather  then  being  very  grievous  and  rehement,  and  related  the 
whole  manner  of  the  battle  to  hi*  majesty,  and  signified  therewith 
that  he  WM  betrayed  by  tome  of  his  own  company."1  Whereupon 
the  king  himself  proceeded  northwards,  permitting,  by  the  way,  some 
castles  belonging  to  Huntly's  Msociites  to  be  dismantled,  including 
those  of  Balgavies  and  Craig,  near  Montrose,  which  belonged  to  Sir 
John  Ogilvy,  a  son  of  Lord  Ogilvy,  ancestor  of  the  Earl  of  Airlie. 
Kmm  Aberdeen,  fresh  proclamations  of  forfeiture  were  issued  against 
til--  rebellious  nnblen,  which  only  resulted  in  the  retirement  of  Huntly 
to  the  Continent  for  a  season.  On  his  return,  in  1 599,  he  was  created 
a  marquis,  and  enjoyed  many  offices  of  trust,  until  he  ended  his  long 
and  turbulent  career  at  Dundee  in  June  1636,  on  his  way  to  the 
north. 

In  1601,  in  consideration  of  the  services  and  contributions  of  the 
burgesses,  James  VI.  confirmed  Queen  Mary's  Charter,  which  was  rati- 
fied by  Parliament  in  1606,  after  his  accession  to  the  English  throne, 
and  by  which  a  farther  grant  was  made  of  the  Vicarage  of  Dundee, 
"  for  the  support  of  the  ministry  of  the  Evangel,  and  the  keeping  of 
poor  and  miserable  persons  in  the  Hospital  within  the  burgh.]  * 

From  the  records  of  the  Conventions  of  Royal  Burghs,  we  find  year 
by  year  the  old  dispute  revived  between  Dundee  ami  Perth  concern- 
ing precedency  in  voting  at  conventions,  and  the  limits  of  their  respee- 
tivi-  port*  on  the  Tay.  Notwithstanding  the  decision  of  the  Duke  of 
Albany,  as  formerly  stated,  a  charter  was  procured  by  Perth  from 
James  VI.,  in  the  year  1600,  which  authorised  and  established  all  the 
pretensions  set  forth  by  the  burgesses  of  Perth,  and  compelled  the 
inhabitants  of  Dundee  to  introduce  an  action  of  reduction  before  the 
Court  of  Session.  To  put  a  period  to  this  controversy,  the  judgment 
of  the  Court  was  pronounced  on  the  Slst  December,  1602,  and  by  this 
the  privilege  of  Perth  to  have  free  ports  within  the  Tay  was  limited 
to  that  part  of  the  river  which  flows  through  or  along  the  Sheriffdom 
rth  ;  and  a  like  privilege  was  ascertained  to  belong  to  Dundee,  in 
the  part  which  bounds  the  Sheriffdom  of  Forfar,  not  only  on  the 
north  side,  from  the  Burn  of  Invergowrie  on  the  west,  to  the  Gaw  of 
i'.irrio  on  the  east,  but  also  on  the  .south  -:.!.•.  from  the  Abbey  of 
I' ilmerino  on  the  west,  to  the  Sands  of  hnmil.iw  on  the  east  It 
u.w  also  decided  that  the  town  of  Dundee  alone  had  right  to  levy 
ih«?  impost  granted  for  placing  and  maintaining  buoys  and  marks  to 
1  Mojrm  p.  234.  '  luoflt*  Be|*>rt,  p.  7. 


SOCIAL  LIFE  IN  THE  SIXTEENTH  CENTURY.  81 

point  out  the  entrance  into  the  Tay,  from  all  vessels  that  should  come 
within  the  same ;  and  that  the  right  of  the  town  to  all  petty  customs 
and  shore-dues,  instead  of  being  limited,  as  was  alleged  by  the  counsel 
for  Perth,  to  the  term  of  five  years  after  the  date  of  the  original  grant 
from  Eobert  I.,  was  to  be  henceforth  unlimited  and  perpetual. 

The  Commissioners  for  Dundee  next  put  in  a  claim  on  the  point  of 
precedence,  but  were  unsuccessful.  The  Court,  regardless  of  the  asser- 
tion that  the  burgh  of  Dundee  was  more  ancient  than  the  burgh  of 
Perth — that  it  bore  double  the  charge  of  national  subsidies1 — decided 
and  declared  that  in  all  Parliaments,  Conventions,  Councils  of  the 
Estates,  and  Assemblies  of  the  Burghs,  the  Commissioners  of  Perth 
should  take  rank  and  place  before  those  of  Dundee.  The  empty  dis- 
tinction of  rank  thus  gained  by  Perth  has,  since  the  Union,  dwindled 
away  to  an  annual  existence  of  three  days  in  the  Convention  of  Eoyal 
Burghs ;  while  the  profit,  yearly  increasing  in  value,  remains  with  her 
more  prosperous  rival. 

[To  obtain  a  more  complete  idea  of  the  state  of  the  country  at  the 
close  of  the  sixteenth  century  than  the  record  of  public  events  dis- 
closes, it  may  be  interesting  to  quote  a  contemporary  narrative  of  the 
social  habits  of  the  people,  by  Fynes  Moryson,  gentleman.2  "  In 
Scotland,"  he  says,  "  a  horse  may  be  hired  for  two  shillings  the  first 
day,  and  eightpence  the  day  till  he  be  brought  home  ;  and  the  horse- 
letters  used  to  send  a  footman  to  bring  back  the  horse.  They  have 
no  such  inns  as  be  in  England ;  but  in  all  places  some  houses  are 
known  where  passengers  may  have  meat  and  lodging ;  but  they  have 
no  bushes,  or  signs  hung  out,  and  for  the  horses,  they  are  commonly 
set  up  in  stables  in  some  out-lane,  not  in  the  same  house  where  the 
passenger  lies.  And  if  any  man  be  acquainted  with  a  townsman,  he 
will  go  freely  to  his  house,  for  most  of  them  will  entertain  a  stranger 
for  liis  money.  A  horseman  shall  pay  for  oats  and  straw  (for  hay  is 
rare  in  those  parts)  some  eightpence  day  and  night ;  and  he  shall  pay 
no  less  in  summer  for  grass,  whereof  they  have  no  great  store.  Him- 
self at  a  common  table  shall  pay  about  sixpence  for  his  supper  or 
dinner,  and  shall  have  his  bed  free  ;  and  if  he  will  eat  alone  in  his 
chamber,  he  may  have  meat  at  a  reasonable  rate.  Some  twenty  or 
thirty  years  ago,  the  first  use  of  coaches  came  into  Scotland  ;  yea  were 

1  The  relative  importance  of  Dundee,  and  other  towns  in  the  kingdom,  in  the 
16th  century,  is  established  l>y  the  Stent  Rolls,  for  which  see  Appendix  No.  1. 
•  Itinerary,  folio  1617. 
F 


89  HISTORY  or  DUX  on. 

they  rare  eren  at  Edinburgh.     At  this  day,  MM*  the  kingdom 

md  and  Scotland  were  united,  many  Scot*  have  been  promoted 
>•>•  the  king's  favour,  both  in  dignity  and  estate,  and  the  use  of  coaches 
become  more  frequent,  yet  nothing  so  common  as  in  England.  I'.ut 
the  use  of  horse-titters  hath  been  very  ancient  in  Scotland,  M  in  Eng- 
i.-kly  men  and  women  of  quality."  Hit  goes  on  to  say  that 
tl»  Scotch  eat  much  colewort  and  cabbage,  and  little  fresh  meat. 

Myself  was  at  a  knight's  house,  who  had  many  servants  to  attend 
him,  that  brought  in  his  meat  with  their  heads  covered  with  blue 
caps,  the  table  being  more  than  half  furnished  with  great  platters  of 
porridge,  each  having  a  little  piece  of  sodden  meat    And  when  the 
Uble  was  served,  the  jHfajUu  did  ait  down  with  us ;  but  the  u; 
mess  [those  sitting  above  the  noil-vat],  instead  of  porridge,  had  a 
] mild,  with  some  prunes  in  the  broth.     And  I  observed  no  art 
cookery  or  furniture  of  household  stuff,  but  rather  rude  neglect  of 
both,  though  myself  and  companion,  sent  from  the  governor  of  Iter- 
wick  about  Border  affairs,  were  entertained  after  their  best  maun*  r. 

....  They  vulgarly  eat  hearth-cakes  of  oats  [the  'girdle*  was  a 
subsequent  invention]  ;  but  in  cities  have  also  wheaten  brea<l.  which 
for  the  most  part  was  bought  by  courtiers,  gentlemen,  and  the  best 
sort  of  citizens.  ....  They  drink  pure  wines,  not  with  sugar  as  the 
English  ;  yet,  at  feasts,  they  put  «"••***•  in  the  wine,  after  t h«   Fi 
manner ;  but  they  had  not  our  vintners'  fraud,  to  mix  the  wines. 
Their  bedsteads  were  then  like  cupboards  in  the  wall,  with  doors  to 
be  opened  and  shut  at  pleasure ;  so  we  climbed  up  to  our  beds. 
They  used  but  one  sheet,  open  at  the  sides  and  top,  but  close  at  the 

feet,  and  so  doubled When  passengers  go  to  bed,  their  custom 

was  to  present  them  with  a  sleeping-cup  of  wine  at  jwrting.  The  hus- 
bandmen, the  servants,  and  almost  all  in  the  country,  did  wear  coarse 
cloth  made  at  home,  of  grey  or  sky  colour  [hodden  gray],  and  flat  blue 
caps,  very  broad.  The  merchants  in  cities  were  attired  in  English  or 
French  cloth,  of  pale  colour,  or  mingled  black  and  blue.  The  gentle- 
men did  wear  English  cloth,  or  silk,  or  light  stuffs,  little  or  nothing 
adorned  with  silk  lace,  much  less  with  lace  of  silver  or  gold,  and  all 
followed  at  this  time  the  French  fashion,  especially  in  Court.  Gentle- 
women, married,  did  wear  close  upper  bndisj,  after  the  German  man- 
ner, with  largo  whalebone  sleeves,  after  the  French  manner — short 
cloaks,  like  the  Germans,  French  hoods,  and  large  falling  bands  round 
their  ntvks.  The  unmarried  of  all  sorts  <li<l  go  bun-headed,  and  weai 


TRADESMEN  IN  THE  OLDEN  TIME.  83 

short  cloaks,  with  most  close  linen  sleeves  on  their  arms,  like  the 
virgins  of  Germany.  The  inferior  sort  of  citizens'  wives,  and  the 
women  of  the  country,  did  wear  cloaks  made  of  a  coarse  stuff,  of  two 
or  three  colours  in  checker-work,  vulgarly  called  plodan." 

Of  the  status  of  the  craftsman,  we  obtain  an  interesting  glimpse 
from  an  indenture  or  agreement  between  the  town  of  Dundee  and  its 
master-mason.     At  the  date  of  this  deed  [1536-7],  it  appears  that  the 
boxmaster  of  "the  paroche  kirk  of  Our  Lady"  was  the  Master  of 
Works  for  the  town,  and  under  his  superintendence,  "  the  mason " 
obliged  himself  to  "  exerceiss  the  best  and  maist  ingeniouss  poyntis  and 
practikis  of  his  craft,  at  the  kirk  werk  or  commone  werkis  of  the  said 
burgh,  or  at  ony  other  werkis  that  the  said  toun  plesis  best  to  command 
hym  thairto  oney  tyme  quhen  neid  beis."     His  hours  of  labour,  more 
protracted  than  those  now  observed,  were  regulated  according  to  the 
"aid  vss,  and  consuetud  of  Our  Lady  luge  of  Dunde" — thus  showing 
that  a  Lodge  of  Freemasons  existed  prior  to  this  date.     He  began 
work  at  five  o'clock  in  the  morning,  and  at  half-past  eight  took  "  ane 
half  hour  to  his  disuine "  or  breakfast ;  from  nine  he  wrought  till  half- 
past  eleven,  when  he  probably  had  dinner ;  then  from  one  to  four, 
when  he  again  had  •  o,ne  half  hour  to  his  noneschankis,"1  a  meal 
which  was  perhaps  equivalent  to  that  of  tea  (vulgarly  called  four- 
hours)  ;  and,  finally,  resuming  work  at  half -past  four,  he  closed  for 
the  day  at  seven.     In  winter,  which  was  held  to  begin  and  close  at 
Hallow-day  and  Lady-day  respectively,  he  was  required  to  enter  upon 
his  work  "  ilk  day  als  sone  as  he  ma  se,  and  wirk  as  long  as  he  may 
se  at   eweyn;"  during  which  he  was  to  labour  constantly,  having 
"  na  tyme  of  licence  of  dennar  nor  noneschankis,  causs  of  the  short- 
nes  of  the  dais."     He  had  few  half -holidays,  and  no  whole  ones.     On 
"  "  Fastryns  dayis,"  he  worked  till  four  o'clock ;   and  on  Christmas, 
Pask,  Whit,  and  Assumption  days,  he  dropped  at  twelve.     In  the 
matter  of  wages  he  differed  as  much  from  modern  practice,  the  pay 
being  settled  at  twenty  pounds  Scots  (<£!  13s.  4d.),  payable  by  instal- 
ments every  six  weeks.     If  employed  at  any  time  by  other  parties 
than  the  burgh,  his  official  salary  was  cut  down  in  proportion  ;  and 
illness  for  more  than  forty  consecutive  days  was  to  involve  stoppage  of 
his  pay.     The  town  allowed  bim  an  apprentice,  who  was  to  be  suffi- 
ciently big  and  strong  for  the  business,  and  "  nocht  ane  small  child," 

1  A  plausible  derivation  of  this  is  suggested  bv  the  now  obsolete  French  term 
non  jonissance,  or  play  hour. 


84  BISTORT  OP  DCXDnt        • 

the  term  of  whoM  service  was  fixed  for  seven  year*  ?  During  th< 
yet*  of  his  apprenticeship  this  fortunate  youth  had  no  wages  ;  bat  the 
town  agreed  to  pay  him  16a.  8d.  a  year  during  the  n*t  of  his  engage- 
ment, and  he  waa  also  provided  for  in  case  of  sickness  in  much  the 
same  manner  as  was  hi*  master.1 

The  homely  style  of  living  did  not  exempt  oar  f  fr-m 

frv.juent  and  terrible  visitation*  of  epidemic  disease.  In  1608,  Dun- 
dee is  described  as  suffering  under  "  the  contagious  sickness  of  the 
peat,  and  a  great  many  of  the  houses  are  infectit  th»-rv"with,  and  greater 
infection  like  to  ensue,  in  respect  of  the  few  number  of  magistrates 
within  the  same,  and  the  little  care  and  regard  had  of  the  government 
thereof,  ane  of  the  said  magistrates  l*-in0'  departit  this  life,  and  ane 
other  of  them  visited  with  disease  and  infirmity,  and  not  able  to  un- 
dergo sae  great  pains  and  travels  in  bin  person  and  otherwise  as  is 
requisite  ataae  necessar  a  time."  For  these  reasons  the  Privy  COUIK  il, 
as  the  records  inform  us,  appointed  three  citizens  to  act  as  assistant 
magistrates.  Two  yean  before,  as  we  gather  from  an  Aberdeen  deed, 
a  message  waa  sent  to  Dundee  for  two  professional  dengeri  to  deal  with 
an  infection  which  had  appeared  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Granito 
City,  and  this  bond  for  500  merks  was  granted  as  requital  for  tlu-ir 
services.] 

In  the  year  1617,  James  VI.  carried  his  long-cherished  design  of 
visiting  Scotland  into  execution,  and,  in  course  of  his  sojourn,  visited 
Dundee.  The  details  of  this  royal  progress  are  scanty,  and  we  can 
state  very  little  about  it  Wilson,  a  writer  of  that  age,  says  that  he 
"  began  his  journey  with  the  spring,  warming  the  country  as  he 
with  the  glories  of  the  Court ;  taking  such  recreations  by  the  way  as 
might  best  beguile  the  days  and  cut  them  shorter,  but  lengthen  the 
nights  (contrary  to  the  seasons) ;  for,  what  with  hunting,  hawking, 
and  horse-racing,  the  days  quickly  ran  away ;  and  the  night*,  with 
fnatting^  masqueing,  and  dancing,  were  the  more  extended."  He 
adds,  that,  after  his  reception  at  Edinburgh  on  the  16th  May,  the  king 
proceeded  circuitoualy  by  Linlithgow  and  Dnnfermline  to  Falkland, 
where  he  arrived  on  the  19th,  "and  once  more  enlivened,  with  the 
sounds  of  his  hunting  horn,  that  noble  park  which  had  been  his  favdur- 
ite  scene  of  amusement  in  youth."  On  the  21st,  he  arrived  at  Dundee, 
and  passed  the  night  at  Dudhope  Castle,  the  residence  of  Sir  .Mm 
^crymaeoure,  hereditary  Constable  of  the  town.  Next  day  the  king 
*  Ibgfecr  of  Brochin.  quoted  by  Jerrfre.  Mem.  Aogxu,  p.  120-1. 


VISIT  OF  JAMES  VI. — 1617.  85 

proceeded  to  Kinnaird,  the  seat  of  his  favourite,  Lord  Carnegie, 
where  he  spent  eight  days  in  sylvan  sports.  On  the  30th,  he 
returned  to  Dundee,  and  was  welcomed  by  the  town-clerk  and  ma- 
gistrates, in  a  panegyrical  speech,  and  by  two  Latin  poems.  In 
connection  with  this  subject,  Calderwood,  the  ecclesiastical  histo- 
rian, who  lived  at  the  time,  writes,  that  "  About  the  end  of  Januar, 
the  king  sent  to  the  Councell  the  motives  of  his  coming  to  Scot- 
land, to  wit,  his  natural  and  Salmontlike  (!)  affection  and  earnest 
desire  to  see  his  native  and  ancient  kingdom  of  Scotland;"  and 
Mr  David  Wedderburne,  brother  of  the  town-clerk,  and  who  for- 
merly was  one  of  the  bailies,  writes  thus — "  Vpon  the  xv.  May,  1617, 
James,  be  ye  grace  of  God,  Kyng  of  gryt  britane,  france,  &  Jyrland, 
Defeudr  of  ye  fait,  or  Natiue  King,  being  Mowit  of  his  awin  gude 
inclinatione  to  wyssie  Scotland  &  his  avine  people,  Cam  to  edr  :  Thair- 
eftir  cam  or  ye  wattir  of  Kyngorne  &  cam  to  falkeland.  And  on  ye 
xxi.  of  May,  being  wddnsday,  cam  or  ye  wattir  of  Dundie  &  schippit 
at  ye  sout  feray,  &  landit  at  ye  rude,1  and  cam  to  Dudop,  lait  and 
sleippit  thair.  the  morn  tymous  he  red  to  Kynaird,2  and  remainit  all 
yt  day,  and  fryday,  setterday,  sonday,  monday,  tysday,  wddnsday, 

thursday,  and  In  into  Dundie  on  fryday  at hors,  qr  than  his  mtie 

gef  to  ym  his  presence."  This  is  all  we  know  of  this  important  expe- 
dition ;  for,  as  the  panegyric  pronounced  by  Mr  Alexander  Wedder- 
burne, the  learned  town-clerk,  is  long  ago  forgotten,  so  it  is  likely  that 
his  Latin  complimentary  poetical  effusions  are  also  lost. 

The  last  and  final  confirmation  of  the  rights  and  privileges  of  the 
town  was  given  by  Charles  I.,  14th  September,  1641,  which  was  rati- 
fied by  Act  of  Parliament  passed  12th  July,  1661.  All  the  previous 
charters  have  been  lost  except  that  of  Eobert  I.,  referred  to  in  a  pre- 

1  The  Rood  Yard,  beyond  Carolina  Port. 

8  Kinnaird  Castle,  in  the  parish  of  the  same  name,  is  situated  on  the  Braes  of 
the  Carse,  about  two  miles  west  of  Inchture,  and  at  this  time  was  the  seat  of  Sir 
John  Livingstone,  ancestor  of  the  Earl  of  Newburgh,  who  takes  his  second  title  of 
Viscount  from  it,  and  his  inferior  one  of  Lord  Flawcraig,  from  one  of  the  farms. 
The  castle  and  barony  were  the  patrimonial  property  of  the  ancestors  of  Lord 
Kinnaird,  and  they  derived  from  them  their  family  name.  The  bed  on  which  the 
king  slept  is  still  "carefully  preserved  at  Rossie  Priory,  and  shown  to  strangers 
among  the  other  curiosities  which  ornament  that  beautiful  seat.  [We  have 
allowed  this  note  to  stand  as  an  instance  of  the  weakness  of  "tradition"  as  an 
authority  for  popular  relics.  The  Kinnaird  which  King  James  visited  was  not 
in  the  Carse,  but  near  Brechin,  as  we  have  narrated  ;  where  the  curious  must  look 
for  the  veritable  bed  on  which  the  royal  visitor  slept. — ED.] 


HIBTORT  or 

ceding  Motion  ;l  and  this  too,  by  MM  mean*  or  other,  disappearm! 
somewhat  mure  than  thirty  yean  ago,  bat  was  afterward*  recovered,  or 
at  leaat  a  transcript  of  it  made  by  George  Brooe,  rector  of  the  Grammar 
School,  about  1749. 

Soon  after  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century,  and,  indeed, 
for  a  considerable  time  previous,  the  power  of  the  Constable,  and  the 
manner  in  which  H  wai  exercised  over  the  people,  wen  equally  bu- 
rn i  hating  and  oppressive.  An  attempt  of  Sir  James  Scrymseoure, 
second  Viscount  Dudhope,  Hereditary  Constable,  to  make  himself  per- 
petual Provost,  to  change  the  election  of  the  Magistrates  and  Council 
into  a  mere  nomination,  and  to  subject  all  causes,  civil  and  criminal, 
to  his  own  cognizance  and  authority,  produced  such  disturbances  as 
those  in  which  the  minister  was  implicated,  and  an  invincible  dislike 
and  opposition  to  such  encroachments  of  ambition  and  power.  The 
constable  and  the  burgesses  strove  for  the  superiority  ;  but  the  Utter, 
guided  by  the  friendship  and  supported  by  the  influence  of  the  Fletcher 
family,  which  was  rapidly  rising  in  civic  importance,  obliged  the 
former  to  abandon  his  unwarrantable  chum.  To  this  succeeded  mutual 
recriminations  and  personal  insults.  The  viscount,  piqued  at  the  suc- 
cess, and,  perhaps,  alarmed  at  the  threats  of  triumphant  patriotism, 
sued  out  a  writ  of  fote-ftwwMM  against  the  magistrates  and  council,  as 
representing  the  community,  who  were  not  freed  from  its  operation 
until  John  Fothoringhame,  of  Ponric,  became  surety  for  them  in  the 
sum  of  twenty  thousand  merks,  or  £13,333  6s.  8d.  Soots. 

This  disagreement,  which  originated  in  ambition,  and  gradually 
increased  in  mutual  irritation,  was  terminated  in  1 643  (the  year  before 
Lord  Dudhope's  death),  by  Sir  George  Rally  burton  and  Sir  John . 
Leslie,  two  of  the  Lords  of  Session,  effecting  an  accommodation  be- 
tween the  parties.  The  privileges  secured  to  Lord  Du  .  the 
arrangement  were  these  : — The  power  of  levying  the  customs  during  the 
week  of  the  great  annual  fair,  called  the  First  Fair ;  the  right  of  riding 
by  himself,  or  by  his  bailiff,  through  the  town,  with  a  body  of  his 
friends  and  followers,  not  exceeding  twenty  horsemen,  on  the  princi- 
pal day  of  the  fair,  the  26th  of  August ;  the  privilege  of  judging  in 
all  disputes  that  should  arise  during  the  continuance  of  the  fair  ;  and, 
instead  of  holding  his  courts  for  that  purpose,  as  formerly,  on  the 
Cattle  Hill,  the  right  of  holding  them  in  the  Tolbooth,  or  Town-house, 
the  keys  of  which,  along  with  those  of  the  prison,  were  to  be  delivered 
1  Sw  p«g»  34.  and  Ap;-eodii.  NoU  C. 


DISPUTE  WITH  THE  CONSTABLE.  87 

up  to  him  at  the  riding  of  the  fair  by  the  magistrates  ;  to  take  from 
every  boat  that  might  enter  the  harbour  with  herrings  or  bervie-had- 
docks,  a  number,  not  exceeding  a  hundred,  and  two  killings,  or  lings,1 
from  every  boat  that  might  arrive  with  these  fishes ;  to  be  exempted 
from  customs  for  victual  produced  on  his  estate,  and  brought  to  market 
in  the  town ;  and  that  the  grants  of  the  sheriifship,  confirmed  by  the 
king  to  the  provost  and  magistrates,  should  not  prejudice  him  in  his 
infeftments  and  rights  of  constable  within  the  burgh.  The  only 
advantages  acquired  by  the  magistrates,  on  behalf  of  the  community, 
in  exchange  for  these,  were  to  be  freed  from  the  burden  of  paying  any 
part  of  the  stipend  of  twelve  hundred  merits,  granted  a  short  time 
before  to  the  parson,  or  senior  minister  of  the  parish ;  and  that  the 
Lord  Dudhope  should  surrender  to  them  the  charter  recently  ob- 
tained by  him  from  the  Crown,  by  which  the  Rotten  Row,  or  Hill- 
town,  was  erected  into  a  burgh  of*  barony  in  his  favour,  with,  two 
annual  fairs,  a  weekly  market,  and  exercise  of  trade,  merchandise,  and 
crafts. 

The  ground  occupied  by  the  houses  of  the  Hilltown  formed  part  of 
the  estate  of  Dudhope,  which  itself  is  comparatively  a  modern  name, 
given  after  the  lands  were  divided  into  a  number  of  properties  or  sepa- 
rate estates.  At  the  time  of  the  grant  of  the  town  to  the  Earl  of 
Huntingdon,  with  an  extensive  tract  of  surrounding  territory,  it  was 
denominated  the  "  Barony  of  Dundee."  This  continued  for  ages  to 
be  the  appellation ;  and  what  is  now  called  Over  or  Upper  Dudhope, 
was  then  the  Upper  Field  of  Dundee  (Campus  Superior  de  Dundee), 
and  what  is  now  termed  Nether  or  Lower  Dudhope,  was  then  known 
by  the  name  of  the  Lower  Field  of  Dundee  (Campus  Inferior  de  Dun- 
dee), and  sometimes  the  King's  Meadow.  On  that  part  of  the  lands 
of  Upper  Dudhope  which  adjoins  the  town  on  the  north,  the  cottages 
were  erected  from  time  to  time  near  and  on  both  sides  of  the  road 
leading  to  the  inland  country,  from  the  gate  in  the  town  wall  (called 
the  Wellgate  from  their  proximity  to  the  Lady  Well),  which  suggested 
to  Lord 'Dudhope  the  idea  of  getting  them  erected  into  a  burgh  of 

1  At  this  time,  and  for  long  afterwards,  the  Tay  was  celebrated  for  the  excellency 
of  the  fish  it  produced.  The  Jlercurius  Caledonicus,  for  1661,  says,  "  This  our 
town  of  Dundee,  situat  on  the  river  Tay,  hath  been  ever  famous  for  the  abundance 
of  that  little  fish,  termed,  for  its  excellence,  the  Cherry  of  Tay,  catched  here.  It 
is  likest  (if  not  a  species)  to  the  whyting  :  but  so  surpassing  it  in  a  delicious  taste, 
that  hardly  it  can  be  so  called."  This  fish  is  supposed  to  be  the  smelt ;  and  in 
more  recent  times  was  known  as  the  garvie,  a  corruption  of  cherry. 


83  nirroRT  or  DCVDEB. 

barony,  in  onlcr  to  revenge  himself  upon  the  stubborn  and  refractory 
citizens  of  Dundee,  who  would  not  submit  to  be  governed  by  him  at 
he  pleated.  A  charter  of  erection  was  procured  from  Charles  I.  ;  the 
magic  influence  of  which  instantly  converted  the  scattered  hovels  of 
the  Rotten  Row  into  the  baronial  burgh  of  Hilllown  of  Dudhope, 
depending  on  the  Right  Honourable  Sir  James  Scrymseoure,  Knight, 
Lord  Viscount  Dudhope,  and  Constable  of  Dundee,  and  his  heirs  alVr 
him,  as  its  feudal  superiors.  From  this  erection  the  ruin  of  Dundee 
was  anticiixited,  which  the  magistrates  sought  to  provide  against  by 
stipulating  that  the  new  barony  should  be  surrendered  to  them.  Ac- 
cordingly, they  have  ever  since  exercised  over  it  the  rights  of  superiors ; 
and,  until  a  comparatively  recent  period,  the  junior  magistrate,  or 
youngest  bailie,  as  he  was  styled,  exercised  the  functions  of  baron- 
bailie  of  the  Hilltown.  It  is  plain,  however,  that,  though  it  had  con- 
tinued a  separate  jurisdiction,  Dundee  had  nothing  to  fear  from  its 
proximity,  as  it  must  have  been  dependent  on  the  town  for  its  trade 
and  thu  greater  part  of  its  resources;  and  from  the  command  of  the 
river  and  harbourage,  which  the  magistrates  possessed,  they  had  it  in 
tht-ir  power  to  have  made  it  immeasurably  more  desirable  for  an 
incomer  to  settle  in  the  old  than  in  the  new  town. 


Scrtton 


souonr  LKAOCE  AITD  covEKAjrr—  THE  EARL  or  MOWTBOM  ASSAULTS,  TAKES,  A»D 
Brays  TBS  TOWS—  CHA.ELBS  it.  vnm  THI  rown  —  WHICH  is  BESIEGED,  TAKE*, 

AJID  rLTODKBED  BT  GKSEEAL  MOVK—  DEATH  OF  LCMSDEX—  roVEETT  OF  THI  TOW* 
—THE  ETIHiltE?  OABJIUOV. 

THE  renewal  of  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant  by  the  people  of 
Scotland,  and  the  adhesion  to  it  by  the  inhabitants  of  Dundee,  were 
th"  occasion  of  bringing  upon  the  town  the  awful  visitation  of  fire  and 
sword.  Charles  I.,  pursuing  the  same  line  of  ecclesiastical  policy  with 
his  father,  sought  to  establish  Episcopacy  in  Scotland  by  force,  which 
compelled  th«  f»rm  themselves  into  .in  association  for  the 

protection  of  their  rrligit.us  fmxluui.     After  the  I«p*c  of  years,  "  the 


CAREER  OP  MONTROSE.  89 

Covenant "  was  renewed  in  1638,  and  acceded  to  by  the  inhabitants  of 
Dundee  ;  and  no  man  was  more  enthusiastic  in  its  support  than  James, 
Earl  of  Montrose,  who  very  soon  after  became  its  bitterest  enemy. 
Before  this  time,  as  we  have  seen,  the  town  had  been  frequently 
taken  by  the  English  ;  and  now,  in  1645,  it  was  fated  to  experience 
the  horrors  of  an  assault  and  pillage  from  the  fierce  hordes  that  com- 
posed the  army  of  Montrose,  now  almost  the  sole  supporter  of  the 
Stuart  dynasty,  and  whose  gallant  but  misdirected  zeal  is  thought  to 
have  precipitated  the  death  of  his  unfortunate  master.  As  the  Town 
Council  Eecords,  so  far  as  we  can  learn,  contain  no  particulars  of  this 
assault,  we  must  be  content  to  glean  what  we  can  from  other  sources. 
A  work,  written  by  a  companion  and  devotee  of  Montrose,1  gives  a 
detailed  account  of  his  campaigns,  and  the  miseries  heaped  upon  the 
people  of  Scotland  in  1644,  45,  and  46,  by  his  instrumentality, — 
deeds  which  found  too  able  and  willing  an  imitator  afterwards  in  the 
notorious  John  Graham  of  Claverhouse.  "We  find  no  fault  with 
Montrose, — the  "  Great  Marquis  of  Montrose,"  as  he  has  been  called, 
— for  his  loyalty  to  his  sovereign ;  but,  unfortunately  for  his  fame, 
there  is  too  much  evidence  that  his  loyalty  resulted  in  a  great  mea- 
sure from  resentment  against  the  Covenanters,  in  preferring  to  himself 
the  Earl  of  Argyle  and  the  Marquis  of  Hamilton.  The  people  having 
risen  up  en  masse  in  defence  of  their  liberties,  Montrose  took  his 
revenge  by  bringing  Argyle  to  the  scaffold,  by  betraying  his  ancient 
allies,  and  by  obtaining  from  the  king  a  commission  to  plunder  and 
slay  his  countrymen  throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  land. 
A  careful  perusal  of  the  book  above-mentioned,  written  expressly  in 
defence  of  the  conduct  of  Montrose,  warrants  the  assertion  that  the 
gratification  of  his  own  passions,  as  much  as  the  renovation  of  the 
king's  affairs,  was  his  principal  care  ;  for,  though  he  had  been  ever  so 
well  qualified  to  accomplish  the  latter  object,  he  never  had  a  force  suf- 
ficiently numerous  to  support  him.  His  idea  of  subduing  an  entire 
kingdom  by  an  army  consisting  of  a  few  hundred  adventurers,  was 
romantic  'and  preposterous  ;  and  he  soon  found  himself  confronted  with 
men  animated  by  a  spirit  fiercer  and  braver  than  even  his  own  zeal  in 
the  cause  of  royalty.  "  Perhaps  no  military  career,"  says  our  latest 
historian,  "  has  ever  had  a  literary  commemoration  so  disproportioned 

1  Dr  George  Wishart,  who  attended  Montrose,  in  all  his  career,  as  chaplain.  In 
return  for  his  devotion,  he  was  afterwards  rewarded  with  the  Bishopric  of  Edin- 
burgh, which  was  erected  by  Charles  I. 


."i  M1VTOKT  OF  DUKDO. 

to  it*  length  and  fruitfulness."1  Nor  can  we  join  in  the  high  intimate 
which  many  form  of  Montrose'*  capacity.  When  we  aay  that  he  WM 
the  desperate  conductor  of  a  bad  and  desperate  cause,  we  have  almost 
exhausted  his  lawful  praise.  His  eoursn  was  that  of  a  meteor,  swift 
and  capricious,  terrifying  for  a  season  the  countries  over  which  he 
passed ;  but  not  like  the  strong  still  eye  of  a  sun,  subduing  them  into 
permanent  obedience. 

In  the  course  of  his  excursive  warfare,  Montrose,  when  at  Dunkeld, 
was  informed  by  his  scouts  that  the  Covenanters,  under  the  orders  of 
General  Baillie,  who  had  watched  his  motions,  had  all  passed  over  the 
Tay.  Resolving  to  avail  himself  of  this  movement  of  his  opponents, 
he  "  thought  it  well  worth  his  labour,  if  by  the  way  he  might  take  in 
Dundee,  a  seditious  town;  for  that  being  the  securest  haunt  and 
receptacle  of  the  rebels  in  these  parts,  and  ft  place  that  had  contributed 
as  much  as  any  other  to  the  rebellion,  was  kept  by  no  other  garrison 
but  of  the  townsmen.  lie  therefore  commanded  the  weakest  and 
worst  armed  men  to  go  along  by  the  bottom  of  the  hills,  and  to  meet 
him  at  Brechin.  And  he  taking  with  him  what  horse  he  had  (which 
were  but  one  hundred  and  fifty  in  all),  and  six  hundred  nimble  mus- 
queteers,  departing  from  Dunkeld  about  twelve  o'clock  in  th-  ni_-lit, 
made  so  great  haste,  that  ha  came  to  Dundee  by  ten  of  the  clock  in 
the  morning,  on  the  4th  of  April  [1645].  He  summoned  the  towns- 
men to  deliver  the  town  to  the  king,  which  was  the  only  way  to  pre- 
serve their  own  lives  and  its  safety.  If  they  would  n«t.  th. -n  tin  y 
must  expect  fire  and  sword.  They  began  to  make  delays,  and  first  to 
give  no  answer  at  all,  and  afterwards  to  commit  the  trumpet  to  prison ; 
which  affront  provoked  Montrose  so  highly,  that  he  stonmnl  tin- 
in  three  places  at  once.  The  townsmen  stood  out  ft  while  an. I  i. 
tained  their  works,  but  they  had  as  good  have  done  nothing ;  for  the 
Irish  and  Highlanders  would  toko  no  n-puW,  but  with  leaolats)  amault 
some  beat  them  out  of  their  sconces,  and  possessing  themselves  of  their 
ordinance,  turned  it  against  the  town ;  others  beat  open  the  gates,  and 
possessed  themselves  of  the  church  and  market  place;  and  others 
set  the  town  on  fire  in  several  places.2  And,  indeed,  had  not  the 

1  Burton,  Hist  Scot,  ri ,  p.  198. 

*  Thi»  burning  of  the  town  u  an  illustration  of  the  "h^rwlffr  of  Montroee,  and 
•how*  the  ingratitude  of  both  him  an  I  hi*  matter.  87  an  Art  of  Parliament, 
dated  27th  February  in  the  came  year,  Dundee  bad  to  furnish  one  hundred  and 
eighty  *ia  men  for  the  royal  Mrrice,  aad  maintain  them  at  the  rate  of  XI 67  4  per 


TOWN  PILLAGED  BY  MONTROSE — 1645. 


91 


common  soldiers,  by  an  unseasonable  avarice  and  intemperance,  ad- 
dicted themselves  to  pillage,  that  rich  town  had  been  immediately  all 
on  fire.  But  as  it  happened  it  was  better,  both  for  the  conquerors 
and  the  conquered ;  for  all  the  intelligence  the  scouts  had  brought  in 
concerning  the  enemy's  coming  in  over  the  Tay,  was  absolutely  false. 
It  may  be  that  they  saw  a  few  troops  (and  many  they  did  not  see) 
pass  over  it,  which  they  believed  to  have  been  the  whole  body  of  the 
enemy  ;  and  by  that  means  were  like  to  have  undone  themselves  and 
the  whole  army.  Montrose  stood  upon  the  top  of  a  hill  close  unto 
Dundee  looking  upon  the  skirmish,  when  his  almost  breathless  scouts 
brought  him  news,  that  Baillie  and  Hurry,  with  three  thousand  foot 
and  eight  hundred  horse,  were  scarce  a  mile  off.  He  immediately  calls 
his  men  out  of  the  town,  which  he  had  much  to  do  to  persuade  them ; 
for  the  soldiers,  thinking  themselves  sure  of  the  victory,  and  thinking 
they  had  done  a  good  day's  work  already,  and,  besides,  being  a  little 
heated  with  drink,  and  much  taken  with  so  rich  a  booty,  could  hardly 
be  brought  to  leave  the  town  they  had  so  newly  taken.  And  truly, 
before  they  could  be  beaten  off  from  the  spoil,  the  enemy  was  come 
within  musket-shot  of  them." 

Although  the  belligerent  parties  had  come  so  near  to  each  other, 
our  historian  informs  us  that  no  battle  took  place,  nor  any  kind  of 
fighting,  except  some  skirmishing ;  for  Montrose's  six  hundred  foot 
and  one  hundred  and  fifty  horse — (it  seems  he  did  not  lose  a  man  ; 
which  is  rather  a  singular  occurrence  in  the  taking  of  a  fortified  town 
by  assault) — exhausted  by  a  morning  march  of  upwards  of  thirty 
miles,  a  hot  engagement,  and  afterwards  heated  with  drink,  continued 
to  keep  Baillie  and  Hurry's  forces  at  bay  until  night,  when  they  suc- 
ceeded in  making  good  their  retreat  to  the  neighbourhood  of  Arbroath, 
reached  it  about  midnight,  and  thence  proceeded  to  Brechin,  crossing 
the  Southesk  at  Cariston — a  series  of  exploits  which  bear  the  marks  of 
monstrous  exaggeration. 

A  month  afterwards,  Montrose  defeated  Hurry  and  Baillie,  in  sepa- 
rate engagements,  in  the  north ;  then,  by  a  rapid  movement,  he 
appeared  at  Kilsyth,  and  was  again  victorious ;  but,  in  September, 
General  Leslie  surprised  and  routed  his  forces  at  Philiphaugh,  after 
which  Montrose  passed  over  to  the  Continent.  Returning  in  1650, 

month,  being  6s.  Scots  per  day  for  each  man  ;  and  yet,  in  less  than  two  mouths 
after  the  passing  of  this  Act,  Montrose,  acting  for  the  sovereign  so  served,  plun- 
dered and  burned  the  town. 


'.•  '  BUTOftY  OF  DUHDUL 

he  again  ooDected  a  flying  force  of  wild  and  lawless  man ;  bat,  being 
brought  to  bay  at  Inrercanon  in  Ross-shire,  he  was  defeated  by 
Colonel  Btrachan,  and  brought  to  Dundee,  where  he  and  hia  eaoort 
lodged  one  night  an  they  journied  to  Edinburgh.  Our  historian 
observe* — "TU  remarkable  of  the  town  of  Dundee,  in  which  he 
lodged  one  night,  that  though  it  had  suffered  more  by  hia  army  than 
any  town  else  within  the  kingdom,  yet,  were  they  amongst  all  the 
rest,  so  far  from  exulting  over  him,  that  the  whole  town  testified  a 
great  deal  of  sorrow  for  his  woful  condition ;  and  there  was  he  like- 
wise furnished  with  clothes  suitable  to  his  birth  and  person."  This 
conduct  was  highly  creditable  to  the  town.  The  people  were  actuated 
by  a  better  spirit  than  ever  animated  their  now  fallen  and  powerless 
oppressor ;  and,  besides,  were  well  aware  that  to  insult  him,  would 
n>  ither  replace  their  burned  dwelling,  nor  restore  the  property  of 
which  they  were  pillaged,  by  the  ravagers  whom  he  formerly  led. 
When  carried  to  Edinburgh,  the  captive  nobleman  was  tried,  and  con- 
demned to  be  hanged  and  quartered  ;  and,  after  the  execution  of  the 
sentence,  May  25th,  1650,  one  of  his  limbs,  according  to  some  writers, 
was  sent  to  Dundee  to  be  exhibited  on  a  pcle. 

[At  the  time  Montrose  was  returning  to  head  his  hut  and  fruitless 
insurrection  in  favour  of  Charles  II.,  an  embassy  from  the  Estates  left 
Scotland  to  negotiate  with  that  prince  (then  residing  at  the  Hague)  for 
his  return  to  the  throne,  and  to  express  their  "  «*H«tM«Mi  to  espouse  the 
king's  cause,  if  he  first  will  espouse  God's  cause."  To  their  overtures 
Charles,  with  that  dissimulation  and  falsehood  of  which  he  afterwards 
proved  himself  so  great  a  master,  readily  assented,  taking  the  most 
solemn  obligations  to  support  the  Covenant  and  liberties  of  the  coun- 
try. Landing  at  the  mouth  of  the  Spey,  on  3d  July,  1650,  he  paaaed 
by  Aberdeen  and  Dunnottar  to  Dundee  ;  whence,  after  a  stay  of  some 
weeks,  he  passed  over  to  Falkland.  Meantime  Cromwell  and  his 
Ironsides  were  advancing  into  Scotland,  to  expel  this  faithless  mo- 
narch, whom,  with  all  his  solemn  promises,  the  Covenanting  army  so 
distrusted  that,  while  drifting  into  conflict  with  their  natural  allies  on 
his  behalf,  they  would  not  have  him  in  their  camp.  The  tactics  of 
the  veteran  Leslie  had  so  far  succeeded  as  to  drive  Cromwell  back  from 
Edinburgh  to  Berwick,  when,  in  an  evil  hour,  the  Scottish  general 
was  overruled  by  others,  and  forced  to  make  a  disadvantageous  attack, 
resulting  in  his  defeat  at  Dnnbar.  Withdrawing  what  remained  of 
his  army  towards  Falkirk,  Leslie  was  there  joined  by  reinforcements. 


INVESTITURE  BY  MONK 1651  93 

and  the  king  himself,  who,  after  a  ludicrous  attempt  to  escape  from 
his  councillors,  had  been  formally  crowned  and  anointed  at  Scone. 
Cromwell,  by  a  strategical  movement,  crossed  the  Forth,  and,  getting 
behind  his  opponents,  seized  and  occupied  Perth  ;  but  on  learning,  to 
his  astonishment,  that  Leslie  had  played  a  still  bolder  stroke,  by  march- 
ing rapidly  southwards  to  invade  England,  the  Protector  was  obliged 
to  follow  in  all  haste,  leaving  General  Monk  with  some  5000  men  to 
look  after  Scotland.  Before  Cromwell  could  overtake  Leslie  and  the 
royalists,  they  had  reached  "Worcester  ;  but  the  engagement  there,  on 
3d  September,  1651,  put  an  end  to  the  hopes  of  the  king's  followers 
in  that  enterprise. 

The  sojourn  of  Charles  in  Dundee  appears  to  have  drawn  to  the 
town,  from  all  parts  of  the  country,  those  who  favoured  his  cause. 
His  quarters  are  said  to  have  been  in  Whitehall  Close,  and  here  in  the 
house  fronting  the  street  may  still  be  seen  a  tolerable  carving  of  the 
royal  arms  and  legend,  with  the  initials,  C.  B.  G.,  and  date  1 660.1 
Besides  large  sums  of  money  advanced  for  the  king's  use,  the  magis- 
trates raised  some  troops  of  horse  for  his  service,  and  presented  him 
with  a  handsome  equipage  for  the  camp,  and  six  pieces  of  artillery. 
These  gifts,  and  the  circumstances  connected  with  Charles'  sojourn, 
marked  out  Dundee  as  a  place  to  be  promptly  dealt  with,  and  accord- 
ingly Monk  lost  no  time  in  investing  it.  He  had  just  become  master 
of  the  great  stronghold  of  Stirling,  after  a  siege  of  three  days,  and 
doubtless  anticipated  as  speedy  a  reduction  of  Dundee  ;  but  here  lie 
found  confirmation  of  his  own  saying — "  Better  than  all  ramparts  is 
man's  flesh." 

It  was  towards  the  end  of  July,  1651,  that  Monk  appeared  at  the 
gates  of  the  town,  and  summoned  Governor  Lumsden  to  surrender. 
The  reply,  which  the  besiegers  called  arrogant,  was  at  least  defiant 
and  soldierlike,  and  ran  thus  : — 

"  Sir, — We  received  yours.  For  answer  thereunto,  we  by  these 
acquaint  .you,  and  all  officers  and  troops  that  are  at  present  in  arms 
against  the  king's  authority,  to  lay  down  your  arms,  and  to  come  in 
and  join  with  his  majesty's  forces  in  this  kingdom,  and  to  conform 
and  give  obedience  to  his  majesty's  declaration  sent  you  herewith, 

1  This  date,  being  nine  years  posterior  to  the  king's  visit,  shows  that  the  carv- 
ing was  the  work  of  some  loyal  owner  of  the  place,  and  executed  probably  after 
the  "glorious  Restoration  ;"  at  which  time  also  the  close  had  received  the  ambi- 
tious name  which  90  ill  suits  that  squalid  neighbourhood. 


94  BISTORT  or  DUKDEB. 

which,  if  you  will  obey,  we  shall  continue,  Sir,  your  faithful  friend  in 
the  old  manner.— KoBUT  LUIODBV." 


The  siege  was  thereupon  proved  with  vigour  ;  but  the  strength  of 
the  defences,  combined  with  the  resolution  of  the  garrison,  which 
numbered,  according  to  Qumble,  more  fighting  men  than  the  besiegen, 
defied  for  weeks  all  their  of  Tort*. 

Meanwhile  a  committee  of  Estates1  and  of  the  Kirk  had  assembled 

at  Alyth  to  concert  measures  for  the  relief  of  Dundee.     Thu  was  felt 

to  be  an  object  of  critical  intereat  for  the  Government,  the  town  hav- 

in  fact  become  a  city  of  refuge  for  those  who  had  been  driven  out 

.  'iinburgh,  Stirling,  and  Perth,  and  who  had  hoped  here  to  find 
protection  for  their  persons  and  valuable  moveables.  To  disperse  this 
assemblage,  which  otherwise  might  threaten  his  fear,  and  compel  him 
to  raise  the  siege,  Monk  detached  five  hundred  horse,  under  the 
command  of  Colonels  Aldriche  and  Morgan.  This  expedition  was 
conducted  across  the  Sidlaws,  by  guides  well  acquainted  with  the 
neighbourhood — a  circumstance  which,*  along  with  others,  point*  to 
the  hostility  of  a  portion  of  the  population  to  the  king's  party.  A 
considerable  force  was  MHrnbled  at  Alyth,  under  the  command  of  the 
aged  Leslie,  Earl  of  Le  von  ;  but  the  dragoons,  in  a  night  attack,  dashed 
upon  them  before  they  had  time  to  make  even  a  show  of  resistance, 
and  made  prisoners  of  all  the  leading  men.3  Among  these,  besides 

1  The  Estates,  Parliament,  or  National  Council,  consisted  of  the  dignified  clergy, 
M  the  first  EfUto ;  of  the  landed  interest  or  tenant*  of  the  Crown,  a>  the  second ; 
and  of  the  burgesses  of  burgh*  or  the  commercial  interest,  as  the  third.  After  the 
Reformation,  and  until  the  introduction  of  EpUcopacy,  thetclergy  cowed  to  form 
an  Estate,  and  Parliament  waa  composed  of  only  two,  the  landed  and  trading 
interests.  All  the  three  esUtes  met  and  deliberated  in  one  apartment ;  hence  in 
the  aanmbliea  of  the  Estates,  thoee  only,  whatever  their  rank,  who  posMiiii 
equal  freehold*,  were  peers.  Peerages,  such  as  exist  at  present,  had  no  being  in 
Scotland  even  in  the  sixteenth  century,  as  dignities  were  annexed  to  territory, 
and  always  aooomp«nied  it  whether  it  passed  from  one  person  to  another  by  das* 
cent  or  piifchssn  The  clergy  baring  been  expelled  by  the  Reformation  and  the 
Rerolution,  tow  nobility,  or  superior  barons,  were  separated  from  the  lesser  free- 
holders, and  substituted  in  the  place  of  the  Church  dignitaries,  and  thus  the  three 
Estate*  still  remained,  lords,  barons,  and  burgesses. 

*  Baker's  Chronicle,  p.  848. 

1  "  Especially  the  old  General  UJJy,  who  (some  say)  was  taken  out  of  a  cub- 
bard  then  hHden.  U|mo  the  EvjIiA  entering  the  Town  ;  but  they  do  the  Gentle- 
man wrong,  for  H  was  a  Dmtfk  Bed  which  hath  shuts— the  best  provision  that 
obscure  place  could  anbnl  Mich  crent  Persons." — Gnmble's  Life  of  General  Mubk. 
.  45. 


TOWN  STORMED  BY  MONK.  95 

Leslie,  were  the  Earls  Marischal,  and  Crawford  ;  Lords  Ogilvy,  Home, 
and  Bargeny ;  the  Lairds  of  Colinton,  Leys,  and  Powrie,  &c.  ;  and 
three  of  the  leading  ministers,  one  of  whom  was  James  Sharp,  whose 
apostacy  afterwards  brought  him  the  Archbishopric  of  St  Andrews. 

Without  waiting  for  the  return  of  his  cavalry,  Monk  felt  himself  in 
a  position  to  make  the  assault  on  Dundee.     It  was  the  habit  of  that 
period,  and  which  continued  until  late  in  the  last  century,  for  the 
townsmen  of  all  ranks  to  breakfast  in  the  alehouses ;  and  in  such  a 
time  of  excitement,  with  crowds  of  strangers  in  the  town,  this  prac- 
tice led  to  excesses,  which  proved  their  ruin.     One  contemporary  writer 
tells  us,  "  the  tounesmen  did  no  dewtey  in  their  awn  deffence,  but 
wer  most  of  them  all  drunken,  lyke  so  maney  beasts  -"l  and  Dr  Gumble 
narrates  how  the  fatal  indulgence  became  known  to  Monk  : — "  The 
General  had  very  good  Intelligence,  by  the  means  of  a  Scotch  Boy, 
who  frequently  used  to  get  over  the  "Works,  in  the  sight  of  their  own 
Sentinels,  in  the  day-time,  by  way  of  sport  and  play,  without  notice 
taken.     And  this  Youth  (for  he  was  very  young)  did  use  to  bring 
word  in  what  Condition  the  Town  was,  That  at  Nine  a  Clock  the 
Strangers  and   Souldiers  used  to  take  such  large  Morning-draughts 
(whether  to  make  them  forget  the  Misery  that  their  Country  was  in  at 
that  time,  or  their  own  personal  Troubles  and  Losses),  that  before  the 
Twelfth,  they  were  most  of  them  well  drenched  in  their  Cups."2 
Taking  advantage  of  this  knowledge,  the  town  was  stormed  on  the 
1st  of  September,  and,  after  a  sharp  but  iina  vailing  resistance,  lay  at  the 
mercy  of  the  besiegers.     Eobert  Lumsden,  the  governor,  with  a  hand- 
ful of  followers,  retired  fighting  into  the  Old  Steeple.     Here,  while 
the  wild  tumult  of  outrage  and  slaughter  raged  in  the  streets  without, 
this  gallant  party  made  the  last  stand,  but  it  was  as  unsuccessful  as 
it  was  desperate.     They  were  smothered  out  by  the  burning  of  wet 
straw,  and  yielded  themselves  to  a  Captain  Kelly.    This  officer,  recog- 
nising as  a  soldier  the  gallantry  of  Lumsden's  defence  of  the  town, 
was  escorting  him  and  his  officers  to  General  Monk,  with  the  purpose 
of  interceding  for  the  governor's  life,  when  a  major  named  Butler  bar- 
barously shot  him  dead.3     It  is  recorded  that  Monk  was  much  troubled 
on  hearing  of  this  unfortunate  occurrence ;  but  even  if  we  give  the 
general  the  credit  which  his  biographers  claim  for  him  as  a  man  not 

1  Gamble's  Life,  p.  43.  2  Balfour's  Annales,  iv.,  p.  315. 

3  Baker's  Chronicle, — continuation  p.  629. — See  also  Lord  Wharncliffe's  Notes 
to  II.  Guizot's  Life  of  Monk,  p.  22—3. 


96  BUTORY  OF  DOTTDHa. 

naturally  erael  or  vindictive,  the  least  that  can  be  charged  upon  him, 
in  view  of  the  slaughter  which  followed,  is  that  he  inij**eU  no  restraint 
upon  his  soldiers,  and  must  share  with  them  the  execration  called 
.  by  their  wild  and  indiscriminate  slaughter.  Along  with  Lums- 
den,  there  (ell,  according  to  reliable  accounts,  between  seven  and  eight 
hundred  of  the  garrison  and  townsmen,  while  a  deeper  horror  is  added 
to  the  picture,  if  we  can  credit  the  statement  of  another  writer,  that 
two  hundred  defenceless  women  and  children  were  massacred  in  the 
riot  and  pillage  which  ensued.1 

Dr  Small  was  able  to  trace,  from  the  parish  registers  and  other 
sources,  the  presence  in  the  town  at  this  time  of  the  Earls  of  Bnchan, 
Tweeddale,  Buccleuch,  and  Roxburgh  ;  Viscount  Newburgh ;  Lords 
Bakarres,  Elibank,  Y ester,  and  Ramsay ;  fifteen  knights,  eleven  landed 

_•••::•>•:.•  :..   !..:.      :..•:..:•   :-      !    '.!,••     1'  i     ./ ;.       :    A  '.          .'•.•. -.\    v  .'     .r 

writers  and  indwellera  of  Edinburgh,  and  several  clergymen  from  the 
south.  Of  these  strangers  none  are  certainly  known  to  have  been 
slain  except  Sir  John  Leslie  of  Newton  and  his  sen-ant ;  but  of  local 
individuals  of  note  who  fell  the  monuments  in  the  Houff  record 
Bailies  George  Brown  of  Horn,  Alexander  M  vine  of  Mylnefield,  and 
Robert  Davidson.  Two  of  the  clergymen,  who  appear  to  have  opposed 
"  hollding  out  the  tounc,  knowing  that  such  a  drunken,  debosht  people 
could  doe  no  good  against  so  wigilant  and  active  one  enemy,"  were 
sent  by  sea,  along  with  other  prisoners,  to  Kn^Luid ;  and  it  is  graphi- 
cally told  that,  on  one  of  them  attempting  to  speak  in  his  own  defence, 
Monk  told  him  angrily  that,  if  he  presumed  to  say  a  word,  "  he  wold 
scobe  his  mouthe." 

All  accounts  agree  that  the  spoil  which  fell  to  the  victors  was  un- 
precedented in  quantity  and  value— exceeding,  according  to  Balfour, 
two-and-a-half  millions  Scots.  "  It  is  reported  by  credible  men,"  says 
another  writer,1  "  that  the  English  army  had  gotten  above  twa  hun- 
dred thousand  pounds  sterling,  partly  of  ready  gold,  silver  and  silver 
wark,  jewels,  rings,  merchandise,  and  merchant  wares,  and  other  pre- 
cious things  belonging  to  the  city  of  Edinburgh,  beside  all  that  be~ 

1  Thia  reata  on  Balfour — Annales,  p.  815.  Other  writer*  make  no  mention  of  it. 
Recent  historian*,  like  Dr  Hill  Burton,  dinniae  it  M  an  exaggeration,  like  that 
which  •'  local  tradition— th*  parent  of  liea"—  tells  of  the  carnage  ceasing  only  on 
the  third  day,  when  an  infant  was  found  at  the  breast  of  iU  dead  mother  near  the 
Thorter  Row. 

*  Nlroll'*  Diary  of  Public  Tnumction-,  4to,  Bdin.,  18M. 


THE  ENGLISH  GARRISON.  97 

longed  to  the  town,  and  other  people  of  the  country,  wha  had  sent  in 
their  guids  for  safety  to  that  town."  "  Some  of  my  men,"  says  White- 
locke,  one  of  the  officers  of  the  Commonwealth,  in  a  letter  to  the 
Parliament,  "  have  gotten  five  hundred,  others  two  hundred,  and  a 
hundred  pounds  a  piece ;  none  of  them  but  are  well  paid  for  their 
service."  About  forty  pieces  of  cannon,  a  great  quantity  of  small 
arms,  and  a  large  store  of  ammunition  were  also  taken.  Sixty  vessels 
then  in  the  port,  many  of  them  doubtless  brought  there  by  the  refugees, 
were  laden  with  the  booty — "  the  best  Plunder  that  was  gotten  in  the 
"Wars  throughout  all  the  Three  Nations ;  but  see,"  continues  Gumble 

in  his  narrative,  "  the  just  judgment  of  God, the  ships  were 

cast  away  within  sight  of  the  Town,  and  the  great  wealth  perished 
without  any  extraordinary  storm" — as  if  Providence  had  wished  to 
mark,  by  some  sign  of  anger,  the  hateful  success  which  it  had  con- 
sented to  permit.  Not  a  particle  of  the  plunder  crossed  the  bar  of  Tay, 
a  circumstance  on  which  the  narrator  makes  the  appropriate  reflection, 
"  ill  got,  soon  lost." 

General  Monk,  who  is  said  to  have  occupied  the  house  at  the  foot 
of  Overgate,  next  the  High  Street,  was  detained  for  some  weeks  in  Dun- 
dee by  illness,  which  even  his  panegyrists  appear  to  have  regarded  as 
a  judgment  upon  the  terrible  service  he  had  been  engaged  in.  On 
the  19th  October,  he  received  a  letter  written  from  Inverary  by  the 
Marquis  of  Argyll,  on  hearing  of  the  atrocities  at  Dundee,  imploring 
him  to  assemble  a  Convention  at  some  convenient  place  to  devise 
means  for  stopping  bloodshed.  To  this  he  refused  to  accede  without 
an  order  from  Parliament.  Shortly  after,  he  withdrew  to  the  south 
with  his  troops,  and  the  town  was  garrisoned  by  another  body  of 
Cromwell's  troops,  who  conducted  themselves  with  strict  discipline 
and  propriety.  Many  of  the  soldiers  were  tradesmen,  and  seem  to 
have  exercised  their  callings,  and  cultivated  friendly  relations  among 
the  inhabitants.  Amor  vincit  omnia  :  within  eight  years,  sixty-six  of 
the  garrison  married  as  many  of  the  towns  women,  and  255  baptisms 
appear  on  the  register  as  the  result  of  these  unions.  Grievous  as  it 
may  have  been  felt  at  the  time,  the  occupation  of  Dundee  and  other 
places  by  Cromwell's  Ironsides  introduced  such  order  and  respect  for 
the  law,  that  Desborough,  one  of  the  members  for  Edinburgh  in  the 
Long  Parliament,  was  able  to  boast  that  "  a  man  may  ride  over  all 
Scotland,  with  a  switch  in  his  hand,  and  a  hundred  pounds  in  his 
pocket,  which  he  could  not  have  done  these  five  hundred  years." 
8 


08 

Although  the  strong  arm  of  the  law  gave  protection  to  the  in 
on*,  the  poverty  of  the  country  WM  extreme.  All  the  nobles  had 
either  sold  or  hopelessly  mortgaged  their  properties ;  the  trade  of  the 
burghs  was  paralysed ;  and  Up  frequent  recurrence  of  bad  harvest* 
and  fatal  epidemics  reduced,  the  common  people  to  pitiable  straits.  In 
1658,  the  native  shipping  of  Dundee  consisted  of  tt*  vessels,  ranging 
from  twelve  to  a  In-,  lr-1  and  fifty  tons.  The  disasters  of  the  siege 
had  so  prostrated  the  town  that  the  magistrates  applied  to  Parliament 
for  relief  and  assistance ;  but  it  was  not  till  1659  that  three  Acts  were 
passed — the  first  of  which  imposed  a  duty  of  fourteen  pence  Scot* 
upon  each  pi  it  of  French  wine,  and  twenty  pence  upon  every  pint  of 
Rhenish,  sack,  brandy,  or  tent,  vended  within  the  town.  This  Act 
expired  in  five  years  ;  during  which  time,  from  the  habits  of  the  people, 
and  the  circumstance  that  Dundee  was  the  place  of  importation 
for  a  large  section  of  the  kingdom,1  it  is  probable  that  the  tax  had 
produced  a  considerable  sum.  The  second  Act  authorised  a  general 
collection  to  bo  made  throughout  the  kingdom,  for  the  purpose  of 
repairing  the  harbour ;  and  the  third  granted  two  additional  yearly 
markets  or  fairs,  to  be  held  on  the  first  Tuesday  of  July  and  October 
respectively.  The  former  acquired  the  name  of  Stobb's  Fair,  from  an 
individual  connected  with  the  ground  on  which  it  was  first  held,  and 
where  it  continued  to  take  place  down  to  the  year  1846.  The  tolls 
and  customs  of  both  fairs,  like  the  impost  on  wines,  were  applied  in 
aid  of  the  town's  funds. 

The  population  of  the  town  prior  to  the  siege  by  General  Monk,  has 
been  the  subject  of  some  speculation.  Dr  Small,  in  the  old  Statisti- 
cal Account,  made  an  ingenious  calculation,  based  on  the  ascertained 
marriages  and  births  prior  and  subsequent  to  that  occurrence,  from 
which  he  estimated  the  population  at  between  eight  and  nine  thou- 
sand, and  put  the  loss  of  life  at  one-sixth.  More  recent  researches, 
proceeding  upon  direct  testimony,  show  this  estimate  of  the  slaughter 
to  be  much  exaggerated,  while,  on  the  contrary,  the  population  is 
understated.  Five  years  previously,  the  Estates  had  ordered  the 
counties  and  burghs  to  raise  and  maintain  a  certain  number  of  foot 
soldiers,  in  proportion  to  the  population.  Dundee  was  required  to 

1  In  the  "  BUck  Book  of  Tajrmouth  "  entries  are  found  of  claret  and  white  win* 
brought  from  Dundee.  The '•Chronicle  of  Perth  "  (1590).  record*  a  aerere  frtxt 
in  16S4,  of  which  advantage  wa>  Uken  to  tntn«j«Tt  twenty-one  paacbeoBa  of  wine, 
in  carts,  upon  the  frown  Tay,  from  Dundee  f>  the  Fair  City. 


GOVERNOR  LUMSDEN.  99 

muster  i&6  men,  and,  assuming  the  ratio  to  be  one  soldier  for  every 
sixty  souls,  the  entire  population  would  be  over  11,000.  Another 
point  of  enquiry  has  reference  to  the  place  of  interment  of  the  large 
numbers  said  to  have  fallen  by  the  sword.  Dr  Burton  remarks  that 
"  Wanton  cruelty  was  not  one  of  Monk's  vices ;  and,  had  the  storm- 
ing of  Dundee  been  such  a  deed  as  some  have  described,  it  would 
have  hung  more  weightily  on  his  memoiy,  and  been  more  frequently 
referred  to  in  contemporary  history  than  it  has  been.  There  is  nothing 
in  local  record  to  confirm  the  aggravations,  and  antiquaries  have  in 
vain  tried  to  find  where  the  crowd  of  sufferers  was  buried.1  This  last 
observation  at  least,  is  certainly  open  to  question,  as  it  is  matter  of 
fact  that,  in  1810,  when  the  Nethergate  was  widened,  by  the  removal 
of  the  row  of  houses  which  formerly  stood  in  front  of  the  churches,  and 
the  ground  or  churchyard  improved — which  never  was  more  than 
nominally  a  burying-place — and  still  more  recently,  when  the  drainage 
of  South  Lindsay  Street  was  being  executed,  vast  quantities  of  human 
bones  were  discovered.  From  the  shallowness  of  their  covering  the 
bodies,  of  which  these  were  the  remains,  seemed  to  have  been  hastily 
interred,  and  it  can  hardly  be  doubted  were  those  of  the  victims  who 
perished  in  the  assault,  or  the  slaughter  which  succeeded. 

Of  Governor  Lumsden,  little  is  known  beyond  his  gallantry,  which 
even  his  enemies  acknowledged,  and  his  fate,  which  all  deplored. 
He  was  not  a  native  of  Dundee,  and  we  have  no  certain  accounts 
of  how  he  came  to  occupy  this  important  position.  He  was  the 
second  son  of  a  Sir  James  Lumsden  or  Lumsdaine,  who,  in  1640,  pur- 
chased the  lands  of  Innergelly,  in  Fifeshire.  The  elder  brother,  Sir 
James,  was  a  major-general  under  Gustavus  Adolphus,  King  of  Sweden, 
and  distinguished  himself  by  the  taking  of  Frankfort ;  but,  returning 
to  Scotland,  he  was  made  prisoner  by  Cromwell  at  Dunbaj,  the  year 
before  the  siege  of  Dundee.  Robert  Lumsden,  of  Stravithie  and 
Montquhaney,2  also  served  with  distinction  in  the  wars  of  the  great 
Gustavus,  and  his  name  occurs  in  a  list  of  Scottish  officers  serving  that 
prince  in  1632,  when  he  had  attained  the  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel. 
Sir  Alexander  Leslie,  afterwards  Earl  of  Leven,  held  a  high  command 
at  the  same  time  in  Sweden ;  and  it  is  probable  that,  when  he  came 

1  Hist.  Scot.,  vii.,  p.  297. 

2  In  Lament's  Diary  this  entry  occurs:  "1652,  April. — The  Lady  Bawhannie. 
surnamed  Weyms,  in  Fife,  depairted  out  of  this  life  at  Bawhannie;  l.er  husband, 
Rob.  Lumsdaine,  was  slain  at  Dundie." 


100  HTJTORT  or  Dam 


to  be  the  *«*»«Mawl^  of  the  Covenanting  army  in  Scotland,  br 
•otortod  bit  old  comrade,  Robert  Tjimsdnn,  to  conduct  the  defence 
of  Dundee,     We  have  already  seen  that  Lealie  WM  captured  at  Alyth 
while  concerting  measures  to  raise  the  siege.] 


I*. 


ov  TH»  anon  OF  CHARLB  u.  AJTD  JAJOB  vn.  —  rasscuvo*  or 
TH»  oeraAjmas  —  oanxxL  JxmuT  —  ATTOCPT  or  GRAHAM  or  cumBsmw 

TO  SOn  DCTCDO  —  DETUXX  OF  TH1  TOWV—  BTATB  Or  THE  TnW5  IS  1091  —  KKBSL- 

uo5  or  1715  AJTD  visrr  or  THE  CHIVALUB—  JAOOBITI  MAGISTKAT»  n  1745— 

•BCBLLAnODS  OOCCBBEHCBB. 

THE  success  which  General  Monk  attained  in  the  subtle  arts  of 
diplomacy  was  equal  to  that  which  he  acquired  in  military  affairs. 
The  object  of  his  campaign  in  Scotland  was  to  overthrow  the  monar- 
chical government  of  Charles  II.  ;  on  effecting  which  he  remained  for 
several  yean  with  his  army  as  the  virtual  ruler  of  the  country.  Crom- 
well, while  satisfied  of  his  military  capacity,  had  misgivings  as  to  his 
fidelity,  and  history  justifies  the  Protector's  suspicions  in  revealing  the 
fact,  that  Monk  was  all  along  a  royalist  at  heart,  and  had  held  secret 
correspondence  with  the  exiled  king.  The  death  of  the  Protector,  and 
the  speedy  dismissal  of  his  son,  Richard,  left  Monk,  with  an  attached 
and  well-disciplined  army  at  his  back,  the  most  influential  personage 
of  the  day,  to  whom  all  eyes  were  turned.  After  quietly  temporising 
until  the  Parliament  and  opposing  factions,  in  both  countries,  had 
become  weakened  by  intestine  quarrels,  Monk,  by  a  aeries  of  dissimu- 
lating and  successful  manoeuvres,  again  reared  up  the  fabric  of  that 
kingly  authority  he  had  so  recently  subverted.  After  an  inglorious 
and  arbitrary  reign,  Charles  II.  died,  and  waa  succeeded  by  bis  brot 
James  IL  of  England  and  VII.  of  Scotland.  He  attempted  to  subvert 
at  once  the  religion  and  the  constitution  of  the  country,  and,  like  his 
immediate  predecessor,  manifested  a  peculiar  prejudice  against  Pres- 
byterianism,  the  popular  religious  establishment  of  Scotland.  The 
sufferings  to  which  the  Presbyterians  or  Covenanters  were  subj. 
during  the  successive  reigns  of  the  two  Stuarts,  Charles  and  James, 


WITCHCRAFT GRIZZEL  JAFPRAT.  101 

were  of  the  most  dreadful  kind,  and  of  a  piece  with  the  cruel  policy 
of  Louis  XIV.  of  France,  their  contemporary.  Driven  to  despair, 
arms  were  the  only  alternative,  and  these  at  length  gave  them  the 
redress  that  otherwise  they  would  never  have  obtained.  Though  there 
is  no  record  known  which  relates  any  transactions  of  these  dark  and 
persecuting  times  in  which  Dundee  was  concerned,  we  cannot  doubt 
but  that  it  shared  in  the  struggle  for  civil  and  religious  freedom  of 
which  the  Covenanters  stood  forth  as  the  champions.  Their  enthu- 
siasm kept  alive  the  sacred  flame  which  in  the  end  procured  the  esta- 
blishment of  our  liberty.  The  circumstances  of  those  times  were  such 
as  are  always  peculiarly  dangerous  to  freedom.  The  country  had  been 
distracted  by  revolution,  and  wasted  by  civil  war ;  and  men,  disgusted 
at  the  uncouth  shape  and  unwieldy  gait  of  the  elephant,  were  ready 
to  throw  themselves  into  the  mouth  of  the  tiger.  The  bad  and  the 
selfish  naturally  clung  to  the  restored  monarch  in  hopes  of  favour 
and  promotion ;  men  of  calmer  temperament  had  become  indifferent ; 
and  it  required  all  the  zeal,  and  even  the  wildness  of  the  Covenanters, 
to  give  an  impulse  to  the  spirit  of  the  country.  Their  faces  may  not  have 
been  such  "as  limners  would  love  to  paint,  and  ladies  to  look  upon;" 
but  what  is  of  infinitely  more  importance,  their  actions  were  highly 
useful  to  man,  and  consequently  approved  of  God.  Their  names  and 
their  memory  must  therefore  be  dear  to  their  countrymen,  so  long  as 
Scotland  is  the  place  of  freedom,  and  the  abode  of  religion  and  virtue ; 
and  if  the  time  shall  ever  come  when  they  shall  be  generally  held  up 
to  ridicule  or  contempt,  then  the  sad  period  will  be  fast  approaching 
when  their  tombs  shall  be  the  only  memorials  of  patriotism. 

After  an  interval  of  many  years,  the  prosecutions  for  witchcraft  were 
revived  in  1669,  with  a  zeal  which  fortunately  proved  to  be  the  expir- 
ing effort  of  a  mania  that  too  long  disgraced  our  records,  by  the  trials 
and  legal  murders  of  decrepid  and  lunatic  women.  The  laws  against 
witchcraft  disgraced  the  Statute-Book  until  the  24th  of  March,  1736, 
on  which  day  George  II.  gave  his  consent  to  a  bill  for  repealing  the 
statute  made  1st  King  James  I.,  entituled  "  An  act  against  conjura- 
tion, witchcraft,  and  dealing  with  evil  and  wicked  spirits."  Even 
before  this  formal  repeal,  these  odious  and  absurd  laws  had  fallen  into 
disuse.  The  reason  of  this  was  as  follows  : — As  the  cases  of  witch- 
craft were  at  first  numerous,  the  expense  of  prosecution  was  of  course 
great.  This  was  at  first  borne  by  the  Crown,  and,  so  long  as  that  was 
the  case,  instances  of  witchcraft  were  rife.  At  length,  the  burden  of 


103  mirroBT  or  DUVDEB. 

prosecutions  became  so  oppressive,  that  it  was  found  absolutely 
eary  to  throw  it  upon  the  towns  and  pan/then  whore  witches  were 
actually  detected  ;  and  from  that  hour  informations  fell  off — the  scent 
of  the  witch-tinder  became  dull — and  Satan  was  most  effectually  exor- 
cised by  Mammon. 

[The  case  of  Graze!  Jaffray  is  the  last  in  Dundee  of  which  anything 
is  certainly  known.  On  the  1 1th  November,  the  Privy  Council  issued 
a  commission  l<>r  th<-  trial  of  this  woman,  who  is  designed  the  spouse 
of  James  Ilutchard,  mailman,  and  then  prisoner  in  the  Tolbooth  of 
Dundee,  on  suspicion  of  "  the  horrid  crime  of  witchcraft."  Authority 
was  given  to  put  her  to  the  knowledge  of  an  assize,  "  and  if  by  her 
own  confession,  without  any  sort  of  torture  or  other  indirect  means 
used,  it  shall  be  found  she  hath  renounced  her  baptism,  entered  into 
paction  with  th-  devil,  or  otherwise  that  malcfices  be  legally  proven 
against  her,  that  then  and  no  otherwise  they  cause  the  sentence  of 
of  death  to  be  executed  upon  her."  The  tenor  of  the  instructions 
shows  the  loose  and  reckless  procedure  which  had  hitherto  prevailed 
in  witch  cases,  and  might  have  supported  the  doubts  which  have  been 
expressed  as  to  whether  Grizzel  actually  suffered  incremation.  Willing, 
as  we  should  be,  to  escape  the  stain  which  her  conviction  and  execu- 
ti»n  leaves  upon  the  town,  the  evidence  is  too  explicit  for  evasion  of 
tli-  fact  In  1815,  when  Mr  Home,  of  the  Register  Office,  was  search- 
ing the  town's  records  on  behalf  of  the  Guildry,  he  found  the  follow- 
ing minutes,  which  are  quoted  from  his  MS.  report  now  in  possession 
of  the  Mailmen  Incorporation : — 

"  Dnndie,  the  t went ie-third  day  of  Novr., 

1669  years. 

"  Anent  tuck  a*  terre  (Maffd  for  tritrJurn/t. — The  minire  having  also 
n-prtcd  to  the  Counnell,  that  Grisacl  Jaffray,  witch,  at  her  execution, 
•  I i-l  delate  seall  psons  as  being  guilt ie  of  witchcraft  to  ye,  and  ti 
•  lesyred  yt  for  yr  exoneraon  some  course  might  be  token  wt  those 
The  Counsel],  in  onl.-r  th<-rvnt«..  noiats  the  provost, 

t  In-  put  haillzies,  the  old  baillxies,  deane  of  gild,  .t  ther,  to  meet  wt 
iinin»  .t  to  comon  wt  ym  on  the  *d  matter,  and  to  considder  of 
ye  best  wayes  may  be  takin  wt  the  delated." 

"At  1  uin.lv,  the  eight  day  of  Febrnar, 

I  m.  \\  c,  sevintie  [1670]  years. 

"  Thf  Countifl  eotent*  /ftr  minim  #>m/  /.*r  a  pnaer. — The  ministers 
having  n-j.rt«-<!  to  the  magfetrates  that  they  intindt  to  send  fur  one 


THE  TOWN  GUARD. 


103 


that  can,  in  some  measure,  discover  witches  be  the  mark,  And  yr  for 
cravit  the  Counsells  coscnt  theranent,  wherof  the  Counsill  approves, 
and  cosents  the  minirs  send  for  the  partie  when  they  please." 

It  thus  appears  that,  between  the  llth  and  23d,  poor  Grizzel  had 
been  tried  and  executed ;  that  counsel  was  taken  upon  her  dying 
accusations  against  other  persons ;  and  that,  sad  to  say,  the  ministers 
were  the  prominent  instigators  of  these  discreditable  proceedings.1 
Tradition  connects  an  affecting  anecdote  with  the  burning  of  Grizzel 
Jaffray.  It  is  said  that  her  only  son,  after  a  long  absence  at  sea, 
returned  in  command  of  his  vessel,  and  entered  the  port  at  the  very 
time  that  the  execution  of  his  mother  was  proceeding  in  the  Seagate. 
On  enquiring  the  cause  of  the  unusual  bustle  in  the  town,  he  set  sail 
again,  and  was  never  more  seen  in  Dundee.] 

The  researches  of  Mr  Home,  among  the  burgh  records,  also  threw 
light  on  the  institution  of  the  Town  Guard,  which  took  its  origin  in 
the  troublous  time  when  Sharpe  was  assassinated  on  Magus  Muir,  and, 
Claverhouse  was  pursuing  the  Covenanters  in  the  south  and  west,  and 
as  we  shall  see,  was  about  to  make  himself  a  troublesome  neighbour 
to  Dundee.  The  minutes  relative  to  the  Guard  are  as  follows  : — 

"  Dundie,  the  3  June,  1679. 

"  Act  anent  the  keeping  of  niglitlie  gairds  within  this  brugh. — The 
Counsel,  considering  the  troubles  tyms  that  now  is  lyk  to  come  on 
this  Kingdom,  that  it  is  necessar  for  this  brugh  to  have  ane  night  lie 
guard  keipecl-,  for  defending  of  this  brugh  from  invasione  of  enemies, 
Thairfore  they  are  the  next  Councell  day  to  nominat  Captains,  Liv- 
tenents,  Ensignes,  and  Serjants,  in  avrie  quarter,  and  to  Condischend 
what  number  sail  be  on  the  sd  nightlie  gaird." 

"  Dundie,  9  June,  1679. 

"  Act  ordeining  the  haill  Inhabitants  to  meit  evrie  night  at  the  Croce 
to  receive  their  orders. — Since  it  is  appoynted  be  the  provost,  balzies, 
and  Counceli  of  this  brugh,  that  yr  shall  be  ane  nightly  watch  keiped 
within  this  brugh,  Thairfoir  they  order  all  the  Inhabitants  within 
this  brugh  To  conveine  evrie  night  at  the  Croce,  and  receive  orders 
from  yr  severall  Capitans,  after  the  beating  of  the  drum,  each  night, 
at  or  befor  eight  o'clock  in  the  night,  under  the  paine  of  ffourtie  shil- 
lings, Scots  money,  for  ilk  persone  contravinand,  toties  quoties." 

1  There  were  three  ministers  in  the  town  at  that  period,  viz.  :  Kevds.  Henry 
Scrymsour,  John  Guthrie,  and  William  Rait,  the  last  named  being  described  as  a 
man  "of  known  repute  both  for  learning  and  piety." — Fasti  Eccles.  Scot.  vi.. 
p.  695. 


104  BWTORT  OF  DUKDKE 

•'Dandie,  16  Jnnu,  1679. 

"  A*»e»t  the  keeping  gineratt  Randitou  at  the  Magdalen  7c 
The  Couneell  appoynte  ane  genenll  randevouze  to  be  keiped  at  the 
Magdalen  Yeard,  of  all  the  fencable  men  within  tbw  brugh,  betwixt 
jwxtie  aiul  wxU-ine,  to  be  holdeu  on  thunday  nixt,  the  nyuteine  of 
this  moueth,  at  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning.     These  are  cmanding 
all  fencahle  mm  to  k«  p  that  tym«-  with  xuliciet  annes;  and  ordeina 
mm*  to  goe  to  advertise  all  for  that  effect,  wnder  the  paine  of 
;...nmls,  to  be  payed  be  ilk  penone  absent  and  contraveins 
tins  pnt  act" 

The  Town  Guard  existed,  in  a  state  of  various  efficiency,  till  not 
many  yean  bcf<>n-  the  commencement  of  the  present  century, 
when  its  place  was  supplied  by  a  watch  similar  to  what  was  organised 
previous  to  the  passing  <>f  the  first  regular  police  act  in  1824.  This 
supplementary  watch  or  guard  was  dispensed  with  for  the  reason  that 
tli--  individual*  cornicing  it  were  suspected  of  M«»tmg  in  the  smug 
gling  transaction.-  <>1  the  period  ;  but  there  was  a  remnant  of  the  original 
Town  Guard  till  a  comparatively  recent  time,  in  the  persons  of  a 
drummer  ami  j-i|«T,  who  perambulated  the  town,  announcing  to  the 
citizens  the  advent  of  the  curfew  hour,  and  proclaiming  the  time  of 
going  to  bed. 

In  tho  reign  of  Charles  II.,  the  Hon.  Charles  Muitlaml  of  Hatton, 
Depute  Lord  Treasurer,  who  had  purchased  the  lifcnnt  of  the  Coun- 
tess of  Dundee,  and  thereupon  assumed  the  office  of  Constable,  revived 
all  the  pretensions  of  tho  former  Constables  ;  hut,  IN -ing  opposed  by 
tin-  magistrates,  he  cited  them  before  the  Privy  Council,  and  obtained 
a  judgment  in  his  favour,  affirming  all  his  arrogant  claims.     This 
judgment  declared  the  wh"l«-  criminal  jurisdiction  within  the  lil* 
of  the  town  to  be  vested  in  him  alone,  and  the  civil  in  conjun 
with  the  magistrates,  which,  as  Fountainhall  remarks  on  the  case, 
"  insignificates  their  privileges  as  a  burgh,"     That  Hatton  was  success 
ful  in  this  and  kindred  came,  will  surprise  no  one  who  consider**  the 
constitution  of  the  courts  at  that  time,  as  every  tribunal  in  the  k. 
ili'in  w:is  under  tho  control  of  his  brother,  the  ahle,  but  certainly 
infamous  Duke  of  Lauderdale.     In  the  year  1684,  the  estates  of  I  Mid 
hope  and  Constabulary  of  Dundee  were  taken  from  Hattou  by  James 
VII.,  who  granted  them  to  John  Graham  of  <  'lav  -rh ••u»-.  f-.r  the  con- 
sideration of  the  sum  of  £2000,  paid  to  Lauderdalv.     The  king  at  the 
name   timo   made  Claverhnuae  a    I'ms  (  <nincill,ir ;  afterward*  raised 
him   to  the  rank  of  innjor-gi  n  -rul,  and  by  patent,  dated  JNovuiuber 


ATTACK  BY  CLAVERHOUSE.  .      105 

12,  1688,  created  him  Viscount  of  Dundee,  and  Lord  Graham  of 
Claverhouse.  The&e  honours,  the  last  conferred  by  the  king  before 
his  flight  from  London,  were  Graham's  reward  for  years  of  cruel  and 
dishonourable  service  against  his  countrymen,  as  the  tool  and  minister 
of  arbitrary  power.  Claverhouse's  implacable  hatred  and  opposition 
to  Presbyterianism,  and  his  savage  cruelty  to  the  supporters  of  it, 
rendered  him  peculiarly  obnoxious  to  James  Fletcher,  Provost  of 
Dundee,  who  was  a  zealous  and  conspicuous  adherent  of  the  Covenant- 
ing cause.  That  he  might  indulge  his  fierce  passions  to  the  prejudice 
of  the  Presbyterians  and  the  inhabitants  of  Dundee,  Claverhouse,  as 
Constable,  in  virtue  of  his  newly  acquired,  but  illegal  right,  attempted 
to  preside  in  a  magisterial  capacity  over  the  town.  He  went  so  far, 
in  his  presumption  and  devotion  to  arbitrary  power,  as  to  insist  upon 
privileges  which  had  been  solemnly  relinquished.  He  next  proceeded 
to  nominate  a  provost  by  his  own  authority ;  but  this  imprudent 
overstretch  of  power  was  resented  with  so  much  spirit,  that  he  was 
compelled  to  seek  for  safety  in  a  precipitate  retreat,  which  he  effected 
with  difficulty,  hurrying  from  the  Town  Hall  with  his  head  uncovered. 
Determined  to  take  vengeance  on  the  town  for  this  disappointment, 
and  to  retaliate  with  interest  the  insults  with  which  it  was  accom- 
panied, he  flew  to  Dudhope  in  a  transport  of  vindictive  rage,  and 
flfmrmaTiflp.fi  his  dependents,  with  a  body  of  his  Highland  retainers,  to 
assemble  in  arms  in  the  Glen  of  Ogilvy.  His  orders  were  promptly 
obeyed.  At  the  head  of  his  vassals,  he  returned  towards  Dundee, 
anticipating  the  opportunity  of  wreaking  his  fury  on  its  inhabitants. 
The  humanity  of  Mrs  Maxwell  of  Tealing,  however,  interposed  to  pre- 
vent the  threatened  catastrophe.  She  saw  Claverhouse  descending 
the  southern  slope  of  the  Sidlaws  with  his  forces  ;  and,  conjecturing 
his  ferocious  intentions,  from  her  knowledge  of  his  enmity  to  the 
town,  was  lamenting  her  inability  to  convey  intelligence  of  the  ap- 
proach of  danger  to  Provost  Fletcher,  for  whom  she  entertained  the 
greatest  respect,  when  one  of  her  servants,  called  More,  overhearing 
her  anxious  expressions  of  sorrow  and  regret,  offered  to  proceed  to 
Dundee  and  communicate  her  apprehensions.  Mrs  Maxwell,  with 
the  liveliest  pleasure,  accepted  his  tender  of  service,  and  instantly 
despatched  him  on  the  errand.  By  this  time,  Claverhouse  was  past 
Tealing,  and  More,  taking  the  same  direction,  walked  on  unmolested, 
and  overshot  the  hostile  band ;  but  Claverhouse,  remarking  the  speed 
of  his  pace,  and  suspecting  his  design,  ordered  a  party  to  follow  bin: 


1 '  "•  BISTORT  Or  DOKDES. 

with-mt  delay.  ID  the  meantime,  More,  pursuing  hi*  journey,  deserted 
tho  highway,  and,  turning  down  a  hollow  near  the  burn  of  Clep: 
ton,  eluded  hit  pursuer*.  When  arrived  at  the  same  place,  the  pur- 
tuing  party  found  a  man  stretched  upon  the  ground  fart  asleep ;  and 
concluding  him  to  be  the  object  of  their  pursuit,  and  thai  he  had 
retorted  to  this  device  to  elude  them,  they  instantly  seized  and  awoke 
him.  <  'lav.  rhouse  coming  up,  in  his  usual  style  of  overbearing  inso- 
lence, threatened  to  punish  him  with  tin-  utmost  severity  for  his  con- 
duct. The  man  stood  astonished ;  protested  bis  innocence  of  any 
design  to  offend  ;  requested  him  to  look  u|x>n  his  once  well-known  fea- 
tures, and  reminded  him  of  several  actions  ho  had  performed  in  his  own 
presence,  which  merited  a  better  reward.  Claverhouse  was  now  sensi- 
1.1.  i >f  his  error,  and,  chafing  with  rage  at  having  lost  so  much  time, 
n  •!  'iiM.  <l  his  speed  to  overtake  tho  fugitive,  but  in  vain.  More 
meanwhile  had  reached  the  town,  and,  by  running  through  the  streets, 
ut  it-ring  warning  cries,  and  making  expressive  gesticulations,  had  ap- 
prised tho  inhabitants  of  the  imminent  danger  which  wan  approaching 
tin-in.  iVfure  <  'l.iv.  rhoitse  had  arrived,  they  had  assemM--.!  in  num- 
bers, and  nuulo  preparations  for  repelling  his  attack.  Enraged  at  this 
second  disappointment,  ho  commanded  his  vassals  to  fire  the  Rotten 
Row,  or  Hilltowu,  and  in  a  short  time  tho  whole  suburb  was  in  flnmoa. 
Tho  owners  of  the  blazing  dwellings,  unable  to  make  any  exertion  to 
save  their  property,  stood  mournful  spectators  of  tln-ir  own  ruin, 
while  tip  ir  neighbours  of  Dundee  could  give  them  no  assistance, 
as  tho  town  itself  was  in  danger.  Apparently  satisfied  with  thin 
a<  lii"v<-uiriit,  riuvi-rliousi-  retired ;  and,  being  called  soon  after  to 
act  elsewhere,  he  ceased  to  disturb  the  counsels  and  to  overawe  tho 
adniinistr.it ion  of  magistrates,  whom  he  found  too  powerful  f«r  him.1 
Tho  battle  of  Killicrankie,  fought  17th  June,  1689,  finished  his  • 


1  CUrerhouM  made  bu  attack  on  the  town  at  fire  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of 
the  18th  May,  1689  ;  and  on  the  next  day  the  Priry  Council  ordered  the  collector 
of  custom*  at  Bo*  ness  to  enter  six  "  firakmgs"  of  powder,  belonging  to  Dundee, 
free  of  duty;  and  at  the  Mune  time  authori*e>l  UM  Magistrates  to  apprehend  all 
persona  seeking  a  passage  across  Tay  that  could  not  give  a  good  account  of  them- 
selves ;  and  also  to  seise  all  boats  of  every  kind  upon  the  river  from  Perth  to  the 
sea.  A  month  ptevious  to  this  attack,  an  act  of  Parliament  passsrf,  dated  12th 
April,  1689,  depriving  the  nominees  of  the  exiled  James  VII ,  who  had  long  mis- 
governed the  town,  vf  all  concern  in  the  Magistracy,  and  authorising  a  poll  elec- 
>f  Magistrates,  to  continue  till  Michaelmas,  when  the  iwuJ  furm  was  directed 
tS)  be  again  alopted  a&  1  oontinne,  which  accordingly  took  place. 


DECLINE  OF  WOOLLEN  MANUFACTURES.  107 

and  inglorious  career.     Tliis  was  the  last  hostile  attack  made  on  Dun- 
dee, though  not  the  last  time  a  hostile  force  possessed  it. 

The  slaughter  of  the  inhabitants,  and  the  pillaging  of  the  town  by 
Monk,  were  evidently  the  co-operating  causes  of  the  decline  of  Dundee 
from  its  former  consequence.  Its  wealth  was  removed,  its  population 
reduced,  and  its  commercial  and  manufactiiring  prospects  ruined.  A 
famine  of  seven  years'  continuance,  which  occurred  toward  the  end  of 
the  same  century,  increased  the  gloom  by  swallowing  up  the  produce 
of  the  little  means  acquired  between  its  commencement  and  termina- 
tion of  hostilities.  The  ruin  of  the  grey  woollen  manufacture  or  plaid- 
ing  succeeded,  which,  besides  supplying  the  demand  at  home,  had 
been  exported  in  large  quantities  to  the  Continent,  where  it  was  used 
in  many  parts  of  Germany  for  clothing  the  soldiery.  The  demand 
was  increasing,  and  prospects  were  encouraging,  till  the  Union  which 
took  place  between  Scotland  and  England  came  on  them  like  a 
withering  blight.  The  exportation  of  woollen  cloth  from  the  former 
was  expressly  prohibited,  while  that  of  wool,  the  raw  material,  was 
encouraged  with  the  greatest  earnestness.  The  manufacture,  thus 
ruined  beyond  recovery,  was  engrossed  by  the  English,  while  the  com- 
merce of  the  Scots  was  sacrificed  to  the  interests  of  her  powerful  rival. 
At  this  time  there  was  not,  as  there  could  not  be,  any  idea  of  the  great 
extent  to  which  trade  and  manrufactures  have  been  carried  since  ;  and 
we  cannot  help  thinking  that  a  spirit  of  commercial  enterprise  had 
begun  to  manifest  itself  in  Scotland,  and  to  be  prosecuted  with  much 
vigour  and  success  before  the  jealousy  of  England  could  have  been 
awakened.  That  such  was  the  case,  and  that  affairs  were  proceeding 
prosperously,  the  indefensible  conduct  of  the  English  to  the  Scots 
colony  of  Darien,  settled  in  1698  and  ruined  in  1700,  amply  proves; 
which,  together  with  the  whole  foreign  trade  of  Scotland,  was  to  be 
sacrificed  to  protect  that  of  England — a  proceeding  which  condemned 
the  former  to  remain  much  longer  than  otherwise  she  would  have 
done  in  a  state  of  comparative  poverty  and  barbarism. 

Seven,  years  previous  to  the  settlement  of  the  colony  of  Darien,  or 
New  Caledonia,  the  miserable  condition  of  the  individual  burghs  was 
made  the  subject  of  complaint  to  the  Convention  of  Royal  Burghs,  as 
each  was  on  the  brink  of  irretrievable  ruin.  In  the  Convention  which 
met  at  Edinburgh,  9th  July.  1691,  the  state  of  the  burghs  was 
brought  forward  and  considered.  The  entire  number,  sixty-seven  we 
believe,  was  divided  into  two  parts, — those  on  the  north  and  those  on 


1     >  BISTORT  OF  DUXDO. 

the  couth  of  the  Tay.  Poor  visitors  wore  appointed  to  repair  to  tho 
burghs,  and  examine  on  the  spot  into  the  particular  state  and  circum- 
stances of  each,  and  to  report  upon  its  income  and  expenditure,  debts 
and  resource*,  its  foreign  and  home  traffic,  and,  generally,  everything 
connected  with  it,  and  to  swear  the  parties  examined.  James  Fletcher, 
provunt  of  Dundee,  and  Alexander  Walker,  one  of  the  bailies  of 
Aberdeen,  were  appointed  visitors  of  the  burgh*  south  of  Tay  ;  aud 
John  Moor,  provost  of  Ayr,  and  James  Smollet,  provost  of  Dumbar- 
ton, were  nominated  to  the  same  office  to  the  burghs  north  ol  the 
same  boundary. 

Tin  following  is  the  state  of  the  town  in  1691,  as  sworn  to  before 
th«:  visitors  : — l 

OBIMB 

Imp.  the  town's  milns  yearly,              ...            ...            ...             ...  £723     0    0 

It  the  pettie  customs  yearly,          ...            ...            ...            ...  940    0    0 

It. 'in,  the  fieth  and  fish  stock*  yearly,                ...            ...            ...  80    0    0 

It.  the  postinastenhip  yearly,           ...             ...             m             ...  MOO 

It.  a  year's  rent  of  the  anchorage  and  shore  aflrer,      ...            ...  80    0    0 

It.  a  year's  not  of  the  ten  pennies  on  ilk  stipend  of  malt,         ...  26  IS    4 

It.  a  year's  rent  of  the  salmond  fishings,        ...             ...             ...  180    0    0 

It  a  year's  rent  of  the  mid  ling  lain  at  the  east  aad  west  ports,  18    0     0 

It  a  year's  rent  of  the  Limm  potto  and  grass  at  the  east  port,*  388 

It  a  year's  rent  of  the  packhouie  and  packhouse  yoani,             ...  500    0     0 

It.  a  year's  nnt  of  the  hucksten*  stands,      ...             ...             ...  10    0    0 

It.  a  year's  rent  of  the  vicarage,                     ...            ...            ...  80    0    0 

It  a  year's  rent  of  the  flesh  shambles,           120    0    0 

It  the  few  duty  of  the  Balgayes  salmond  fishing,        ...             ...  400 

It  the  few  duty  of  the  booth  under  the  tolbuith  and  behind  it,  40    0    0 

It  the  few  duty  of  Mr  Auchin lock's  yeanl,                   ...             ...  800 

It  the  few  duty  of  Andrew  Nicoll's  house  at  the  ye  east  port,  800 

It  payed  yearly  to  the  town  for  the  head  rowmea,'     ...             ...  5  12    0 

It  the  pettie  impost  on  wyne,         ...             ...             ...             ...  50    0    0 

It  a  year,  rent  of  the  Lands  of  Logic,          ..              ...             ...  457  18    0 

It  a  few  duty  out  of  David  Soot,  in  Balhangie  his  shop,           ...  1   18    0 


£3,551     1    0 

1  From  the  Appendix  to  the  General  Krportof  the  Commksionen  on  Municipal 
Corporations  in  Scotland,  presented  to  Parliament  in  1835,  by  «™»«~»i*^  of  his 
Majesty  William  IV. 

*  These  lime  pots  or  pits  we  consider  to  have  been  the  conveniences  used  by 
the  Glovers  for  preparing  their  materials  for  us*. 

»  This  was  a  rent  paid  by  the  Nine  Trades  for  the  use  of  as  many  spaces  in  the 
Houfl;  where  each  Trade  met  at  its  own  Head  Room  to  transact  iu  own  business* 
Anciently  the  Convener  Co«irt-  wmakv  held  ia  (he  samei  lace. 


TOWN'S  FINANCES  IN  1691.  109 


DISCHARGE. 

Imp.  resting  be  the  town  of  Dundie,  to  severall  persons  by  bond,  the 

sowme  of  £38,253,  which  pays  of  annual  rent  yearly,          ...  £2.295     3     8 

Payed  to  the  laird  of  Fintrie  of  few  duty  yearly,            ...            ...  100     0     0 

Pd.  to  the  parson  for  his  house  rent,                 ...            ...             ...  100     0    0 

To  the  town's  two  stependiarie  ministers,         ...            ...             ...  1,566  13     4 

To  the  Clerk  deput,  advocat,  his  servant,  postmr.  of  Edinr.,  and 

other  offices,              ...            ...             ...             ...             ...  286     0    0 

To  the  master  of  the  grammar  school,  his  two  doctors,  and  jani- 
tors,            ...            ...            ...            ...            ...            ...  366  13     4 

To  the  Knocksmith  of  fie,    ...            ...            ...            ...            ...  9100 

To  the  precentor,  ...             ...             ...             ...             ...             ...  20     0     0 

To  St  Leonard's  colledge  for  two  bursars,         ...             ...             ...  144     0     0 

To  the  gild  officer,  town  officers,  drumer,  pyper,  and  yr  cloathse,  587     0     0 

To  the  hospitallmr  for  the  grass  above  and  beneath  St  Francis  Well,  42     6     8 

To  the  Kirk  theasaurer  for  a  year's  rent  of  a  booth,        ..              ...  2400 

To  a  few  duty  to  the  poor  out  of  the  gramar  bchooll,      ...             ...  2130 

To  a  few  duty  to  the  Laird  of  Lundie  5  lib,  and  to  John  Pierson's 

aires  2  lib.  10  sh.,       ...            ...            ...            ...            ...  7  10     0 

To  sequie  monie,     ...            ...            ...            ...            ...            ...  147     0     0 

To  the  writing  master,         ...             ...             ...             ...             ...  133     6     8 

To  a  ground  an  wall  out  of  the  Castell  Milns,                   ...             ...  1368 

It.  Commrs-  expences  to  the  General  Convention  of  Borrows  yeirly,  1 20     0     0 

It.  of  borrow  dewes  the  last  year,       ...            ...             ...             ...  251  12     0 

It.  Commrs.  expences  to  the  parlar  Convention  of  Borrows,          ...  000 

It.  Commissionars  expences  to  the  parliat,        ...             ...             ...  000 

It.  for  maintaining  the  honour  of  the  good  town  in  waiting  on 

noblemen  and  oyrs  in  whom  the  burgh  is  concerned,          ...  1200     0     0 

It.  a  few  duty  out  of  the  town's  milns  to  the  Earl  of  Lauderdaile,  66  13     4 

This  above  accompt,  being  the  chairge  of  the  comon  good  of  the  said  town,  and 
the  other  padge  being  ther  discharge,  is  the  just  and  trew  account  of  the  condi- 
tion of  the  said  burgh,  given  up  by  the  magistrats  and  town  clerk  upon  oath,  to 
;he  Visitors  appointed  by  the  Royall  Borrows  for  that  effect,  and  is  subscribed  by 
Dhe  said  magistrats  and  clerk ;  and  the  magistrats  doo  declaire  that  the  brewars 
aaving  considered  the  low  condition  of  the  burgh,  and  the  encreasing  of  their 
debts  by  reasone  of  the  extraordinarie  emergents,  the  brewars  have,  in  October 
last,  granted  a  voluntarie  contributione  and  impositione  to  be  payed  be  them  to 
the  town,  of  ten  shillings  Scots  upon  each  boll  of  malt,  for  support  of  the  burgh, 
which  is  only  to  continew  dureing  the  brewars  pleasure.  Sic  subscributur,  JA. 
FLETCHER,  provost ;  JOHN  SCOT,  bailie  ;  PATRICK  ZEAMAW  bailie  ;  WILLIAM  WAT- 
SONE,  bailie  ;  JA.  WEDDERBUBNE  (elk.) 


110 


HISTORY  OF  DUNDRft, 


A  ne  Accompt  "/  At  Mattert  of  Ship§  NtuMt,  and  the  burden  of 
their  VethetU,  belonging  to  the  Burgh  off  /)«/> 

1.  Alesander  Wedderburne,  hi.  •hip,      ~. 

2.  John  Marr,  hU  ship, 

8.  Thomas  Abercrumbie,  hie  ship, 
4.  Andrew  Smitton,  hi*  ship,   ... 
ft.  John  Reid,  his  ship. 

6.  David  Ramsay,  hit  ship, 

7.  William  Pairweathar,  his  ship, 

8.  William  Donaldson,  his  ship, 
0.  William  Watt,  his  ship,       ... 

10.  Alexander  Duncan,  his  ship, 

1 1 .  Johne  Donaldsune,  his  iihip, 

12.  Robert  Rankine,  his  new  ship, 
IS.  The  old  bark  belonging  to  him, 

14.  James  Burgh,  his  ship,         ... 

15.  David  Machan,  his  ship,       

16.  Patrick  Gray,  his  ship, 

17.  Thomas  Rosa,  his  bark, 

18.  William  Lyell,  his  bark, 

19.  George  Patarsone,  his  bark, 

20.  John  Ramsay,  hu  bark,        ...  ... 

21.  William  Buc,  his  bark, 

1,991  tunns,  £2,920  value. 


|80  tunns,  £800  value. 

100 

400   „ 

90 

800  „ 

80 

«oo  „ 

00 

150  „ 

eo 

50  „ 

60 

160  „ 

40 

w  „ 

50 

100  w 

M 

80  n 

86 

M  w 

50 

120   » 

80 

80  . 

60 

100  w 

85 

60  „ 

80 

60  w 

24 

40  „ 

24 

50  „ 

16 

80  M 

10 

so  w 

10 

«>  • 

Note  of  Burght  of  Barronie  and  Regal i tie  to  the  Burgh  of  Dundie, 

Imp.  the  hill  of  Dundie  trads  ta  the  value  of 

the  feme  Partanoraigs  in  passage  boats,  shipping,  and  trade,1 
the  towne  of  North  Feme,  ...  ...  ... 

Minnyfeith,  Barrie,  and  Panbiyd,     .  . 

Qlamous  trades  to  the  value  of        ...  ...  ... 

Kirremure  trades  to  the  value  of     ... 

Alicht  trades  to  the  value,  ...  ...  ... 

Coupar  of  Angus  trades  to  the  value  of 

Miglie  and  Newtyle, 

Forgan  and  Ballegerno, 
Brroll,' 


£10,000 
.  .      i 
4,000 
6,000 
2.000 
10,000 
16,000 
-  .      • 
2,000 
8,000 
8,000 


£100,000 

1  The  name  of  "  Portincraigs,"  though  subsequently  applied  to  the  headland  on 
the  Fife  aid*  of  the  Perry,  a^teu-t  fr».n  chuter4  u<  the  Abbey  of  Arbroath 
to  have  designate  what  is  now  known  as  Bruughty.  See  Innes's  Sketches,  p. 
146.— Eo. 

»  We  are  aware  U*t  the  liberties  of  Dundee,  in  the  feudal  time*,  e*te»K 


COST  OP  FORTIFICATIONS — 1689. 


Ill 


Note  oj  trie  Town's  Losses. 

At  law  wit  my  Lord  Lauderdaill  for  7  years,  ... 

For  building  and  rebuilding  the  bulwark  of  ye  town, 
It.  for  cutting  the  loch  of  Lundie  for  water  to  ye  milns, 
James  Davie,  ship  and  leadening  lost  at  sea,  to  the  value  of     ... 
Robert  Rankine,  ship  called  the  Concord,  and  goodes  to  the 

value  of,  lost, 
Ane  other  ship  and  goodes  belonging  to  the  said  Rohert,  lost 

sex  years  yrafter, 

It.  anuoyr  ship  of  his  strandit  at  Aberdeen  and  lost, 
Thomas  Patersone,  ship  and  goods  lost,  valued  at      ...  ... 

George  Adamsone's  ship  lost, 

Alexr.  Wedderburne's  ship  lost,  with  a  Pourdeaux  loading,     ... 

William  Watt's  Crear,  * 

Robert  Smith,  loadened  from  the  Lewes,     ...  ... 


£20,000  0  0 

20,333  6  8 

333  6  8 

5,000  0  0 

20,000  0  0 

15,000  0  0 

4,000  0  0 

6,000  0  0 

4,000  0  0 

5,000  0  0 

4,000  0  0 

2,000  0  0 


£111,666  13     4 


Accompt  of  Expenses  be  the  Town  in  Ffortifying  the  same.z 

Imp.  debursed  be  James  Bonar,  theasr,  peraccot  and  recept,  ...  £3,092  19  5 

It.      to  William  Dumbar  for  express,               ...             ...  ...  68  19  0 

It.      to  payed  to  him  be  James  Lyon  for  express,         ...  ...  104     0  0 

It.      to  Bailly  Blair  for  powder,       .~             ...             ...  ...  165     0  0 

and  comprehended  an  extensive  tract  of  country  ;  but  we  cannot  perceive  how 
some  of  the  places  here  mentioned,  such  as  Glammiss.  Kirriemuir,  COT  par-in-Angus, 
could  affect  the  town,  as  they  were  independent  jurisdictions  and  regalities,  en- 
joying particular  privileges  ot  their  own, — Glammtes,  for  example,  depending  on 
its  own  feudal  lord,  the  Earl  of  Strathmore ;  Kirriemuir,  on  the  Earl  of  Angus  ; 
and  Cupar,  on  the  successors  of  the  Commendators  who  came  in  the  place  of  the 
old  Catholic  Abbots,  in  whose  favour  the  regality  was  erected ;  besides,  if  we  mis- 
take not,  the  liberties  of  Dundee  were  limited  to  Forfarshire,  and  Alyth  (Alicht), 
Forgon  (Longf organ)  and  Ballegerno  (Baledgarno),  Meigle,  and  Errol,  .are  in 
Perthshire.  We  may  remark,  that  the  authorities  of  Forfar  reported  to  the 
Visitors,  that  Kirriemuir  traded  to  the  value  of  £6000,  and  Glammiss  to  the  value 
of  £1000  ;  and  that  Perth  reported  Errol  at  £2000,  Coupar-in-Angus  at  £8000,  Ah  th 
at  £4000,  Meigle  at  £1000,  and  Longforgan  at  £1000. 

1  This  is  an  old  name  for  a  small  low-built  smack  vessel,  varying  from  thirty  to 
fifty  tons.     The  name  occurs  so  long  ago  as  the  reign  of  James  III.,  as  it  appears 
in  the  Acts  of  some  of  his  Parliaments.     Vessels  under  thirty  tons  appear  to  have 
been,  from  a  remote  period,  called  "barks  ;"  but  this  term,  under  a  different  ortho- 
graphy, is  applied  in  modern  times  to  distinguish  vessels  of  a  large  tonnage  and 
a  peculiar  form  of  rigging. 

2  In  the  year  1689. 


112  MRQRT  Of  DOlTDOaV 


It.     for  1«  muakete  to  Robert  Watson,         £46    8  0 

It.      f*>r  candle  to  guards*               ...                           ...            ...  166    4  1 

It.      for  dr««aing  the  toune»  anna, 66  13  4 

It,     to  John  Robertson  for  SO  fyrelock«  •*  6  lib  per  piece,      ...  ISO    0  0 

It.      to  Mr  Hugh  Safely  for  attending  the  guuna,                       ...  89    0  0 

It.     toniaaonsiorf«pairii«thetolbouthai»diMrts, 489    0  0 

To  Thomas  Doig  for  a  pair  of  wheell*  to  the  great  guns,             ...  19    0  0 

To  John  Wardroper  for  uil  to  the  carriadges,                  ...             .«  8     4  * 

To  John  Farrier  for  lead  M  par  aocompt,        ...            ...            ...  6  19  0 

To  several  oyr  peroiu  for  aniall  nec«asan  for  the  guna,               ...  7  17  0 

For  powder  to  severall  persona,         ...             ...             ...             ..  4218  0 

To  June.  Zeamand  and  John  Read  for  powder,             42  10  0 

Maintaining  Mane  wounded  men  after  Ranrory,1                  ...  87    4  0 
Pd  at  London  for  powder,  ball,  match,  and  shook,  68  lib.  6  at. 

7d.  rtorline,                  ...            ...             ...             ...             ...  819    7  0 

To  Joaeph  Smittun  for  yr  fraught  from  London,         ...            ...  57  18  4 

To  John  Reid  for  timber  and  oyn  pd  by  James  Lyon,                ...  96  10  0 

Pd  by  Andrew  SmiUin  for  ye  guards,  express,  and  fortificationea,  866    4  0 

To  Bailly  Scrymgour  for  ball,           ...            ...                           ...  25    0  u 

For  the  Provost  and  Baillie  Duncan  yr  expences  in  goaing  to  Lon- 
don in  January,  1 689,  for  presenting  the  grievances  of  the 

burgh  to  hi*  lUjestie,               1,626    0  0 

£7,952  10    9 

The  discontents  excited  by  the  unfortunate  Darien  Scheme,  and 
swelled  by  the  Uni<>n  :m<l  othf-r  rirrumstancee,  ended  in  the  rebellion 
of  1715,  which,  howover,  was  speedily  crushed  by  the  battle  of  Sheriff- 
moor,  fought  on  Sunday,  13th  November,  0.8.,  that  year  The  ma- 
gistrates of  Dundee  at  this  time  were  chiefly  in  the  interest  of  the 
Pretender ;  and  in  onler  to  evince  their  zeal  for  his  service,  they,  by 
tuck  of  drum  and  public  proclamation,  on  the  27th  of  May,  pnhil 
the  appearance  of  thn  inhabitants  with  arms  in  the  streets  on  the  n-  \t 
day,  which  was  the  anniversary  of  the  birth  of  George  L,  under  the 
]>«  nalty  of  forty  p.-niuls,  to  be  exacted  from  every  one  who  «hnuM 
oflend,  the  proceeds  of  which  penalties  they  probably  hoarded  as  a 
fund  fur  the  service  of  him  whom  they  accounted  their  lawful  so- 
vereign. Ill"  loyal  inhabitants  of  the  town  paid  no  attention  to  the 
proclamation  issued  by  the  magistrates ;  but,  assembling  in  a  body, 

>  The  battle  of  Killiocrankie.     It  u  called  Rinrory  from  the  name  of  a  pro. 

party  and  residence  situated  in  the  paw  near  the  field  of  battle;  and,  if  we 

nmasBbar  right,  it  was  from  Rinrory  house  that  Gait  makm  hk  hero  Itingan 

u*e  discharge  the  shot  that  pror*d  fatal  to  the  chivalrotu  but  Uuwdy  Lord 

Dundee. 


THE  JACOBITE  RISING — 1715.  113 

proceeded  to  Dudhope  Castle,  where,  drawing  themselves  up  in  arms, 
they  drank  his  majesty's  health,  with  several  other  loyal  and  patriotic 
toasts,  accompanying  each  with  a  volley ;  and  having  thus  expressed 
their  loyalty  and  affection  to  his  majesty's  person  and  government, 
they  returned  quietly  to  their  homes,  to  the  great  mortification  of  the 
authorities  of  the  town,  who  durst  not  interrupt  this  demonstration 
of  popular  attachment  to  the  House  of  Hanover  and  its  royal  head. 
The  following  day  being  the  29th,  and  the  anniversary  of  the  Restora- 
tion of  Charles  II.,  was,  in  perfect  consistency  with  their  principles, 
celebrated  by  the  magistrates  with  the  usual  ceremonies. 

The  Earl  of  Mar  having  hoisted  the  standard  of  rebellion,  and  pro- 
claimed the  Pretender,  King  of  Scotland,  England,  France,  and 
Ireland,  &c.,  at  Braemar,  on  the  6th  September,  1715,  Graham  of 
Duntrune,  styling  himself  Lord  Viscount  Dundee,  renewed  the  pro- 
clamation at  Dundee  soon  after.  During  the  same  month,  Mar,  hav- 
ing taken  possession  of  Perth,  proceeded  to  fortify  it,  and  for  this 
purpose  he  carried  four  pieces  of  large  and  three  of  small  cannon  from 
Dundee,  and  other  seven  from  Duuottar,  intending  to  mount  them  on 
his  new  fortifications ;  but  the  battle  of  Sheriffmuir  having  deranged 
the  plans,  and  disconcerted  the  measures  of  the  rebel  leaders,  several 
of  them  made  their  peace  with  their  lawful  sovereign. 

Induced  by  the  nattering  accounts  transmitted  by  his  friends,  and 
strongly  solicited  to  appear  among  them  previous  to  their  submissions 
being  made,  the  Pretender  left  France  and  arrived  at  Peterhead  on  the 
22d  December,  1715.  He  was  followed  by  some  vessels,  having  his 
equipage  and  attendants  on  board,  one  of  which  got  safe  to  Dundee, 
but  the  others  stranded  near  St  Andrews,  and  went  to  pieces,  imme- 
diately after  the  passengers,  crews,  and  cargoes,  had  got  safe  to  land. 
From  St  Andrews  the  crews  proceeded  to  Dundee,  where  they  were 
joined  by  a  detachment  of  a  hundred  of  the  rebels,  and,  by  their  assist- 
ance, conveyed  to  the  north  all  the  property  which  they  had  saved 
from  the  wrecks. 

From  Peterhead,  the  Pretender  passed  incognito  through  Aberdeen 
to  Fetteresso,  in  the  Mearns,  where  the  Earl  of  Mar,  the  Earl  Maris- 
chall,  and  others,  joined  him  on  the  27th,  being  five  days  after  his 
landing.  Here  he  was  proclaimed  king,  and  tarried  a  few  days,  being 
prevented  by  sickness  from  proceeding  farther ;  and,  while  here,  his 
manifesto  was  issued ;  an  address  from  the  Episcopal  clergy  of  the 


]  U  niHTORT  Or  UUNUKB. 

diooeae  of  Aberdeen,  and  another  from  the  mngistntea  of  that  • 
were  presented,  and  gnciotu  answers  returned.  AM  the  finishing  act 
of  this  display  of  mock  royalty,  several  title*  were  conferred,1  and  a 
batch  of  knighU  made,  and  among  othen  to  diittinguished  wa§  Provost 
Bonnerman  of  Aberdeen.  Recovering  from  his  aickneaa,  the  Pret* ; 
left  Fettereaao  on  Monday,  2d  January,  1 7 1 6,  proceeded  to  Breclun, 
tin-no-  t<>  Kiim.iinl.  tin-  *-at  <>f  his  adherent,  the  Earl  of  Southeak, 
and  thence  to  GlanimiM,  the  scat  of  the  Earl  of  Strathmore,  who,  with 
his  brother,  Patrick  Lyon  of  AuchU-rhouae,  was  in  his  interest.  Leav- 
ing Glamniiss,  on  Friday  the  6th,  he  arrived  at  Dundee  about  eleven 
ck  in  the  forenoon,  and  made  his  public  entry  on  horseback,  the 
Earl  of  Mar  supporting  him  on  the  right,  and  the  Earl  Marischall  on 
tlit  left,  with  a  train  of  about  tlm-e  hundred  gentlemen  attending 
him.  Upon  reaching  the  High  Street,  or  imririt  plion,  he  continued 
nearly  an  hour  on  horseback,  at  the  desire  of  hit)  friend*,  to  ahow  him- 
•elf  to  the  people,  who  crowded  around  him  in  great  number*.  Those 
of  the  inhabitant*  who  espoused  his  interest,  including  the  Jacobite 
magistrates  and  non-conforming  clergy,  received  him  with  acclamations 
of  welcome,  and  in  return  enjoyed  the  honour  of  kissing  his  hand. 
That  night  he  lodged  in  the  town-house  of  Stewart  of  Grandtully,  at 
tin-  head  of  the  Seagate,  which  afterwards  acquired  new  interest  aa 
being  the  house  within  which  the  gallant  Admiral  Lord  Viscount 
Duncan  drew  his  first  breath.  Leaving  Dundee  on  the  day  after  his 
arrival,  the  Chevalier  de  St  George  proceeded  on  his  route  toward* 
Perth,  dining  at  Castle  Lyon,  now  Castle  Huntly.  a  seat  of  the  Karl 
of  Strathmore,  ami  sleeping  that  night  at  Fiugask,  the  seat  of  Sir 
David  Threi|>lnn<1,  -ituated  on  the  Braes  of  the  Cane,  where,  as  he 
approached,  the  country  people  flocked  to  see  him ;  and,  as  he  rode 
slowly,  they  pressed  forward  to  touch  him,  his  horse,  or  any  part  of 
its  furniture  which  they  could  reach.  On  Sunday  the  8th  January, 
he  arrived  at  Scone,  and  next  day  made  his  public  entry  into  iVrth. 
His  manifesto  was  now  renewed,  and  his  council  nominated  ;  procla- 
mations were  issued  for  a  public  thanksgiving  for  his  safe  arrival — for 
praying  for  him  as  king  in  all  churches — for  a  convention  of  the  Estate* 
of  the  Kingdom — for  all  fcnciMf  men,  from  sixteen  to  sixty,  repairing 

1  Among  otbera,  th«  Etui  of  Perth  WM  created  Duk«  of  Perth,  or,  M  Andrew 
Brie*  of  BnUr,  in  bin  r*it*rtnl  Qtrjrapiueml  Dietiomaiy,  published  in  1759, 
quaintly  phrMM  it,  lie  "  WM  dubbed  *  f«Mr  DmJct, 


VISIT  OF  THE  PRETENDER.  11,1 

to  his  standard — and  for  his  coronation,  which  he  fixed  for  the  23d  of 
the  same  month.  In  the  meantime,  though  he  had  no  objection  to 
Protestants  supporting  him  with  their  arms,  he  carefully  avoided  en- 
tering their  churches  or  hearing  their  doctrines ;  and,  with  the  infa- 
tuated bigotry  of  his  race,  issued  no  declaration  which  might  induce 
the  Protestant  population  of  the  kingdom  to  rally  round  his  banner. 
On  the  day  appointed  by  himself,  the  vain  formality  of  his  coronation 
took  place.  By  this  time,  however,  the  spirits  of  the  rebel  leaders 
were  very  much  depressed,  and  the  affections  of  the  people  in  the  sur- 
rounding country  cooled,  owing  to  an  order,  issued  six  days  before  his 
coronation,  for  burning  the  towns,  villages,  and  houses,  and  for 
destroying  the  corn  and  forage  between  Dunblane  and  Perth ;  and  his 
coronation  was  hurried  on  for  the  sake  of  conciliating  and  soothing 
the  offended  minds  of  the  people,  and  exciting  them  to  arm  in  his 
'cause.  But,  alas  !  a  pageant  was  found  a  poor  substitute  for  property 
in  flames.  Instead  of  support,  or  an  acquisition  of  strength,  they 
found  their  numbers  greatly  reduced,  their  money,  ammunition,  and 
provisions  exhausted ;  and  to  add  to  their  distress,  the  royal  army, 
reinforced  by  six  thousand  Dutch  auxiliaries,  was  now  iii  readiness  to 
attack  them.  Everything  militated  against  the  Pretender;  and,  not- 
withstanding all  his  persuasions  to  the  contrary,  it  was  resolved  in  a 
council,  held  on  the  19th  January,  four  days  previous  to  that  appointed 
for  his  coronation,  to  abandon  an  enterprise  which  had  become  entirely 
hopeless.  On  the  29th  of  the  same  month,  they  received  intelligence 
that  the  Duke  of  Argyle  intended  to  march  from  Stirling  against  them. 
To  avoid  him,  they  left  Perth,  and  proceeded  through  the  Carse  of 
Gowrie  (stopping  to  refresh  at  Fiugask)  to  Dundee,  thence  to  Ar- 
broath,  and  finally  to  Montrose  ;  where,  on  arriving,  they  learned  that 
the  royal  army  was  within  two  days'  march  of  them.  With  much 
entreaty,  the  Pretender  was  reluctantly  persuaded  to  embark  on  board 
a  small  French  vessel,  at  that  time  in  the  harbour  of  Montrose,  and 
quitted  Scotland  for  ever. 

Closely  following  the  fugitives,  the  Duke  of  Argyle,  with  the  royal 
army,  reached  Dundee  very  soon  after  the  insurgents  had  left  it,  and 
found  the  town  totally  void  of  a  magistracy.  The  provost,  bailies, 
and  a  majority  of  the  Council,  were  in  the  interests  of  the  exiled 
family,  and  did  not  find  it  convenient  to  await  the  arrival  of  the  Duke, 
but  wisely  kept  themselves  at  a  respectful  distance  from  his  presence 
and  from  danger.  Careful  of  the  interests  of  the  town,  as  well  as  of 


1  16  III8TOHT  OF  DUNDKB. 

the  general  welfare  of  the  State,  his  Grace  appointed  a  magistracy  pro 
by  hu  warrant  to  that  effect,  which  ran  as  follows.*  — 


John.  Dak*  of  Argyll,  General  and  Oniiiiander-m.Chief  of  His  Majesty's  fort*. 
in  North  Britain,  Ac. 

Whereas  there  an  no  Magistrates  at  praMnt  in  this  city,  who  can  act  or  take 
care  of  the  attar*  of  the  city,  whereby  Hi*  Majesty's  service,  M  well  M  the  city, 
may  sufhr,  yon  an  therefore  hartby  required  and  authorised  to  take  upon  you 
the  oar*  of  thi*  city,  and  the  affair*  thereof,  till  rach  time  as  the  proper  Magi* 
trates  oaa  be  appointed  by  lawful  authority.  Given  at  Dundee,  the  8d  of  Fe- 
bruary, 1718. 

(ttgned)  AaoTLL. 

To  Mr  JOHJI  SCBTMBOTTB, 
JAMBS  Ausov, 


AutXAKDKR  PRKVOV, 

Jam  FAIBWKATHKR,  and 
Mciroo  MURRAY.' 

Thirty  yean  after  this  abortive  attempt,  anoth«»r  rebellion  took 
place,  at  the  head  of  which  appeared  Charles  Kdward  Stuart,  eldest 
son  of  the  Pretender.  As  the  event*  of  this  insurrection  have  been  a 
favourite  theme  with  novelist  and  historian,  it  is  unnecessary  to  dilate 
on  them.  Suffice  it  to  say,  that  the  adherents  of  the  Pretender,  in 
number  about  six  hundred,  un-JiT  th<>  command  of  Sir  James  Kinloch, 
took  and  held  possession*  of  Dundee  from  the  7th  of  September,  1745, 
until  the  14th  of  January,  1746  —  a  period  of  twenty  weeks;  but  so 
soon  as  the  rebellion  subsided,  the  town  returned  again  to  the  obedience 
of  its  lawful  sovereign.* 

1  David  Maxwell'*  name  occur*  as  one  of  the  pursuers  in  the  action  be- 
fore the  Court  of  Session  in  1716,  to  reduce  the  election  of  the  magistrates 
at  Michaelmas  1714.  We  remember  to  have  seen  somewhere  a  statement 
that  care  was  taken  to  have  as  many  friends  of  the  Pretender  as  possible 
elected  at  Michwlmas,  1714.  Contemplating  the  iniurrection  of  1715,  the  in- 
sui  gents  were  aware  of  the  advantage  Dundee  would  be  to  their  attempt*,  as 
by  possessing  it,  they  would  be  enabled  to  throw  their  expected  succours  from 
France  into  the  very  heart  of  the  kingdom  at  once  ;  and,  ooneequenUy.  the  best 
way  to  secure  the  town  was  to  secure  a  majority  of  the  Council,  if  they  could  not 
secure  the  whole.  Whether  thi*  be  true  is  of  little  consequence  now,  but  we  have 
seen  that  a  part  of  the  Council  were  pronounced  Jacobites. 

1  Mungo  Murray  was  a  younger  son  of  Sir  William  Murray,  first  Baronet  of 
Onohtertyre,  so  created  in  1673.  Mr  Murray  married  Martha,  only  daughter  of 
Bailie  Andrew  Forrester,  of  the  family  of  Millhill,  and  died  in  1718,  leaving  two 
•one,  John  Murray  of  Lin  trove,  Esq.,  and  Alexander,  who  was  bred  a  merchant. 

1  In  the  histories  of  thia  eventful  period,  the  number  of  rebels  who  took  poa- 
•union  of  buuO«M  u  sutol  «t  three  hundred.  The  uuiuber  stated  in  the  text  is 


OCCUPATION  BY  ADHERENTS  OF  PRINCE  CHARLES  EDWARD.          117 

Immediately  after  taking  possession  of  the  town,  Sir  James  Kinloch 
published  the  Pretender's  declaration,  manifesto,  and  commission  of 
regency ;  appointed  one  David  Fotheringhame,  governor ;  searched 
the  town  for  horses,  arms,  and  ammunition ;  and  levied  the  public 
money,  for  which  receipts  were  given.  On  the  following  Sabbath, 
being  the  8th  September,  the  ministers  of  the  Established  Church 
preached,  and  as  usual,  we  are  told,  prayed  for  the  reigning  family, 
and  earnestly  exhorted  their  respective  congregations  to  remain  firm  in 
their  loyalty,  and  stedfast  in  their  duty  to  their  country  and  their  king. 
We  are  also  informed,  that  many  of  the  rebels  resorted  to  the  churches, 
Avhere  they  conducted  themselves  with  becoming  propriety,  manifest- 
ing no  inclination  to  interrupt  the  quiet  and  decorum  of  the  congrega- 
tions, or  to  molest  the  preachers.  That  the  clergymen  would  preach 
and  perform  the  other  parts  of  their  duty,  there  is  no  reason  to  doubt, 
and  that  many  of  the  rebels  would  go  to  church  from  the  mere  excite- 
ment of  curiosity  is  very  likely ;  but  that  those  who  went  on  the  first 
Sunday  continued  to  go  on  the  next  and  succeeding  Sundays,  would 
argue  something  beyond  the  mere  gratification  of  an  idle  curiosity. 
That  no  interruption  to  public  divine  service  was  given  by  the  rebels 

confirmed  by  another  part  of  this  Note  ;  but,  perhaps,  three  hundred  had  arrived 
first,  who  were  afterwards  joined  by  an  additional  six  hundred,  aggregating 
nine  hundred  in  all,  and  this  the  sequel  seems  to  authorise,  as  two  separate 
arrivals  of  the  rebels  are  mentioned.  The  additional  six  hundred  appear  to  have 
been  overlooked  by  writers  on  this  subject.  The  remainder  of  this  Note  consists 
of  an  extract  from  the  parish  records,  made  by  a  member  of  Session  for  our  use. 
At  the  rebellion,  Mr  Charles  Jobson  was  Kirk-Treasurer,  and  from  his  books  the 
extract  was  made. 
"  1745.  July  7,  Sabbath — Rebellion  commenced. 

Sept.  8,  Sabbath — Rebels  entered  Dundee  yesterday, 

Sept.  22,  Sabbath — Preston  fought  yesterday. 

Nov.  4,  Monday — A  Fast. 
„     24,  Sabbath — About  600  rebels  came  to  town. 

Dec.  18,  Wednesday — King's  fast  stopt  by  the  rebels. 

From  ye  18th  to  26th,  collected  from  house  to  house,  worship 

being  stopt  by  the  rebels,  ...  ...  •••      £23     3     3 

From  26th  to  January  2d,  collected, 

From  January  2d  to  9th,          ...  ...  ...  •-.         28     6     9 

From  the  9th  to  14th,  which  day  the  rebels  departed,  never 
to  appear  here, 

17th  Jan.  Falkirk— Shamefully. 

19th     „    Sabbath  after  the  departure  of  the  rebels,  ...         5014     2 

February  2,  Sabbath— The  rebels  run  from  Falkirk  the  1st  curt. 

April  17,  Thursday— Yesterday  ye  16th  curt  was  fought  ye  famous  battle 
of  Culloden,  when  rebellion  died." 


1  1  >  HlSTTtRY  OF  DUXDHL 

for  a  time  is  pc**i  >>]<•;  hut  that  interruption  WM  ultimately  given  is 
undeniable ;  for  the  preceding  note  from  the  pariah  records  tell*  ex* 
pressly  that  public  worship  WM  stopped  by  them,  and  proves  that  the 
ordinary  supplies  for  the  poor  had  to  be  collected  from  house  to  boost, 
Instead  of  in  the  usual  manner  at  the  doors  of  the  churches.  About 
Urn  time,  a  vessel,  belonging  to  one  William  Grahame  of  Perth,  when 
in  the  harbour,  was  seized  by  a  party  of  the  rebel  garrison,  who  con- 
veyed her  to  I'-itli.  uiitl* -r  ilf  impression  that  she  was  laden  with 
gunpowder  m-1  »th<  r  military  stores. 

.1-  i-ventfiil  |">ri"d.  tli--  various  histories  of  the  times  inform  us 
that  the  most  alarming  reports  were  industriously  circulated,  in- 
to embitter  and  exasperate  the  public  mind  as  much  as  possible  against 
the  •  t  rnhble,  the  jwrcel  of  brutes,  being  a  small  number  of 

Scotch  Hi  Jihndere,"  as  Cope  is  said  to  have  called  the  rebels,  in  ad- 
dressing bis  troops  before  the  action  at  Pmetonpans,  so  destructive  to 
his  fame.  It  was  reported  that,  in  the  shire  of  Forfor,  the  gentry, 
cK-rgy,  and  inhabitants  at  large,  were  assessed  in  conMderaUc  gums  of 
money,  of  whirh  Sir  John  Wedderburne  of  Blackness  was  the  col- 
lector, for  which  he  afterwards  suffered  at  Kennington  Common.  The 
whole  of  the  pUJtMif^  U  is  said,  were  much  depopulated  by  pressing 
tin-  male  inhabitants  to  fill  the  rebel  ranks,  and  all  round  Dundee  and 

h  the  country  was  one  exU -nded  scene  of  robbery  and  confusion. 
That  robbery  and  confusion  did  occur,  there  cannot  be  any  doubt,  yet 
common  justice,  even  to  rebels,  requires  it  to  be  stated  that  the  coun- 
try was  not  depopulated  to  swell  the  !•  '••  1  armies,  otherwise  their  ranks 
at  Culloden  would  have  far  more  than  doubled  the  numlx-re  which 
the  muster  rolls  bore;  and  if  their  ranks  had  been  thinn  d  I-;,  the 
defection  of  the  pressed  men,  the  royal  army  would  have  been  numer- 
ous in  the  same  ratio  that  they  hod  fallen  off ;  for,  in  returning  home, 
the  deserters  would  generally  have  to  take  the  routes  by  which  the 
various  corps  of  the  royal  army  advanced ;  but  there  w:w  no  pressing, 
save  in  the  case  of  some  individuals  who  were  taken  for  the  purpose 
of  being  waggoners  or  sumpter  men,  and  these  were  almost  entirely  the 
tenants  and  dependents  of  gentlemen  engaged  openly  or  covertly  in  the 
interest  of  the  Pretender.  Stories  were  also  circulated  that  the  rebels 

red  houses  and  carried  off  the  stores  of  provisions  which  they  con- 
tained ;  but  what  is  there  extraordinary  or  uncommon  in  thist  Ne- 
cessity observes  no  ceremonies ;  and,  besides,  they  were  only  preying, 
on  those  they  wore  taught  to  consider  their  enemies ;  and  when  such 


FUGITIVES  AFTER  CULLODEN.  119 

practices  take  place  among  the  most  regularly  organised  armies,  some 
allowance  ought  to  be  made  for  the  conduct  of  those  who  were  igno- 
rant of  what  constituted  military  discipline.  After  all,  such  petty 
offences  formed  a  stain  trivial  when  compared  to  the  indefensible  and 
cruel  conduct  of  the  Duke  of  Cumberland  after  the  battle  of  Culloden. 

During  the  time  the  rebels  held  Dundee,  illuminations  were  ordered 
to  celebrate  the  arrival  of  some  aid  from  France,  which  was  sent  to 
keep  alive  their  hopes.  As  is  usual  on  occasions  of  that  kind,  the 
windows  of  those  who  did  not  illuminate,  particularly  of  the  Esta- 
blished clergy,  were  wholly  demolished.  One  report  goes  so  far  as  to 
say  that  a  shot  was  fired  and  stones  thrown  into  the  windows  of  one 
of  the  ministers  ;  that  the  soldiers  and  crowd  attempted  to  enter  the 
house  by  force,  while  the  family  escaped  by  a  back  door ;  and  that 
the  minister  himself,  being  unable  by  the  infirmities  of  age  to  escape, 
only  insured  his  safety  and  that  of  his  family  by  engaging  the  good 
offices  of  one  of  the  rebel  officers  with  whom  he  had  some  slight 
acquaintance.  On  the  2d  April,  six  weeks  after  the  rebels  left  the 
town,  the  Magistrates  and  Town  Council  voted  a  loyal  and  dutiful 
address  to  the  king,  in  which,  among  other  things,  they  laud  the  Duke 
of  Cumberland,  bepraise  themselves  for  their  loyalty  and  zeal,  and  take 
credit  for  the  release  of  some  prisoners  left  by  the  rebels  in  the  Castle 
of  Glammiss,  in  the  course  of  their  retreat  to  the  north.  The  address 
was  signed  by  Provost  Alexander  Duncan  of  Lundie,  and  presented 
by  Thomas  Leslie,  Esq.,  member  for  the  district.1 

After  the  battle  of  Culloden  had  given  the  death-blow  to  their 
hopes,  a  number  of  the  rebels,  skulking  from  place  to  place,  reached 
Dundee  in  May,  about  three  weeks  after  the  battle.  Among  these 
were  James  Graham  of  Duntrune,  who,  accounting  himself  heir  to 
Graham  of  Claverhouse,  assumed  the  title  of  Viscount  Dundee  ;  David, 
Lord  Ogilvy,  eldest  son  and  heir  of  the  Earl  of  Airlie  ;  Fletcher  of  Bal- 
linshoe  ;  Hunter  of  Burnside ;  David  Grahame,  and  Alexander,  his 

son,  merchants  in  Dundee ;   Henry  Patullo  ;  Sandilands  of 

Bourdeaux ;  Thomas  Blair,  merchant  in  Dundee ;  Alexander  Blair, 
writer  in  Edinburgh  ;  and  Fotheringhame,  the  former  Governor.  These 
adventurers,  with  a  design  to  make  their  escape,  seized  a  sloop  which 
was  lying  at  anchor  off  Monifieth,  belonging  to  James  Wemyss  of 
Broughty  Ferry,  and,  putting  to  sea,  arrived  in  Bergen  in  Norway  on 

1  The  address  is  too  long  for  transcription,  but  the  curious  reader  will  find  it  in 
the  Scots  Magazine  for  1746- 


HIXT<M»T  or  i>tnn>iw. 


the  13th  of  the  name  month.  Immediately  upon  landing,  they  w«"r* 
apprehended  and  committal  to  pn--n.  in  <  ..n..-.|u<<nce  of  orden  frum 
the  Danish  Government  to  confine  all  Hritwh  subjects  that  should 
eater  the  dominion*  of  hi*  Daniah  Majesty  without  having  proper 
passports.1 

From  tome  original  paper*  with  which  we  were  favoured,  we  find 
that  the  freedom  of  the  town  wa*  presented  to  the  Duke  of  Cumber- 
land in  a  gold  box.  The  box  was  made  in  Edinburgh,  sent  over  to 
Dundee  to  be  shown  to  the  Magistrates  and  their  iriends,  and  returned 
again  to  Edinburgh,  in  charge  «f  a  deputation,  to  be  presented,  whi<  -h 
was  done  about  the  l»th  <>r  l"th  »f  March.  The  document  which 
mention*  this,  is  a  1<  -tt<  -r  to  Alexander  Duncan,  at  that  time  town- 
el-  rk,  from  hi*  agent  in  Edinburgh,  but  which  gives  no  further  infor- 
mation on  the  subject 

At  this  time,  Dundee  seems  to  have  sunk  under  the  complicated 
misfortunes  which  affected  the  whole  nation.  The  depression  of  trade 
rapidly  reduced  the  population,  while  those  who  remained  languished 
in  hopeless  inaction.  The  principal  street  of  the  town  could  not  boast 
of  six  house*  ••..mpl.-tely  built  of  stone,  all  the  rest  were  of  wood  and 
partly  stone,  and  r\<---'-diii,']y  incommodious.  The  shops  did  not  n-nt 
at  above  three  pound*  sterling  per  annum,  and  some  that,  before  1790, 
8<>1<I  at  four  hundred  and  fifty  pounds,  were  entirely  shut 

Soon  after  the  suppression  of  the  rebellion,  Government  tiegan  to 
bestow  some  attention  on  tho  affair*  and  condition  <>f  Scotland,  which 
had  hitherto  been  prevented  by  the  intervention  ,.t  national  jealousy. 
The  period  wa*  now  arrived  when  the  arbitrary  sy*t«m  of  hereditary 
jurisdictions,  and  all  the  oppressive  enactments  of  the  feudal  rvpmM, 
which  had  n.-t  hitherto  yielded  t<>  the  <>|.,T.tti»n  "f  good  sense  and  the 
diffusion  of  knowledge,  were  to  give  way  to  a  more  enlightened  and 
better  order  of  things.  These  jurisdieti..ns  and  rights,  which  were 
wrested  from  ancient  sovereign*  by  rin  ninstances,  or  given  in  many 
eases  by  caprice,  were  now  bought  up.  and  vested  in  the  crown. 
Under  the  act  of  1747,  the  Duke  of  1  »..u  Jns,  as  Constable  of  Dundee, 
received  the  sum  of  £1800  sterling,  Wing  the  sum  at  which  the  Lords 
of  Council  and  Seroion  valued  the  constabulary  rights  and  privileges. 
i  this  time,  the  acknowledged  and  tyrannical  power*  of  the  Con- 
stable merged  into  the  mild  ami  regular  government  of  the  Provost 
Magistrates  ;  and  thus  peace,  harmony,  and  good  order  obtained  the 
•  TmrM  in  SmtlwvJ,  1715-1*  «H  1745-46. 


INFANCY  OP  THE  LINEN  TRADE. 


121 


ascendancy.  Meanwhile,  the  liberality  of  Parliament,  by  granting  a 
bounty  on  brown  linens  made  for  exportation, — manufactures  which, 
from  the  weight  of  fabric  and  lowness  of  price,  could  not  be  carried 
on  without  loss, — again  revived  trade,  and  stimulated  the  industry  of 
the  inhabitants.  Manufactures  were  established  and  prosecuted  with  a 
success  that  operated  in  a  most  beneficial  manner  on  the  domestic 
habits  and  comforts  of  the  people.  Since  this  happy  period,  Dundee 
has  continued  to  flourish.  Fields  which  not  many  years  since  "  dis- 
played their  yellow  treasures  in  the  sun,"  have  been  transformed  into 
spacious  suburbs,  seats  of  manufacturing  activity,  and  the  homes  of 
thousands,  whose  peaceful  industry  has  raised  our  town  to  a  high  posi- 
tion in  wealth  and  importance. 


X. 


DAWN  OF  TRADE  IN  THE  EIGHTEENTH  CENTURY—  THE  BOARD  OF  TRUSTEES  AND  LINEN 
MANUFACTURES—  THE  FIRST  VENTURES  IN  BANKING—  COMPARATIVE  PICTURES  OF 
SOCIAL  LIFE  IN  1746  AND  1799. 

FROM  the  period  of  the  '45,  when  the  cause  of  the  Stuarts  received 
its  death-blow,  the  history  of  Scotland  assumed  a  different  aspect. 
The  distractions  which  the  partisans  of  the  rival  dynasties  kept  up  were 
so  inimical  to  the  peace  and  security  of  the  country  that  its  progress  in 
agriculture,  manufactures,  and  commerce  was  slow  and  fitful.  But  the 
cannonade  on  Culloden  Moor  proved  the  knell  of  expiring  feudalism, 
and  a  new  era  dawned  on  Scotland,  —  less  picturesque  and  thrilling, 
no  doubt,  for  the  pages  of  history  or  romance,  but  more  grateful  to 
contemplate  as  an  era  in  which  the  dormant  energies  of  her  people 
achieved  as  marked  a  pre-eminence  in  peaceful  enterprise  as  their  fore- 
fathers had  maintained  by  the  sword  for  national  independence. 

In  1727,  an  act  of  Parliament  was  passed,  establishing  a  Board  of 
Trustees  in  Scotland  to  adminster  a  sum  of  £4,000,  set  aside  for  the 
encouragement  of  manufactures  and  fisheries.  The  promotion  of  the 
linen  trade  was  the  chief  object  aimed  at  by  the  Board  in  the  earlier 
years  of  its  existence  ;  and  the  increase  in  the  exports  of  linen  goods 


RUTORT  or  I/USDHL 

tram  3,183,978  yards,  in  1727,  to  12,823,048,  in  1764,  was  held  to 
demonstrate  the  success  of  its  labours  in  that  direction.  It  is  curious 
to  find  that  a  serious  impediment  to  the  operations  of  the  Board  in 
iU  early  days  was  found  in  a  sort  of  monetary  vacuum  which  ensued 
when  the  Royal  Bank  entered  the  field  hitherto  solely  occupied  by 
the  Bank  of  Scotland.  The  Utter  was  first  established  in  1696,  with 
a  capital  of  £10,000 ;  and  a  branch  was  tried  at  Dundee,  but  speedily 
withdrawn  for  want  of  support  When  the  Royal  Bank  was  launched 
in  1727,  with  a  capital  of  £111,000,  the  most  ruinous  conseqt 


to  the  country  were  predicted,  and  it  was  solemnly  avowed  that  "  no- 
body that  knows  the  nature  of  banking  does  believe  that  two  banks 
can  be  carried  on  in  the  same  country!"  In  1731,  this  possibility 
had  forced  itself  upon  the  director*  of  the  Bank  of  Scotland,  for  thuy 
again  tried  a  branch  in  Dundee  aud  other  provincial  towns,  but  only 
to  be  again  recalled,  after  two  years'  unsuccessful  trial,  In  1  ~ 
the  British  Linen  Company  was  established  at  Edinburgh,  with  a 
capital  of  £100,000,  the  object,  of  which  was  to  encourage  native  in- 

•  la-try,  by  advancing  ready  money  to  the  poorer  manufacturer- 
their  goods,  and  supplying  tu  merchant*,  trading  to  Africa  and  the 
Uriti.-h  Plantations,  such  kinds  of  linen  cloth  as  they  had  hitherto 
been  obliged  to  purchase  from  abroad.     M  r  Warden  observes,  "  al- 
thoiigh  it  is  rarely  safe  t<-  ]>ntn«uuce  authoritatively  on  the  reason  of 
any  social  change,  in  which  many  causes  and  elements  are  usually 
comliineil,  yi  l   it  is  a  fact  that  the  Linen  trade  underwent  a  rapid 

•  i"\.-l  •]>:.  tin-  fst.ilili-liui'-nt  of  the  Briti.-h  Linen  Company  ; 
aud  no  doubt  that  progress  is  due  to  the  assistance  it  rendered  to 
traders  and  others  engaged  in   the  manufacture.     The  Company  was 

1  "ii^  in  di>«>v<  rin^  that  assistance  could  be  best  given  by  advanc- 
ing money  to  the  in<livi<luab  engaged  in  it,  and  allowing  them  to 
prosecute  the  manufacture  on  their  own  account,  free  from  the  com- 
]H-tition  of  a  corporation.  This  led  the  Company  to  withdraw  i 
the  direct  dealing  in  yarns  and  linens,  and  to  adopt  banking  as  tin  ir 
sole  business.  .  .  .  After  the  institution  of  the  Company,  they  had  an 
agent  in  Dundee,  for  the  purchase  and  sale  of  goods,  of  the  name  of 
Palmer ;  but  that  agency  was  long  discontinued  before  the  present 
branch  Bank  establishment  was  opened  in  181 1."1 

The  Board  of  Manufactures  had  a  more  extended  intercourse  with 
I>undee  during  the  infancy  of  its  staple  trade.     In  172'J,  an  offer  of  a 

i    •  Liucu  Trade."  p.  40. 


FIRST  ESSAYS  IN  MANUFACTURES.  123 

spinning-school  Avas  made,  but,  strange  to  say,  had  to  be  declined  on 
account  of  the  poverty  of  the  town  precluding  its  contribution  of  the 
small  quota  required  for  its  support.  Three  years  afterwards,  how- 
ever, we  find  Richard  Holden,  a  skilled  man,  whom  the  trustees  had 
brought  from  Ireland,  setting  up  a  bleachfield  at  Pitkerro,  the  Guild  ry 
of  Dundee  sharing  the  cost  with  the  Board.  Ten  years  later,  we  find 
the  making  of  small  quantities  of  Osnaburgs  in  Dundee  and  Arbroath 
recorded  as  something  noteworthy.  In  1799,  a  premium  of  ,£50  was 
paid  to  William  Alison  &  Co.  towards  the  expense  of  establishing  an 
extensive  manufacture  of  buckrams  (which  was  located  where  Messrs 
Don  Brothers' mills  now  stand;)  and  in  1791,  we  find  the  Board 
interested  in  the  first  experiment  of  spinning  by  power,  which  was 
made  by  James  Ivory  &  Co.,  at  their  water-mill  at  Brigton,  Kinnet- 
tles,  and  towards  which  a  grant  of  £300  was  promised,  on  certain  con- 
ditions. This  marked  the  advent  of  a  new  era  in  the  linen  trade,  when 
machinery  was  to  supplant  the  antiquated  spinning-wheel.  Hitherto 
"  the  spinning  of  flax  on  the  hand-wheel  formed  the  principal  occu- 
pation of  females  of  all  classes,  both  in  town  and  country,  and  some 
of  them,  from  long  practice,  became  great  adepts  in  the  art.  The 
yarn  was  either  weaved  at  home,  or  sold  in  the  district  markets — of 
which  there  were  many  throughout  the  country — to  agents  from  the 
large  towns,  such  as  Dundee,  Glasgow,  Montrose,  &c.  It  was  either 
made  into  linen  in  these  towns,  or  sent  off  to  England  and  manufac- 
tured there.  After  the  introduction  of  flax-spinning  by  power,  the 
trade  became  completely  changed.  '  The  spinster  and  the  hand-wheel 
of  last  century  gave  place  to  the  factory  girl  and  the  spindle  of  the 
present ;  the  manufacture  ceased  in  the  rural  districts,  and  became 
concentrated  in  towns  where  spinning-mills  were  erected,  and  in  a  few 
other  places."1 

We  cannot  better  conclude  the  narrative  of  domestic  events  for  the 
eighteenth  century  than  by  reproducing,  from  the  "  Dundee  Maga- 
zine" for  1799,  two  letters,  which  describe  the  state  of  the  town,  and 
the  manners  of  the  citizens  in  the  years  1746  and  1799.  To  those 
who  know  anything  of  the  Dundee  of  to-day,  the  complacency  of  the 
author,  in  contemplating  the  high  pitch  of  progress  and  prosperity 
reached  at  the  close  of  last  century,  cannot  fail  to  be  amusing  ;  and 
the  contrast  between  our  external  and  social  condition  then  and  now 
appears  infinitely  more  striking  and  suggestive. 

1  "  Warden's  Linen  Trade."  p.  437. 


121  IIIHTARY  AP 


*  m*tn*tur.  Mr  Rditor,  since  I  Ant  studied  my  hornbook  (now  full  half 
a  century  ego)  under  guud  DMM  OUchrist,  UM  town  of  Dundee,  I  may  say,  then 
lay  in  the  outnpaes  of  a  nut  shell.  At  the  close  of  a  civil  war  and  rebellion,  Scot- 
Uad  WM  sadly  torn  and  divided,  and  in  a  «ute  of  lamentable  distraction  andidle- 
MM.  Manufactures  (in  to  far  M  they  ware  advanced)  war*  almost  wholly  at  a 
stand  ;  the  man  were  in  a  high  fever  of  political  delirium  ;  property  WM  nowhere 
aa/e  (my  father's  blaok  gelding  wan  taken  oat  of  hie  stable  by  adventurers)  ;  and 
the  cradit  of  the  country  waa  naturally  suspected  aed  limited.  Prom  rapaatad 
in.umx.Uons,  tha  happy  affacU  of  the  L'niuu  with  England  had  not  yat  been  fait, 
anJ  it*  oonaaquant  blearing*  ware  of  course  unaxparianc«d  and  unknown. 

IsHABtTAirrs.  —  Tha  inhabitant*  at  that  period  did  not  exceed  six  thousand. 
The  living  were  waned  to  bed  by  tha  aound  of  tha  bagpipe  and  the  toll  of  the 
curfew,  and  the  dead  were  carried  to  th-ir  grave*  by  the  tinkling  of  a  hand-bell. 

K  \TKXT.—  The  extension  of  the  town  WM  not  ao  far  westward  M  praaant  Tay 
Street,  except  a  atraggting  brewaaat  and  inalt-loft  in  tha  Nethergate,  and  a  hotua 
or  two  in  tha  Ovargate.  It  WM  bounded  by  tha  koti/or  burying-ground  norfA- 
«urti«,  and  tha  preaent  Sugarbouse  terminated  it  to  the  to*.  Beaidea  thia  there 
were  no  buildings  ao  far  M  Blackness,  wutwardt;  Craigia  (except  Wallace  of 
Craigie),  tattwardt;  and  Dudhope,  norikward.  Black'*  Garden,  Chapelabade,  and 
Black's  Croft  were  unenclosed,  and  in  corn  cropping.  The  last  WM  let  at  an 
annual  rent  of  fifty  shillings  sterling  only.  I/illlvtm  or  Rotten-  Raw  always  formed 
an  ancient  barony  of  itself.  The  West  Shore  buildings  ware  bounded  on  the 
south  by  Mr  Smith's  house,  the  lower  part  «>f  which  is  now  (17W)  poiseseed  by 
Mr  Thomas  S«-Uh.  The  tide  flowed  up  to  it,  and  frequently  up  to  the  present 
Ki-h  -market.  My  worthy  courin  Gruzvl's  country-house  or  villa  WM  then  at  the 
tt'ett  Port,  on  the  south,  and  not  fifty  yards  from  the  present  Mr  Pyott,  the 
wheelwright's  shop.  The  situation  WM  prescribed  to  bar  by  her  physicians  for 
the  salubri'y  of  the  air,  but  above  all  for  the  singular  advantage  ofethe  precious 
and  wholesome  flavour  arising  from  a  oow-byre  below  stairs. 

I.DIKUS.—  The  buildings  were  generally  of  wood  There  were  not  then 
above  half  a-doaeo  of  stone  houses  in  the  High  Street  or  market-place.  Large 
vacant  area*  were  lying  in  a  state  of  nastineas  and  puddle  in  the  most  central 
p.irU  of  the  town,  particularly  in  the  Thorter-row  and  Burial-wynd  ;  and  pre- 
miums for  building  had  been  given  by  the  magistrates.  The  town,  in  police,  in- 
bubiUnta,  Ac.,  had  been  above  a  hundred  years  stationary  I  A  couple  of  dirty 
DOOMS  called  inns,  or  public-houses,  were  situated  in  two  narrow  and  dreary  Unas, 
and  not  so  food  M  a  modern  alehouse.  These  were  comfortable  oaravanseras  for 
the  repose  of  the  wearied  traveller  !  and,  aUs  !  floany  Dumdee  had  none  better. 

Smmiio.—  The  snipping  (comparatively  with  the  present)  ware  extremely 
limited  ;  and  these  were  regularly  unrigged  and  laid  up  for  tha  winter,  and  there 
was  no  voyaging  after  October.  The  annual  port  revenue  did  not  amount  to 
above  twelve  hundred  pounds  sterling  ;  and  small  vessels  were  then  built  close  to 
the  west  gable  of  the  preaent  Sailors'  Hall. 

VITHB*.—  Vivres  (especially  vegetables)  were  scarce,  and  could  only  be  procured 
fresh  on  a  Friday,  and  that  only  in  summer  and  autumn,  there  being  then  no  winter 
fee  'in*.  Onions,  leeks,  carrot*,  commoei  kail,  and  cabbage  lamed  the  verdant 


PICTURE  OP  TOWN  LIFE  IN  SEVENTEEN  FORTY-SIX.  125 

catalogue  (John,  Lord  Gray,  was  the  first  who  introduced  potatoes  for  sale  from 
the  field  in  1753  )  They  were  indeed  cheap,  and  about  one-fourth  of  the  present 
price.  Beef  one  penny  halfpenny  per  pound,  a  hen  fourpence,  and  eggs  three 
halfpence  per  dozen.  Spirits  had  not  then  shed  their  baneful  effects,  in  general, 
over  the  constitution  and  conduct  of  the  lower  orders.  A  draught  of  malt  bever- 
age formed  all  the  debauch  of  the  labourer  and  mechanic,  and  this  was  then  so 
powerful  as  to  send  them  reeling  and  happy  home.  Butchers'  carrion  (for  such 
things  were,  and  perhaps  now  are),  was  then  seized  and  hung  up  in  terrorem  at  the 
market-cross,  and  afterwards  thrown  into  the  river.  Flour  was  unmixed,  arid  ' 
milk  was  unadulterated.  A  choppen  of  ale  was  sold  for  a  halfpenny,  a  goose  for 
one  shilling,  a  decent  roasting  pig  for  eightpence,  and  a  Scotch  pint  of  claret  for 
four  or  five  shillings. 

CHURCHES. — According  to  Dr  Small,  there  were  then  only  two  established 
churches  ;  one  of  them  well  frequented,  and  a  second  one  but  indifferently. 
There  was,  however,  a  third  one  (the  Cross  Church)  which  was  appropiated  solely 
as  a  repository  for  hay  for  his  Majesty's  dragoon  horses.  So  comparatively  small 
was  the  population  at  that  period. 

SHOP  RENTS. — The  highest  rent  in  the  High  Street  did  not  exceed  three  pounds 
sterling  ;  and  from  the  shops  in  general  little  was  to  be  procured  The  shop- 
keeper locked  his  door  at  one  o'clock  p.m.,  and  retired  to  feed  :  his  customers  (if 
he  was  of  any  note)  were  forced  to  wait  his  bellyfilling,  and  there  was  no  resource 
Some  of  these  shops  contained  a  motely  assortment  of  train  oil  and  salt,  candles 
and  molasses,  black  soap  and  sugar,  all  crowded  into  less  than  a  square  of  three 
or  four  yards 

LODGINGS. — In  those  days,  our  predecessors  were  easily  accommodated.  No 
houses  fetched  above  ten  pounds  of  rent,  and  few  half  that  sum.  A  lodging, 
indeed,  of  five  rooms,  low  kitchen,  garret,  shop,  a  couple  of  gardens,  and  pigeon- 
house  and  stable,  in  the  High  Street,  was  let,  in  1753,  at  £14  rent  only.  It  was 
thought  very  dear,  and  every  wiseacre  wondered.  The  shop  alone  would  now 
rent  at  £25  a  year.  Withdrawing-rooms  were  not  known,  at  least  uot  used.  The 
man  and  wife  lived  and  soaked  lovingly  in  then-  bedchamber,  and  the  dining-room 
was  reserved  as  a  cold-bath  for  the  first  unfortunate  visitor.  The  father  parent  of 
the  middling  and  lower  classes  was  then  little  known  to  his  childrrn  :  he  break- 
fasted at  the  alehouse  ;  they  went  to  scho  >1  and  returned  before  he  went  to  din- 
ner ;  they  were  in  bed  and  fast  asleep  before  he  returned  in  the  evening  from  his 
club,  his  two-penny,  and  his  tobacco.  Thus,  unless  on  a  Sunday,  he  saw  no  more 
of  his  children  than  the  man  in  the  moon. 

MERCHANTS.  — The  venerable  character  of  merchant  was  then  in  the  back- 
ground. The  respectable  place  they  now  hold  in  society  was  not  then  filled  up. 
The  toe  of  the  peasant  had  not  then  come  so  near  the  heel  of  the  courtier  as  to  yolt 
his  kibe.  The  lauded  gentry,  who  (like  the  woodcocks)  did  us  the  honour  to  pass 
the  winter  amongst  us,  strutted  it  about  on  tiptoe,  and  in  sullen  hauteur.  The 
feudal  manners  then  scorched  us,  and  reigned  uncontrolled,  floating  wealth  had 
not  then  balanced  her  current  account  with  landed  insolence,  and  the  simple  cot- 
tager, drudging  tenant  and  useful  mechanic  were  in  a  total  state  of  poverty,  ser- 
vility, and  depression. 


128  HISTORY  or 

CARRIAGES.— Ons  angle  one-horse  chaise  supplied  the  demands  and  travels  of 
the  whole  inhabitant-  Even  /a*.  Aw**,  the  sstiter?  saddler,  who  repsired  I* 
duly  l«fore  a  Journey,  grew  pert  and  •007.  from  sslfrasjaftdsnes  and  importance. 
John  scrupled  not  tauntingly  to  desire  hi*  customers  who  were  displssssd  to  *m» 
l-i"T  hi*  neighbour.  John  should  have  had  hi*  ear*  cropt. 

CARTS  AXD  CAMTUU.— Hubert  liiack  in  the  Wellgate  was  the  only  carter  in 


ROADS.  —  Turnpike  roada  ware  then  unknown.  The  roada  war*  bad,  narrow, 
and  uiMhapely.  A  journey  to  Edinburgh  waa  a  serious  buaineaa  for  a  thinking 
person.  It  WM  a  route  of  aome  days,  with  the  a-  Hi*  ion  of  terror  from  rurally 
boatmen  and  lame  back  horses.  A  man  generally  made  hia  bequest  before  he 
undertook  it. 

MKADOWB.—  The  meadowa  or  greena  were  then  unenclosed,  wet,  and  dirty,  and 
the  health  of  the  inhabitant*  WM  roach  infected  fr-.m  stagnant  pools  there. 

POST.—  The  port  arrived  then  in  a  very  irregular  and  awkward  manner.  The 
letter*  travelled  through  Fife  by  Kinghorn  and  Cupar,  by  any  common  carrier. 

Muxixnu  AXD  MAXTUAMAKRBS.  —  Of  theae  there  were  two  in  all,  who,  with  the 
aid  of  Mr  Durham,  the  lank  Uylor  (in  the  mantuamaking  line),  did  all  the  mil- 
linery and  mantuamaking  buaineaa  in  Dundee. 

DAXCIXO.—  Mr  Notemam  waa  the  only  dancing  marter.  I  ahall  ever  remember 
him.  He  wna  a  tall  Oerman  ;  he  wure  a  amall  ulver-Uoed  hat,  diminutive  round 
silver  buckle*,  and  cane,  and  walked  upright  aa  an  oak  ;  drank  brandy,  and  waa 
a  thorough  pedant  in  hia  profession.  The  present  postmaster  sod  I  figured  sway 
in  <>iir;tr«f  MINIM*  with  him,  on  the  same  day,  and  paid  each  a  j.jund  of  /fossa  to 
the  servant  maid,  aa  the  accustomed  and  stated  dues,  sod  aa  the  ur»t  fruits  of  our 


HOUR  MAJUCBT  AXD  SHAMBLES.—  In  the  centre  of  the  town,  and  in  the  narrow- 
eat  •  treet,  waa  held  a  horse  market  twice  a-year.  There  hones  neighed,  galloped, 
trotted,  and  kicked  ;  and  the  aged,  the  women,  and  children,  were  wholly  at 
their  mercy.  In  that  same  choice  spot  did  our  forefather*,  in  the  exertion  of  their 
architective  abilities,  erect  ahambles  and  slaughtering  place.  VYouuded  animala 
sMsping  from  the  hands  of  the  butcher,  seldom  failed  to  stick  their  horns  in  the 
first  unguarded  inhabitant  that  came  in  their  way.  Trembling  scenes  for  parents, 
guardiana,  nnd  relatives,  and  (I  waa  going  to  add,  huabanda  and  wives),  and  a  rich 
harvest  for  surgeon*,  undertakers,  and  gravediggera. 

Bimaaim.—  The  streets  were  in  s  wretched  state.  Two  narrow  lanes1  formed 
all  the  communication  from  the  town  to  the  shore  and  shipping  ;  and  they  were 
coarsely  pared  with  round  sea  stones.  The  psvements  were  worse  ;  and  stairs 
jutted  out  in  the  common  path.  Open  cellar  stairs  adjoining  formed  men-traps 
tor  catching  the  heedless  and  unwary. 

LAM  r*.-  Not  s  lamp  was  to  be  seen  ;  not  even  the  shadow  of  light.    All  was 

1  The  lanes  here  mentioned  are  Tindal'a  Wynd  and  St  Clement's  Lane,  which 
last  joins  with  the  Vault,  at  the  point  from  which  the  name  Fawlf  is  derived.  A 
specimen  of  the  ancient  styla  of  raving  by  ron»<f  booU,  now  extinct,  was  last  seen 
in  Tindi«ir«  Wvn.l  -«uch  a*  U  still  vuible  in  Arbroath  sod  Forfar. 


SOCIAL  LIFE  IN  SEVENTEEN  FORTY-SIX.  127 

dark  as  Erebus,  save  when  the  moon  lent  her  friendly  aid.     'There  was  then  no 
fire-engine  in  the  town,  and  houses  burnt  at  their  own  leisure. 

RAIMENT. — The  raiment  of  the  ladies  were  costly.  Fashions  did  not  change  or 
vary  much.  High-priced  stuffs  could  not  easily  be  renewed.  The  grandmother's 
marriage  brocade  served  the  grand-daughter  for  her  wedding  garment.  A  linsy 
winsy  clad  the  middling  people.  The  lower  order  of  the  sex  were  barefooted, 
except  on  a  Sunday,  when,  in  imitation  of  their  betters,  (for  white  stockings 
were  rare,)  they  put  their  limbs  into  mourning.  A  full  suit  of  broad  cloth  was 
the  general  wear  of  gentlemen,  and  every  yotingster  assumed  a  round  curled  wig 
at  his  marriage  or  majority :  like  barristers,  it  was  thought  necessary  to  convey 
the  semblance  of  wisdom  to  the  wearer.  Wig  and  bonnet  makers  were  then 
tolerable  trades.  The  first  is  now  sickly,  and  the  last  is  lost,  and  in  it  is  a  corpo- 
rate novelty — there  we  view  a  corporation  without  one  active  constituent. 

BANKRUPTS. — A  bankrupt  was  then  hardly  known  on  this  side  the  Tay,  if  we 
except  a  few  lairds  whose  estates  were  brought  to  the  hammer  with  less  than  > 
reversion.  There  were  in  truth  no  adventurers.  There  was  little  money,  and 
less  credit,  for  poor  people  could  not  afford  to  trust.  "With  all  our  riches  and 
improvements,  the  Jews  have  not  yet  ventured  a  make  a  settlement  amongst  ua, 
— whether  we  aie  yet  too  poor  or  too  sharp,  is  a  problem  that  my  modesty  or 
talents  will  not  at  present  permit  me  to  solve 

MONEY  BANKS. — There  was  no  money  bank  north  of  the  Forth  Old  women 
and  children  kept  their  pozes  in  their  kist  neuks  and  pirly  pigs  Dealers  got  cash 
and  notes  the  best  way  they  could  from  Edinburgh. 

TOWN'S  REVENUE  — The  town's  revenue  was  then  in  a  low  state.  The  present 
town-house,  or  public  building,  had  been  lately  erected,  and  had  cost  a  round  sum. 
One  of  its  public  rooms  (the  west  one)  was  not  finished  till  near  twenty  years 
after  the  building.  A  Provost  Fletcher  had,  before  that  period,  given  a  severe 
wound  to  the  funds  by  vanity  and  extravagance,  and  by  entertaining  the  Cor» 
vention  of  Burghs  in  this  place  It  therefore  required  wisdom,  tirae,  any 
economy  to  repair  tLe  breach,  and  to  bring  the  funds  again  to  useful  and  public 
purposes. 

SUNDAY. — The  Sunday  or  Sabbath  was  kept  holy  and  decent ;  old  women  went 
to  church  with  their  bibles  under  one  arm  and  a  folding  stool  under  the  other. 
Those  persons  who  did  not  attend  at  church  gave  at  least  no  public  offonce,  and 
disturbed  not  those  that  did.  None  but  a  straggling  blackguard  or  two,  who 
were  deemed  to  be  past  all  grace  and  reformation,  were  seen  idle  and  parading 
in  streets  during  divine  service,  or  in  any  part  of  the  day,  or  even  in  the  evening. 
Field  ambulation  was  not  practised  on  that  day.  There  were  seizcrs  in  those  days  ; 
and  boys  were  not  then  publicly  permitted  to  infest  the  streets  and  lanes,  and  tc 
play  at  marbles,  penny-stone,  or  pal-aals.  to  the  offending  of  tender  and  sober  cgir 
sciences,  and  to  the  extinction  of  all  decorum  in  a  Christian  society. 

PASSAGE  BOATS  AND  PIERS. — The  boats  of  the  passage  were  not  then  decked, 
and,  it  must  be  confessed,  were  insufficient ;  and  there  was  no  sloping,  shipping, 
and  landing  pier  at  all  times  of  the  tide  These  too  deservedly  impressed  travel- 
lers against  it,  and  there  was  toe  much  reason  for  their  complaint 

WATER. — Water-pipes,  for  the  supply  of  the  inhabitants  from  the  Ladywell 


123  oumwT  or  DITKDEE. 

FounUin,  had  UMO  been  introduced,  tod  •  few  wells  were  placed  in  convenient 
situation*  fur  that  purpose. 

Sooh  wee  the  general  state  of  UM  town,  fur  I  am  Dot  writing  a  minute  bistoiy. 
Many  oth«r  matters  stood  nearly  on  the  seme  footing  as  now.    As,  for  example, 
•wallow*'  nssta,  a*  far  as  I  oan  leant,  were  built  in  the  same  manner,  and  were  a* 
wantonly  destroyed  by  schoolboys  ;  bee*  varied  not  in  the  texture  of  their  cells  ; 
crow*  and  magpiei  followed  their  eereral  aecuetomed  styles  of  architecture,  and 
all  instinctively  defied   improvement.    Mankind  oune  into  the  world  with  a  bad 
grace,  and  often  left  it  with  a  wore*.     Inoontinenoy  held  iu  wonted  place,  and 
knaTery  lagged  not  behind.     Pedant*  whipped  boys,  and  a|i|n  snlioss  Hs*»——« 
their  masters'  till*.     Virtue  despised  vice  ;  and  she  in  her  turn  laughed  at  virtue. 
Gate  mewed,  dogs  barked,  mice  chirped,  geeee  cackled,  frog,  cranked,  and  thing* 
weut  on  at  the  ancient  jog-trot.     Rich  men  died,  and  young  spendthrifts  suc- 
ceeded.    Children  looked  up  for  the  death  of  the  parent,  and  the  parent  looked 
down  for  the  reformation  of  the  child.     Animosities  and  family  feud*  prevailed 
then  a>  much  an  in  the  present  day  ;  and,  like  great  potentate!,  the  heaviest  pone 
held  out  longest.    Parsons  preached  long  sermons  by  sand  glasses,  and  their  wives 
administered  salves  and  potions  by  midnight.    Little  rogues  were  hanged,  great 
criminals  eeoa|>ed,  and  captains  swore  big  oaths.     Physicians  wore  large  muBs, 
dangled  gold-headed  canes,  hemm'd  loud,  and  looked  wise ;  and  according  to  the 
strength  or  weakness  of  the  natural  constitution,  the  patient  recovered  or  expired. 
The  rich  lorded  it  over  their  dependent*,  and  they,  in  their  turn,  domineered  over 
theirs.    Whig  and  Tory  were  the  pass-words  for  broils  and  bickerings.     Syco- 
I'hanta  and  parasites  scraped  and  bowed,  and  even  gravest  men  swallowed  the  en- 
ticing bait.     The  wealthy  fe**ted,  and  the  poor  starve.!.     A  sceptic  in  religious 
matters  was  a  character  not  then  known.    Such  an  animal  would  have  been  eegtd 
in  iron,  and  shown,  like  a  wild  beast,  for  sixpence.    Top|ters  twilled,  guzzled,  and 
besotted  in  the  tavern  ;  and  their  ladies  in  revenge  took  a  cup  of  spirited  or  wine 
comfort  at  home.     Lovers  ogled,  scoundrels  broke  vows,  and  dotards  coo'd  and 
bfll'd.    Servants  rode  before  their  masters,  and  running  footmen  skipped  it  before 
their  coaches.    Farmers  toiled  hard,  and  fed  on  meal,  milk,  and  water.    They  now 
live  lustily  on  beef,  pudding,  and  punch.     Feasting  ruled  the  roast,  gave  oonee 
quence,  led  the  world,  and  enlisted  table  friends  and  flatterers.     Ouns  and  dog*, 
hawks  and  bounds,  fiddles  and  flutes,  and  billiards  and  cards,  made  dreadful 
havoc  amongst  youth.     Fornicators  received  the  benefit  of  ghostly  counsel.    The 
ease  It  now  commuted  ;  the  session  funds  receive  the  benefit  of  their  cash.    Man 
smacked  each  other  in  the  forum  on  the  New  Tear's  Day,  and  danced  nssfess  few 
in  the  minuet  at  Christmas.     Ladies  tripped  it  in  monstrous  hoops,  bound  them- 
selves up  in  bone  stays  and  husks,  like  Egyptian  mummies,  and  footed  it  to 
•  Lurch  in  gold,  silver,  lace,  scarlet,  and  abort  mantles,     Cowards  blustered,  and 
brave  men  fought.     Official  men  loom'd  large,  and  teylors  and  •haven  looked 
little      Ingratitude  was  healthy,  and  required  no  nursing— like  fern,  it  flourished 
in  the  barreneat  soil.     Cockfighting  was  publicly  taught  and  encouraged  at  school, 
and  (would  you  believe  it,  Mr  Print*  ?)  the  unfortunate  oombatanta  were,  in  hni. 
tation  of  the  American  savage*,  slain,  boiled,  and  devoured.    To  sum  up  all,  the 
•un  ruse  in  the  en<t  and  »et  in  Uir  Wtet.     Lightning,  flashed,  thunder*  rolled 


DESCRIPTIVE  NOTICE  IN  1799.  129 

and  rains  poured.  Scandal,  hypocrisy,  and  backbiting  brought  up  the  rear  of  this 
heterogeneal  mass  ;  and  the  world  continued  to  roll  like  clock-work. — I  am, 
yours,  &c.,  PHILETAS. 

Dundee,  April,  1799. 


To  mark  the  auspicious  years  when  Tusculum 

Wax'd  great,  was  wealthy,  and  a  goodly  place ; 

Its  glittering  spears  the  ploughshares  quickly  form'd, 

And  industry  sate  at  the  silken  loom  : 

Its  manners,  habits  persons,  fashions,  chang'd, 

The  seat  of  nobles,  and  of  classic  lore  ; 

Surrounded  by  green  fields  and  pleasant  villas ; 

Its  sons  were  wise,  and  all  its  daughters  fair  : 

And  tho"  withal,  'twas  thus  a  rising  city, 

It  lacked  much,  as  travellers  would  tell. 

SIB, — He  that  will  take  the  trouble  to  investigate  the  true  source  of  barbarism 
and  beggary  in  a  nation,  may  trace  it  in  the  lone  cottage  of  indolence,  in  the  dregs 
of  feudal  infection  and  vanity,  and  in  the  cabins  of  sloth  and  idleness.  It  is  the 
hand  of  diligence  and  perseverance  that  maketh  rich  ;  and  it  is  industry  that  lifts 
the  man  from  the  dunghill,  and  places  him  in  a  comfortable  and  respectable 
situation. 

It  is  a  maxim  and  leading  feature  in  the  commercial  world,  and  confirmed  by 
practice  and  experience,  that  agriculture  and  manufactures  are  the  parents  of 
wealth  in  all  countries.  They  give  birth  to  ease,  affluence,  and  conveniency,  and 
are  the  consequent  supporters  of  the  State.  Without  these,  and  a  government 
such  as  Great  Britain  enjoys,  towns  and  cities,  were  they  paved  with  emeralds, 
their  buildings  fluted  with  gold — were  their  sites  pleasant  as  Zion,  and  their 
councillors  wise  as  Solomon  -they  must  (in  the  seaman's  phrase)  stand  fast,  and  be 

stationary. 

I  have,  in  my  former  letter,  laid  before  you  a  brief  state  of  the  town  of  Dundee 

more  than  threescore  of  years  ago  ;  and  am  now  about  to  show  the  reverse,  or  mo- 
dern picture,  that  you  may  from  both  form  the  contrast.  We  are  now  to  view 
this  little  local  circle  in  happy  progression,  and  to  mark  out  the  handywork  and 
transactions  of  mortals  in  social  arts,  from  still  and  infant  life,  to  a  more  busy 
and  matured  age. 

THE  TOWN  OF  DUNDEE,  from  1746  to  the  present  sera  of  1799,  hath  risen  in 
rapid  style  to  trade,  to  wealth,  and  to  population.  It  bears  little  resemblance 
to  those  early  times  when  civilization  was  hardly  in  blossom,  and  refinement  not 
even  in  abeyance ;  when  our  manners  were  wild,  stiff,  and  formal ;  when  dark 
ignorance  prevailed ;  \v  hen  habitations  and  accommodations  were  confined,  limited, 
and  inelegant,  and  the  minds  of  the  inhabitants  borne  down  by  poverty  and 
wretchedness.  Our  forefathers,  indeed,  like  the  wild  Indians,  or  those  in  distant 
and  insulary  situations,  were  contented  only  because  they  knew  no  better.  From 
years  and  experience  we  are  now  happily  enabled  to  weigh  comparatively,  and  to 
form  our  conclusions  ".ocordingly.  It  is,  therefore,  with  pleasure  that  I  turn  from 
I 


ISO  HIHTORT  or  ntnrno. 

waste*  and  wfldernessss,  and  from  rod*  and  ancient  yean,  to  more  pohehed  time*, 
•ad  to  scenes  of  luxury  and  rslnsmsni;  and  I  gratuiate  raj  fallow  aleisjsai  (the 
i)  on  the  change.  The  minds  o(  oar  grand-parents,  Hk*  their 
stiffly  baokrmmad ;  and  unmeaning  and  pedantic  funnalitj  and 
ceremony  ww«  esteemed  the  essentials  of  good  breeding  :  To  ait  erect  as  a  poU  at 
table,  to  drink  tmdths  regularly  with  email  beer,  and  to  pledge  your  neighbour 
at  diniMr,  Jest  AM  Orool  she**!  6*  ert  in  4«  owtf  were  deemed  the  AeMsHim  „/ 
sieiMisrf.  The  genUeman  rained  himeelf  on  the  ceremonious  bow,  and  the  lady 
piqued  henelf  on  the  ainking  eourteey. 

Iv  nmrT,  the  buildings  of  Dundee  are  now  doubled— they  stretch  to  Black- 
ness, Craigie,  and  to  the  Hill  or  Rotten-row  ;  and  to  the  south  we  have  snoroaobsd 
on  the  rirer.  Some  of  them  approach  to  elegance.  The  environs  and  country  are 
much  improved,  and  we  are  encircled  by  water,  by  gardens,  and  by  villas.  Kami- 
lie*  lire  in  an  improved  taste,  and  require  more  •nfmiBairlatiftn  ffmue  mti 
are  now  from  £5  to  £40,  and  even  to  £60  per  annum.  Ground  for  building  in 
the  centre  of  the  town  hath  become  extremely  valuable,  and  there  is  hardly  a 
vacant  spot  in  it.  A  small  area,  containing  about  800  square  feet,  was  lately  sold 
at  a  public  sale  at  the  ••«•«« ^g  price  of  £300. 

Li  HCMBKBS  or  rorcLATio*  we  are,  since  1750,  quadrupled— that  u,  they  may 
now  be  fairly  taken  at  25,000  souls. 

In  now  we  are  completely  accommodated — neither  Gordon's  nor  Morren's  would 
do  dishonour  to  any  town  in  Europe  ;  and  it  is  by  rivalahip  the  country  can  be 
well  served.  We  have  had  CMOS?  o//oa»  BameU  in  our  time  already. 

THB  Smrraro  is  wonderfully  increased— foreign  tonnage  is  at  least  quadrupled  ; 
vessels  are  well  found  and  manned,  and  they  voyage  without  interruption  from 
Christmas  to  Christmas.— The  London  trade  sail  and  arrive  every  fortnight  ;  and 
our  home  tonnage  may  be  reckoned  at  8  to  9000  tons. 

Pins  FOB  THI  SHOT-UK)  AITD  BOAT*,  as  yet  but  every  in  perfect,  are  greatly  extended, 
and  have  cost  large  sums — particularly  a  shipping  one  hath  been  added  with  arches 
for  passing  tide.  The  whole  staple  trade  U  loaded  and  unloaded  there  ;  and  it 
f  orme  a  pleasant  and  healthy  walk  to  the  inhabiUnU.  A  ahip-building  dock  is  well 
occupied  and  employed,  and  vessels  can  be  built  there  from  S  to  800  tone.  A  de- 
clivous boat-pier  hath  been  l.uilt  some  years  ago,  with  much  judgment*  under  the 
\  of  the  late  Bailie  Mylea,  at  the  West  Shore,  and  give*  easy  access  to 
i  at  all  times. 

are  on  a  very  increasing  and  large  scale.  The  staple  Oenaburg 
hath  advanced  greatly:  a  single  weaver  may  now  earn  £50  a-year  by  his  daily 
labour. 

BcnLDlxoa  have  been  greatly  extended.  There  are  now  fire  churches  well  ooeu- 
pied  and  frequented,  exclusive  of  every  denomhistion  of  sectaries.  A  «as  em  Jet 
pfa«foro«rtcasry«es<,anda  sUytor  frfec*,  hath  been  builU  We  have  en  .1 
gant  hall  for  the  Nine  Incorporated  Trades,  a  handsome  English  Chapel,  an<t  a 
Olasaite  octagon ;  and  theee  give  real  ornament  to  all  around.  The  Town-house 
or  Tolbooth  fa  a  piece  of  noble  architecture  ;  but  in  its  present  situation  can  never 
be  viewed  to  advantage  or  justice  to  the  architect.  Our  forefather,  (and  even 
some  of  the  present  generation)  seem  to  have  looked  no  farther  than  their  nose* 


DESCRIPTIVE  NOTICE  IN  1791.  131 

•when  they  turned  proprietors  and  builders.  Never  was  a  building  (if  we  except 
the  Mansion-house  of  London  and  the  Sailors'  Hall  here)  so  murdered  in  situation. 
It  is  set  down  in  a  hole  fitted  only  for  a  hog's  stye,  and,  what  is  to  be  much 
lamented,  it  is  one  of  those  capital  blunders  which  cannot,  without  immense  ex- 
pense, be  now  remedied. 

THREE  NEW  STREETS  have  been  recently  and  judiciously  laid  out  by  the  public- 
spirited  and  persevering  exertions  of  Provost  Riddoch.  One  of  these  is  literally 
scooped  out  of  a  huge  rock  by  force  of  gunpowder.  Two  of  those  communicate 
with  the  shipping,  and  the  other  (Tay  Street)  forms  a  convenient  access  to  the 
country  and  turnpike. 

THE  MEADOWS  are  of  late  partially  drained.  They  are  enclosed  with  stone 
walls,  and  laid  out  (though  yet  greatly  deficient)  for  washing  and  bleaching  the 
linens  of  the  inhabitants.  A  back  road  by  the  town  is  also  begun  to  be  made 
through  these  Meadows,  and  will,  it  is  hoped,  soon  communicate  to  the  turnpikes. 

RETAIL  SHOPS  are  found  in  every  street  and  corner,  and  we  are  fully  supplied 
with  every  family  article  ;  and,  in  general,  you  are  well  and  civilly  treated  ia 
return  for  your  money. 

MERCHANTS  are  a  respectable,  well  educated,  and  wealthy  body.  The  taverns 
and  ale-houses  are  deserted  for  the  drawing-room  and  their  friends  ;  and  elegance 
and  hospitality  preside  at  their  tables.  The  country  squires  have  for  the  present 
quitted  the  town.  Like  Cincinnati^,  they  have  returned  to  the  ploughshares  and 
to  their  seats,  and  have  thus  become  Borough  seceders.  They  find  that,  by  time, 
they  have  acquired  very  respectable  and  opulent  rivals  in  the  city  ;  that  a  couple 
of  mansions  are  not  now  necessary  to  spend  one  rent-roll,  and  that  self-consequence 
and  importance  are  delicate  and  tender  plants,  that  are  much  more  quietly  reared 
and  nursed  in  wilds  and  heaths,  and  amongst  mountains  and  forests,  than  in  the 
bustly  circle  of  a  mercantile  and  independent  community.  We  have  three  bank- 
ing-houses. The  Old  Banking  Company,  established  here  in  1763,  now  do  busi- 
ness, it  is  thought,  to  at  least  sixteen  times  the  extent  they  did  at  first  setting 
out. 

THE  POST  goes  and  returns  daily.  A  mail  coach  from  Edinburgh  to  Aberdeen 
has  been  established  since  August  last,  and  travellers  of  every  description  profit 
by  such  conveniency.  Letters  are  received  here  the  third  day  from  London. 

THE  STREETS  are  rather  better  lighted  up  ;  nor  are  vre  groping  about  like  Cupids 
or  Joclcy  Blind  Man  in  the  dreary  month  of  December. 

We  formerly  had  one  single  horse  gig — we  have  now,  at  least,  a  dozen  of  elegant 
four-wheeled  chaises,  and,  from  trade  and  population,  these  are  in  constant  demand 
and  employ. 

In  1746,  we  had  only  one  carter — we  have  now  one  hundred  and  thirty;  and 
nothing  marks  the  increase  of  the  town  more  than  this  article 

GENTLEMEN  AND  LADIES  AND  SERVANTS  are  well  dressed,  and  neatly  habited. 
Even  our  kitchen  wenches  carry  umbrellas  and  wear  veils,  to  protect  their  pretty 
persons  from  the  inclemency  of  the  winter  sky,  and  their  beauty  and  charms  from 
the  sun  and  dews  of  the  summer.  The  f ,ishion  and  ton  in  one  article  is  wholly 
changed :  the  ladies  alone  now  wear  wigs,  and  the  gentlemen  are  turned  croppies 
uud  round-heads. 


132  BISTORT 

Vmusi  of  all  kinds  are  confessedly  dearer,  bat  are  to  be  had  in  great  aboad* 
Met  at  aO  time*.  Beef  to  M^  a  ben  la.  «A,  ai»d  egf^  «d.  a^icaen  ;  and  there  is  a 
plenteous  and  obaap  supply  ot  vegetables.  Wa  hare,  in  humble  imitation  of  (V 
•Ml  gartim,  oar  atWsm.  eagnsjaara,  and  atponyus  in  the  public  etreet.  Fiah 
aaldom  aioaail  Id.  par  pound. 

TH«  Tow»'»  AmroAL  RBTOUB  may  ba  rained  at  about  £3000.  Tha  tonnage, 
anchorage,  beaconage  due*,  *&,  forming  a  part  of  it,  did  not  amount  to  more  than 
£40  or  £60  aixty  years  ago,  and  to  now  let  at  £1300  to  £1400  aUriiag. 

!•  TH«  NHBBBABY  SCPPLT  or  WATKK  from  a  plenteous,  well-aitaated,  and  ralu* 
able  fountain,  there  to  aomahow  an  unpardonable  negliganoe.  The  praaant  datora 
to  inadequate  for  the  purpose.  It  to  not  more  than  wren  feet  square,  and  two 
feet  of  depth  ;  and,  in  place  of  an  elegant  and  capacious  baaon  and  structure, 
the  appearance  and  entry  to  it  would  diagraoe  the  meaneat  tillage  in  Britain. 
More  water  to  there  loat  and  spilled  than  would  aarra  another  town  of  the  aune 
aba,  and  our  aupply  to  rary  aoanty.  Our  servants  are  wanderer*,  and  idle  half 
the  day,  journeying  to  and  fro  in  queat  of  water,  aa  if  wa  belonged  to  a  caravan 
in  the  desert. 

THI  BtTBTDKMiBOUiO)  to,  from  increasing  population,  too  confined  for  the  pur- 
poae  of  Ha  flrat  appropriation  ;  besides,  it  labour*  under  an  original  aril,  and  which 
our  piadocmaaon  had  surely  not  examined — the  ground  and  aoil  to  damp  and  wet, 
and  consequently  very  unfit  for  the  purpoae  of  quick  and  active  putreaoeooe. 

MORALITY  AJTD  HoiHBTT,  AJTO  SOME  OTHKB  SMALLKB  MATTCR&,  aeem  to  hare  made 
little  |ii  oftrasa  in  tm^^1'""^  theae  sixty  years,  in  despite  of  schools  and  esUbuah- 
menta.     Viet,  wtamufottw**,  and  population,  appear  to  hare  kept  a  ataady  jog-trot 
together.     Tkt  ancient  pulpit  oratory,  which,  from  the,  ooldneaa  of  its  composition, 
and  iU  still  more  frigid  delivery,  if  it  often  failed  to  command  oar  attention,  had 
the  virtue  at  least,  to  lay  us  fart  asleep,  to  in  the  meantime  supplanted  in  fashion, 
by  the  m*Aroom  field  tribe  of  fcucflny  and  oeflcwiay  an'aW»aarif«.    The  charms  of 
novelty,  the  itch  of  curiosity  (combined  with  the  ignorance  of  their  dangers  and 
doctrines)  and  a  wondering  habit  of  enthusiasm,  call  forth,  at  once,  the  critics, 
the  blockheads,  the  gapers,  and  the  devotees  ;  and  if  we  may  judge  from  the  sam- 
ple, the  auditors  return  little  wiser  than  they  went  forth.    The  narrative  system 
of  Wesley  to  there  aerviWy  imitated,  without  one  fresh  spark  of  fancy,  gaohis,  or 
improvement ;  and,  like  other  diseases,  it  bids  fair,  methinka,  to  pariah  from  pul- 
monary affcetion.    Duelling  to  fast  approaching  to  the  North  Pole.    Tha  sword, 
(formerly  the  pride  of  all  true  cavaliers)  to  exchanged  for  the  pistol ;  and  a  bullet 
in  your  belly  to  now  aa  good  as  an  ell  of  Farrara  steel  in  your  body.     Brandy 
shops  rend  liquid  poison,  and,  strange  to  tell !  the  resources  of  the  State  thus 
depend,  in  a  certain  degree,  on  the  continued  gulping  and  murder  of  mi'erablt 
and  deluded  victims.     Professions,  in  the  praaant  age,  are  not  regarded :  Mankind 
consider  than,  from  experience,  aa  the  foppery  and  fashionable  «v^pK«ii^.t 
the  day,  not  aa  marks  of  sincerity  and  eateem.    The  man  who  betrays  you  in  the 
morning,  riota  merrily  with  you  till  midnight.     Men  and  women  do  not  always 
marry  for  oonraniency  :  They  wad  not  to  be  happy,  but  to  ba  rich,  powerful,  and 
affluent ;  that  they  and  their  sons  and  daughters  may  shine  in  the  drawing-room 
and  ride  in  their  coaches.     Bread  and  descant,  wisdom  and  madness,  tawny  or  • 


DESCRIPTIVE  NOTICE  IN  133 

• 

diseased  or  wealthy,  oid  or  young,  are  alike  from  the  question  in  modern  matches. 
The  elegance  of  the  ancient  dancing  assemblies  is  gone  !  and  in  its  place  are  intro- 
duced card-playing !  and  a  warming  reel  before  departure  I  1  Servants  pilfer, 
vagrants  steal,  and  hypocrisy  smiles.  The  deceiver,  after  forfeiting  his  honour,  is 
received  into  the  favour  of  every  other  woman  of  the  sex.  Bankruptcy  is  not  the 
mortal  and  fatal  disease  it  was.  Its  virulence,  however,  decreases  by  habit ;  and, 
considering  the  number  of  annual  patients  now-a-days,  the  recovery  is  generally 
wonderful.  Skeel  tramping  is  yet  in  full  blaze,  and  to  be  seen  every  lawful  day 
of  the  week.  In  urinals  we  are  highly  improved  ;  and  from  the  wooden  loom  and 
brown  jar  we  have  ascended  to  the  fair  cream  and  clouded  China-ware.  The  cus- 
tom of  patching  is  now  happily  given  up  ;  it  had  so  much  of  the  Jezebeel  in  it 
that  I  congratulate  my  fair  countrywomen  on  its  being  deserted.  Haggis  and 
hodge-podge,  sheep  and  crapped -heads,  keep  their  places  at  the  table,  in  defiance 
of  pork,  grisken,  and  roast-beef.  Dad  gathers  it  in  farthings,  and  young  Hopeful 
spends  it  by  guineas.  The  mother  toils  at  the  distaff,  and  the  thoughtless  and 
extravagant  young  Baggage  throws  it  away  on  gew-gaws.  Quakers  begin  to  mingle 
amongst  us,  and  to  groan  in  spirit.  The  Jews,  as  I  formerly  mentioned,  have  not 
as  yet  setup  shop  here  ;  the  stragglers,  however,  are  travelling  about  the  country, 
with  their  f aar  -keekers,  and  so  spying  the  land  ;  whilst  the  main  body  are  setting 
out  to  meet  their  promised  deliverer,  Bonaparte.  Scandal  and  tale-bearing  con- 
tinue to  do  the  honours  of  the  tea-table,  and  folly  and  extravagance  to  hold  their 
rites  at  the  shop  of  the  milliner.  The  price  of  shaving  (being  frequently  a  blood- 
letting case),  is  advanced  by  the  war !  It  was  formerly  one  halfpenny,  it  is  now 
one  penny.  War,  it  is  said,  raises  the  price  of  many  things.  It  hath,  indeed,  I 
confess,  already  raised  the  value  of  shoes  cleaning  and  puppet-shows,  sour  milk 
and  broom-besoms.  Writing  was  taught  in  my  time  for  sixpence  a-quarter  ;  we 
now  pay  ten  times  that  sum.  The  old  women  were  formerly  the  only  witches, 
and  we  roasted  them  in  bonfires.  Witchcraft  is  now  confined  to  the  young  ;  and 
they  in  their  turn  scorch  us  powerfully  by  charms.  The  matter  of  dead  languages 
is  now  fully  and  generally  known  by  translations  ;  and  Greek  and  Hebrew  drag 
rather  heavily.  Pedantiy,  therefore,  slackens  apace.  A  gentleman  is  now  better 
known  by  his  manners  than  by  his  Latin  ;  and  merchants  begin  to  find  more 
money  is  to  be  got  at  a  loom  or  desk  than  by  poring  over  a  Greek  dictionary  or 
an  old  classic.  The  ladies  continue  to  admire  red  coats,  and  to  have  no  objec- 
tion to  the  blue.  Shortwaists,  watering  places,  -and  bathing-quarters  are  the  pre- 
sent general  rage  ;  and  drowning  is  now  as  common  in  summer  as  starving  was 
formerly  in  winter.  We  tread  not  now  on  fairy  ground.  Spirits  and  hobgoblins 
are  little  known  in  these  days — they  flee  from  society  and  refinement,  and  from 
the  busy  haunts  of  men.  These  incorporeals  are  suffered  to  glide  and  betake 
themselves  to  cloisters,  church  yards,  and  dormitories,  and  to  melancholy  aisles 
As  rooks,  magpies,  and  foxes,  they  nestle  and  burrow  in  the  deserted  and  mould- 
ering tower  and  ancient  chateau  ;  and  there  they  caw  and  howl  to  the  midnight 
winds.  'Tis  there  only  they  hold  their  frantic  orgies,  take  their  nocturnal  ram- 
bles, and  startle  the  watchful  and  lonely  sentinel  at  his  post.  'Tis  there,  mayhap, 
the  ghosts  of  Malcolm  and  Claverhouse  perambulate  a  dreary  scene,  perform  their 
mtic  rounds,  and  vanish  at  the  morning  air. 


134  BUtOBY  OF  DQVDI 


|g  |  ...         >:.  V.    .,  •.;..,•!    T.:'..     •  y  •    •  •• 

Folly,  tike  ria>>h»  if*rm  reith«r  MS  Dor  ago  ;  MM!  the  wiee  haada,  the  wroof 
bead*,  UM  yoohaeaK  and  UM  hot  tMtds  hare  UNO  pracioae  MM!  prolific  famuiaa 
•tec*  UM  daya  of  UMKT  faUMr,  Auks*. 

Iwrt,  I,  Mr  Printer,  praMOtod  you  with  a  full  Mat*  at  UM  town,  boiklu.ga. 

.-,  manoera,  monk,  *«.  ;  and  warn  put  ia  the  Kmle  «.th  UM  eteU  of  it  in 

17W,  the  <ltffar«oc0  in  m»ny  thiu^  ia  gn»t     TU»  o»uij*r»uvo  TMW,  how*rw, 

will  BaaliU  the  rawUr  to  judgv,  and  b«  will  UMBM  And  Uu*  UMM  are  raal  aaJ 

•oUd  MMDdMMta.-!  am,  yourm,  fta, 

PBXLBTA*. 
17M. 


[Our  gusaiping  «-im>ni<-ler  make*  no  allu->inn  to  aoy  publk  amiue- 
inenU  a.s  beiug  a\  .ul.iliK-  to  beguile  the  leisure  of  the  atiaeoi  of  last 
century  ;  but  we  glean  from  other  sources  that  theatricals  were,  at 
least,  occasionally  ottered  them.    Jn   1734,  wheA  a  company  of  play- 
en,  organised  by  Allan  KVuusay,  were  struggling  «p  keep  on  the  boards 
in  Edinburgh,  th.  -y  l--tli..iu-lit  themsolres  of  a  tour  in  the  provinces; 
aud,  early  on  an  August  morning,  >uirt4vl  for  Dundee.     Their  recep- 
tion was  extremely  flattering,  being  honoured  with  the  patronage  of 
tli*   FP  ••masons,  vrho  marched  in  a  body,  with  the  worshipful  G.M.  at 
th.-ir  head,  to  tht»  ]>ltiyhotis«>,  "  in  their  proper  apparel,  with  hautboys 
.uxl  other  music    playing   before  them;"  and   heard   performed  the 
Iff,  and  Th,  l>.  •  •//  /"  /'•/»/  /—let  ue  hopev  with  |>l«a0ure  to  them- 
selves and  profit  to  the  poor  actors.     Dancing  assemblies  were  about 
the  same  period  introduced  at  Edinburgh,  and  Dundt-  followed  suit. 
In  the  "  Caledonian  Mercury,"  the  chief  newspaper  at  that  time  pub- 
]i-ii.-<l  in  Scotland,  wo  find  a  string  of  verses  extolling,  in  magnilo- 
«ju>-iit   terms,  the  charma  of  the  hulies  who  had  graced  a  Dundee 
assembly  : 

-HMVMA!  what  a  •pleodid  aoane  n  hwa, 

How  bright  thaw  female  aarapha  ahioe  !  "  Ac. 

Numerous  individual  allusions  occur,  by  half-blank  names,  evidently 
•  ii  '    the  up|x  •   ••  •.  -A  :.•:.-•...•:..:..•  •  ..       .  •      •.    .     : 

among  which  daiuaels  styled    Bower,  Duncan,  Reid,  Ramsay,  Demp- 
ster, and  Bow  may  be  mentioned  — 

M  Bamdaa  a  much  more  numerotu  "**Trlfng  throng. 
Whoaa  namaa,  if  known,  abould  grace  my  anlaai  aong.' 

In  1755,  Dundee  found  a  local  medium  for  chronicling  the  doings 
iu  thu  luuu,  the  hi.-,  uuuiber  of  the  Dundee  Weekly  IiibUiycttcer  hav- 


THE  MOB  OF  MYLNEFIELD THE  TUBE  OP  LIBERTY.  135 

ing  seen  the  light  on  May  23d  of  that  year.  It  consisted  of  four  small 
pages,  sold  for  three  half-pence,  and  was  printed  by  Henry  Galbraith 
&  Co.,  at  their  printing  office  near  the  "  Main  Guard" — a  location 
which  we  have  not  been  able  to  identify.  Its  circulation  seems  to 
have  been  limited,  for  its  existence  was  brief.1 

Towards  the  close  of  last  century,  the  town  was  on  several  occasions 
the  scene  of  lawless  proceedings,  connected  with  the  scarcity  of  food. 
In  1772,  a  "  meal  mob"  occurred  of  unusual  audacity  and  violence,  remi- 
niscences of  which  have  been  handed  down  by  old  inhabitants  as  the 
"  mob  of  Mylnefield."  The  proprietor  for  the  time  of  that  estate  was 
exceedingly  unpopular  in  Dundee,  and  the  belief  had  taken  root  in 
the  public  mind  that  he  had  expressed  a  wish  to  see  the  towns- 
people reduced  to  the  condition  of  the  Babylonian  king,  and  forced  to 
eat  the  grass  on  his  fields.  One  day  the  excitement  culminated  in  the 
assemblage  of  a  mob,  which  followed  a  bagpiper,  playing  warlike  airs, 
westward  to  the  residence  of  the  obnoxious  laird.  Arrived  at  Mylne- 
field, the  crowd  broke  into  the  house,  sacked  it  of  everything  portable, 
and  destroyed  what  could  not  be  removed.  There  is  no  record  of  any 
of  the  participators  of  this  lawless  proceeding  having  been  brought  to 
justice,  although  common  report  pointed  to  several  individuals  as  hav- 
ing shared  in  the  spoil.  A  certain  weaver  was  credited  with  having 
become  possessed  of  a  strong  box,  with  the  contents  of  which  he  esta- 
blished himself  as  a  manufacturer ;  another  was  reported  to  have 
secured  an  ornament  in  the  form  of  a  ball  of  gold,  which  hung  in  the 
drawing-room,  and  which,  after  being  discreetly  concealed  for  a  time 
in  the  "  Mausie  Burn,"  was  afterwards  taken  by  him  to  London, 
where  its  conversion  into  cash  enabled  the  possessor  to  set  up  a  public 
house.  The  story  would  be  complete  if  we  could  add  that  the  rogue 
had  gratitude  enough  left  to  adopt  the  "  golden  ball "  for  the  sign  of 
his  tavern. 

The  outbreak  at  Mylnefield  did  not  exhaust  the  riotous  tendencies 
of  the  lower  orders  ;  for,  in  the  year  following,  another  "  meal  mob" 
occurred,  although  the  price  (lO^d.  to  Is.  per  peck),  was  not  much 
dearer  than  usual.  In  the  books  of  the  Guildry  and  Trades  frequent 
entries  occur  of  purchases  of  meal  by  these  bodies,  sometimes  from 
such  distant  places  as  Aberdeen,  Banff,  and  Inverness,  these  supplies 
being  retailed  at  cost  price  to  mitigate  the  privations  and  allay  the 

1  For  this  and  other  incidents'  which  follow  we  are  indebted  to  the  MS.  kindly 
leut  by  Air  James  Duff. — ,Ec. 


HISTORY  OF  DDK 

discontent  of  tho  people.  Itauu  and  peas  were  freely  purchased  on 
such  occasions  to  convert  into  meal,  M  well  at  oato ;  and  it  ia  notice- 
able that,  on  uovoral  occasions  of  this  kind,  tho  barley  had  to  be  got 
by  fr.  i_'htiu-  a  ahip  to  fetch  it  from  Holland.1  In  1782,  the  Magis- 

•>  found  themselves  under  the  neoemity  of  contracting  a  loan  of 
£  1  "><  H»  with  tho  Duudco  Bank  for  purchasing  meal  to  retail  to  the 
pour  j  and,  in  1795,  another  loan,  to  the  extent  of  £4000,  had  to  be 
negotiated  for  the  same  object  Five  yean  later  they  hit  upon  a 

i  I'liin  of  procuring  aup]>li< «,  l-y  offering  a  premium  of  £100  for 
til-  li»t  thousand  bolls  of  barloy-meal  brought  into  the  town. 

The  effects  of  th  Fr-iK-h  Revolution  in  thin  country  were  not  con- 
fined to  peaceful  •  L-'-u.vMoM,  although  that  was  duly  provided  for  in 
Dundee  by  the  formation  of  a  "  Whig  Club,"  which  sent  a  congratu- 
latory address  to  th>-  National  Assembly,  signed  by  its  president, 
.,'e  Dempster"  of  Dunnichen.  Not  content  with  this 
expression  of  sympathy,  some  restless  spirits  conceived  the  idea  of 
planting  a  tree  of  lilx-rty  in  i'uudue.  One  evening  a  crowd  collected 
on  tin  Ili_'h  Stnrt,  ;iu<l  proceeded  to  the  grounds  in  front  of  Belmont 
II  'U.-i-,  in  the  lYi'.li  Road,  from  which  a  young  tree  was  abstracted. 

riling  to  tin-  lli_;li  Str.-ct.  the  sapling  was  planted  there  with  due 

.I'.ny,  and  its  branches  hung  with  garlands.  Provost  Riddoch 
Wits  a  spectator,  and  it  is  averred,  was  compelled  to  walk  three 
tiim-M  round  the  tree,  and  shout — "  Liberty  and  equality  for  ever  I" 
1 1  iviug  previously  sent  for  tho  military,  the  provost  had  the  tree  taken 
up  in  the  quiet  of  a  Sabbath  morning,  and  consigned  to  "  the  Thief* 
hole,"  a  cellar  under  the  Town-house.  It  was  afterwards  replanted  in 
its  native  soil,  and  is  now  a  goodly  tree,  the  position  of  it  being  indi- 
cated to  the  passer-by  from  a  stone  inserted  in  the  parapet-wall  by  the 
uroseut  proprietor  of  Belmont] 

101. 


THE  NINETEENTH  CENTURY — TBIALS  OF  PALMER  AND  MEALMAKER — FIRST  NEWSPAPER 
— PROVOST  RIDDOCH'S  REIGN — JAMES  CARMICHAEL  AND  THE  STEAM-ENGINE — ROBERT 
MUDIE  AND  THE  REFORM  BILL  ADVOCATES — MEMBERS  OF  PARLIAMENT  SINCE  1832— 
THE  WATT  INSTITUTION — FIRST  RAILWAY — WRECK  OF  "  FORFARSHIRE" — WHALE- 
FISHING — CHURCHES,  STIPEND  CASE — QUEEN'S  VISIT — GAS  AND  WATER  BILLS. 

THE  political  horizon  in  the  opening  years  of  this  century  was  gloomy 
and  portentous.  A  period  of  commercial  prosperity  had  been  followed 
by  utter  stagnation  of  trade,  and  hardship  and  suffering  fell  to  the  lot 
of  the  working  classes.  As  usually  happens  in  such  circumstances, 
their  eyes  were  turned  with  eager  impatience  to  political  affairs,  so  that, 
when  the  fitful  gleams  of  the  French  Revolution  shot  up  into  the  sky, 
the  light  was  hailed  by  many,  whom  trials  and  suffering  had  made  too 
sanguine,  as  the  harbinger  of  freedom  and  prosperity.  To  the  upper 
classes,  on  the  other  hand,  whose  sympathies  were  neither  sharpened 
by  privation,  nor  nattered  at  the  prospect  of  renouncing  a  share  of 
power,  the  light  seemed  but  the  lurid  glare  which  presaged  a  storm. 
To  them  any  change  in  the  existing  state  of  things  appeared  fraught 
with  nothing  but  turbulence  and  discontent  among  the  people,  such  as 
would  inevitably  result  in"  ruin  to  the  most  cherished  institutions  of  the 
country.  In  this  unsettled  condition  of  the  public  mind,  the  Govern- 
ment exhibited  so  much  impatience  at  the  discussion  of  questions 
upon  political  liberty,  that  indictments  and  prosecutions  fell  thick 
upon  those  who  held  advanced  opinions,  and  had  the  boldness  to  urge 
them  on  the  attention  of  their  fellow-men. 

In  the  conflict  of  authority  and  thought  to  which  we  refer,  Dundee 
had  its  full  share.  In  1793,  it  had  its  "  Whig  Club,"  and  thereafter 
its  branch  of  the  "  Friends  of  the  People,"  a  political  organization 
which  would  now  be  deemed  as  legitimate  and  harmless  as  any 
"  League,"  but  which  then  was  regarded  as  a  very  hot-bed  of  sedition. 
One  of  the  active  promoters  of  the  advanced  opinions  was  George  Meal- 
maker,  a  handloom  weaver,  who  drew  up  an  address  to  the  people  of 
Scotland  on  the  subject  of  Reform.  This  document,  on  being  sub- 
mitted to  a  meeting,  in  the  Berean  Meeting-house,  Methodist  Close, 
was  approved  of  in  substance,  but  handed  over  to  Thomas  Fysche 
Palmer,  the  pastor  of  a  small  congregation  of  Unitarians  recently 


198  DISTORT  or  DUiroa. 

organised  in  the  town,  for  literary  correction,  and  the  superintendence 
•  *  publication.  For  this  he  was  indicted,  and  brought  to  trial  be- 
fore the  Circuit  Court  of  Justiciary  at  Perth ;  and,  although  Mfialmakttf 
appeared  and  avowed  the  authorship,  Palmer  was  found  art  and  part 
guilty  of  writing  the  address,  and  guilty  of  causing  it  to  be  printed 
and  published,  for  which  he  was  sentenced  to  seven  years'  transporta- 
tion. He  had,  as  a  companion  in  banishment,  Thomas  Muir,  a  pro- 
mising advocate  at  the  Scottish  bar,  who  had  been  sentenced  a  month 
previously  to  fourteen  years'  transportation,  for  a  similar  offence  ;  and 
a  third  compatriot  was  found  to  enter  into  voluntary  exile  with  them, 
under  circumstances  so  romantic  as  to  deserve  record  : — 

"  A  young  man,  named  June*  Ellia,  a  native  of  Dundee,  who  then  resided  near 
Paisley,  where  he  at  one  time  held  a  situation  M  clerk,  baring  occasion  to  revisit 
Dundee,  made  the  acquaintance  of  Palmer.  Both  being  Radical*,  and  men  of 
cultivated  mind*,  a  mutual  attachment  arose,  which  was  of  a  moet  remarkable 
character.  Ellw,  who  had  been  a  moet  unwilling  witness  at  the  trial  of  Palmer, 
resolved,  on  hearing  the  •vnfeuce  that  was  pronounced  upon  his  attached  friend, 
to  ahare  bu  exile  with  him ;  and  he  accordingly  voluntarily  accompanied  Palmer 
to  New  South  Wales,  and  remained  with  him  during  the  whole  of  hi*  baauh- 
ment,  cheerfully  suffering  many  hardship*  along  with  him.  '  Having  •erred  out 
the  term  of  hit  sentence,  Palmer  bought  a  vessel  and  quitted  the  colony,  accom- 
panied by  hi*  faithful  attendant.  He  WM  afterward*  cart  away  on  one  of  the 
Marianne  Islands,  where  be  died  on  June  2,  1802,  from  fatigue  ;  and  Ellis  per- 
formed the  last  melancholy  duty  of  interring  his  beloved  master's  remains  in  a 
Roman  Catholic  country,  in  the  sand*  by  the  sea-shore — auch  being  the  only  place 
of  sepulchre  permitted  to  heretic*.  Here,  however,  the  remain*  of  thi*  preacher 
of  political  righteousness  were  not  destined  to  remain.  From  a  paragraph  in  the 
Dundee  Mercury  uf  Aug.  30.  1809,  we  learn  that  'an  American  captain  being 
there  in  May  1804,  by  permiMion  frotn  the  Governor,  took  up  the  body  ;  and  hi* 
bones  are  now  in  the  possession  of  a  gentleman  in  Boston,  who  i*  willing  to  give 
them  up,  free  of  expense,  to  anybody  who  may  apply  for  them.'  Whether  any 
application^**!  made  consequent  on  this  offer  does  not  appear." 

George  Meulmakcr,  though  escaping  at  the  time  Palmer  was  tried, 
not  lung  after  fell  into  the  same  toils,  for  writing  a  political  catechism 
which  was  alleged  to  be  tainted  with  sedition.  He  was  tried  in  17U3, 
found  guilty,  and  sentenced  to  fourteen  years'  transportation,  ten  of 
which  he  had  suffered  when,  in  1808,  death  cancelled  the  hard  sen- 
tence to  which  a  mistaken  exercise  of  power  had  condemned  him. 

It  is  a  relief  to  turn  from  the  record  of  these  harsh  and  fruitless 
attempts  to  repress  intellectual  progress,  and  punish,  by  the  heavy 
arm  of  the  law,  those  earnest  men  who  sought  to  exercise  their  inalien- 
able right  to  "  know,  to  utter,  and  to  argue  freely,  according  to  their 
conscience,"  to  the  dawn  of  a  better  state  of  things,  in  the  advent  of 
the  public  press,  which  eru  long  became  the  source  and  safeguard  of 


PROVOST  RIDDOOH'S  REIGN.  139 

political   liberty.      The   first  periodical   issued   in   Dundee  was  the 
monthly  Dundee  Magazine,  started  by  Thomas  Colville  in    1799,  of 
which  four  or  five  volumes  appeared ;  but  its  contents  were  more  of 
a  literary  than  political  character.     On  the  16th  January,  1801,  the 
first  regular  newspaper  appeared,  in  the  form  of  a  modest  broadsheet, 
entitled  The  Dundee  Weekly  Advertiser  and  Angusshire  Intelligencer, 
sold  at  sixpence  a  copy.     During  its  career,  the  Advertiser  has  steadily 
kept  pace  with  the  development  of  the  town  in  all  its  phases,  and  now 
deservedly  occupies  a  foremost  place  among  the  newspapers  of  Scotland. 
From  about  the  beginning  of  the  century,  and  during  the  long 
period  of  nearly  thirty  years,  the  internal  affairs  of  the  town  were 
directed  by  Alexander  Eiddoch,  who  was  frequently  Provost,  and 
always  the  real  leader  in  its  municipal  affairs.    Possessed  of  great  natural 
abilities,  and  by  the  constitution  of  the  Council,  invested  with  nearly 
absolute  power,  Mr  Eiddoch  was  able  to  mark  his  rule  by  important 
results,  and  exhibited,  in  trying  circumstances,  a  sagacity,  decision, 
and  promptitude,  which  secured  the  attachment  of  his  friends,  and 
compelled  the  admiration  of  those  who  disapproved  of  his  policy.     It 
would  be  unfair  to  blame  Provost  Eiddoch  for  the  faults  of  the  close 
system  of  burgh  government,  which  existed  at  the  time  of  his  accession 
to  office ;  indeed,  in  justice  to  him  it  must  be  said  that  he  exposed 
the  abuses  which  then  prevailed ;  and,  when  the  time  at  length  came 
for  conceding  popular  rights,  his  testimony  was  not  wanting  to  the 
justice  of  them,  and  his  assistance  was  zealously  rendered  in  obtaining 
a  more  liberal  constitution  for  the  administration  of  burgh  affairs. 
During  his  reign,  many  important  improvements  in  the  town  were 
planned  and  successfully  accomplished,  such  as  the  opening  up  of 
Crichton   Street,  Castle  Street,  and  Tay  Street,  and  the  widening  of 
the  Nethergate,  by  the  removal  of  a  line  of  old  houses  which  extended 
along  the  front  of  the  churches,  from  the  Union  Hall  to  the  foot  of 
Lindsay  street.1     It  was  claimed,  moreover,  that  all  these  costly  im- 

1  The  Nethergate  was  previously  a  narrow  street,  the  north  side  of  which  was 
nearly  in  a  line  with  the  Uni'>n  Hall ;  while,  between  the  rear  of  these  buildings 
and  the  churchyard,  there  existed  a  narrow  lane  laid  with  flags,  at  the  west  end 
of  which  stood  a  one  storey  building  containing  the  Grammar  and  Parish  Schools. 
To  effect  this  Nethergate  improvement,  an  Act  of  Parliament  was  obtained,  and, 
as  the  owners  of  the  property  were  mostly  persons  of  moderate  means,  the  magis- 
tratrates  secured  nearly  all  the  houses  at  the  prices  they  offered  for  them.  A  Mr 
Garland,  however,  was  not  so  accommodating,  and  claimed  £650  instead  of  the 
£250  offered  him.  A  jury  trial  followed,  ana,  after  a  lengthened  investigation  at 


140  HttTOHT  Or  DUJCDKJt 

proTemanU  were  carried  out  without  imporing  a  shilling  of  taxation 
upon  the  inhabitant* ;  although  the  Provost's  opponent*  alleged,  with 
aome  show  of  truth,  that  hu  private  interests  and  speculation*  were 
furthered  at  the  same  time— an  allegation  not  unfreqnently  made  in 
similar  circumstances  at  the  present  day.  A  scheme  which  brought 
less  credit  to  Mr  Riddoch's  administration  than  those  just  noticed, 
was  one  fur  the  formation  of  a  dry-duck  iu  the  locality  of  Commer- 
cial Street,  the  stones  for  which  were  sought  to  be  obtained  in  the 
Perth  Road,  near  the  fool  of  Small's  Wynd.  The  dock  proved  to  be 
an  engineering  blunder,  and  was  soon  abandoned ;  and  the  quarry, 
which  was  dt-n.-iv.-!;.  n.nn.-.i  "the  howkeries,"  had  to  be  tilled  up,  the 
whole  project  ending  in  a  loss  of  some  thousands  to  the  column i 
Mr  KMiloch,  who  was  a  native  of  Crieff,  retired  from  public  life  in 
181U,  and  dint  ,.„  Dec.  9,  1822,  at  the  advanced  age  of  78  years. 

The  commercial  alfoira  of  Dundee,  about  this  period,  were  not 
founded  on  that  stable  basis  of  realised  wealth  which  its  recent  pro- 
sperity has  secured,  and  were  consequently  subject  to  periodical 
I'.uiiiw,  of  which  one  uf  tin*  moat  disastrous  occurred  in  1812.  In  that 

r.  Russian  produce,  the  material  of  the  staple  trade,  suddenly 
up- .11  the  conclusion  of  peace,  from  £150  to  £55  per  ton  ;  and  freights, 
which  shortly  befuru  had  reached  £40  a  ton,  (besides  a  guinea  to  the 
captain,  called  "  cap-lag*an"  or  hat-money,)  underwent  a  like  reduc- 
tion. Amongst  other  failures  was  that  of  William  Sandeman,  a  mer- 
chant ami  bleu«-h.  i,  whose  liabilities  amounted  to£120,000,  the  largest, 
it  was  believed,  which  hu<l  previously  occurred  in  Dundee,  Three  years 
later,  the  tn-le  seemed  to  be  on  the  verge  of  extinction,  no  leas  than 
sixty  firms  having  suspended  payim-nt  within  the  town,  a  state  of 
things  which,  as  may  be  supposed,  involved  the  working  classes  in 
distress  and  privation,  which  public  benevolence  exerted  itself  to  miti- 
gate, but  was  inadequate  wholly  to  relieve. 

The  great  discoveries  of  Watt  were  now  attracting  attention,  and, 
as  in  other  sea-ports,  the  propelling  of  vessels  by  steam  funned  the 
subject  of  experiment  in  Dundee.  On  the  14th  April,  1814,  the  new 
motive  power  was  put  on  its  trial  in  a  steam-boat  named  the  "  Tay," 

which  eminent  eounael  from  Edinburgh  aanated,  the  claimant  was  awarded  £800 ; 
which,  with  the  expaaaaa  of  the  trial,  mulcted  the  town  to  the  extent  of  about 
£1000.  The  demolition  of  theae  old  building*  brought  to  light  Urge  quantities 
of  bonea  and  human  remain*,  which  wet*  believed  to  hare  been  haatil/  interred 
during  toe  a***  under  Ueoerml  Monck  in  1651. 


MR  CARMICHAEL'S  ENGINEERING  INVENTIONS.  141 

which  was  put  on  the  passage  to  Perth.  With  this  venture,  the  name 
of  Mr  James  Carmichael  first  came  before  the  public  as  an  engineer, 
whose  services  in  perfecting  the  steam-engine  have  only  recently  been 
adequately  recognised.  Mr  Carmichael  was  a  native  of  Glasgow,  and 
bred  as  a  millwright  in  a  country  village  ;  but,  in  1810,  he  came  to 
join  his  brother  Charles  in  .conducting  a  similar  business  in  Dundee. 
The  firm,  finding  a  demand  springing  up  for  machinery,  soon  de- 
voted attention  to  the  making  of  steam-engines,  a  branch  which 
they  steadily  carried  to  a  high  state  of  perfection,  which  is  still  main- 
tained by  their  successors  in  the  business.  After  the  "  Tay"  and  other 
vessels,  the  Carmichaels  equipped,  in  1821,  the  first  twin  steam-boat  for 
the  Newport  Ferry  passage,  which  was  followed  by  a  second  in  1823. 
In  these,  various  ingenious  improvements  were  introduced,  which 
were  freely  copied  elsewhere,  so  that  ferry-boats  of  the  same  con- 
struction were  soon  adopted  for  similar  purposes  in  this  and  other 
countries,  Hitherto  the  tools  used  in  the  iron-trade  were  compara- 
tively few  and  of  an  antiquated  description  :  to  remedy  which  Mr 
Carmichael  invented  a  planing,  shaping,  and  boring  machine,  which 
•at  once  took  its  place  in  the  Government  and  other  engineering  work- 
shops. In  1833,  the  firm  turned  out  the  first  locomotives  made  in 
Scotland,  for  the  Dundee  and  Newtyle  Railway  ;  and  many  will 
remember  the  wonder,  amounting  almost  to  awe,  with  which  these 
engines  were  regarded  when  first  placed  on  the  rails,  to  supplant  the 
horses  which  then  performed  the  running.  The  invention  of  the  Fan 
Blast,  for  heating  and  melting  iron,  was  introduced  by  Messrs  Car- 
michael in  1829,  and,  being  freely  given,  like  their  other  inventions, 
to  the  public,  its  great  practical  utility  was  soon  acknowledged  by 
universal  adoption.  In  recognition  of  the  liberality  of  the  firm  in  thus 
giving  to  the  trade  an  invention,  which,  if  protected  by  a  patent,  would 
have  secured  them  a  fortune,  the  leading  engineers  in  Glasgow  enter- 
tained the  brothers  to  a  banquet  in  that  city,  in  1841,  and  presented 
them  with  a  handsome  service  of  plate.  The  recognition  of  Mr  Car- 
michael's  talents  and  generosity  by  his  townsmen,  although  somewhat 
tardily  expressed,  is  about  to  be  worthily  shown,  by  the  erection 
of  a  bronze  statue,  now  in  preparation,  and  destined  to  occupy  a  pro- 
minent position  in  the  Albert  Square. 

In  connection  with  the  ferry  steamers,  constructed  by  Messrs 
Carmichael,  it  may  be  mentioned  that  the  introduction  of  that  means 
of  communication  between  the  opposite  shores  of  the  firth  resulted 


143  HISTORY  OP  DUWDRB. 

from  a  disaster  which  drew  public  attention  to  the  danger  and  Incon- 
venience attending  the  small  craft  which  formerly  plied  upon  the 
y.  In  tho  ftiuniiHT  of  l*i:>,  one  of  tbeee,  laden  with  passengers, 
cnjisUed  in  tho  river,  by  which  eighteen  lives  were  lock  A  subecrip- 
lion  in  aid  of  the  families  thus  left  destitute  formed  the  nucleus  of  oar 
Orphan  Institution  ;  and,  to  obviate  the  recurrence  of  such  mishaps,  a 
1-ill  was  applied  for  and  obtained,  for  the  erection  of  proper  piers  and 
the  equipment  of  steam-boat*.  These  object*  were  not  accomplished 
without  protracted  and  acrimonious  discussions  upon  the  plans  of  rival 
engineers  ;  but  ultimately  those  of  Mr  Telford,  with  certain  modifica- 
tions, were  adopted  in  preference  to  Mr  Stevenson's.  The  management 
was  vested  in  a  body  designated  the  Tay  Ferry  Trustees  ;  but  the  coat 
of  the  works  having  far  exceeded  the  first  calculations,  and  the  revenue 
proving  insufficient  to  defray  working  expenses  and  the  interest  upon 
the  debt,  the  control  of  the  Ferries  reverted  successively  to  the  Go- 
vernment and  the  Caledonian  Railway.  The  rapid  increase  of  New 
port,  and  the  desire  for  further  improvements  in  the  ferry  service, 
have  recently  drawn  the  attention  of  the  authorities  in  Dundee  to  the 
management,  which,  after  tedious  negotiations,  became  vestal  in  the  Har-* 
hour  Board,  Nov.  1 1, 1873,  upon  payment  of  £20,000  to  the  Railway  Co. 
About  the  year  1816,  the  subject  of  Parliamentary  Reform  had 
taken  hold  of  the  public  mind,  and  nowhere  was  it  more  energetically 
discussed  than  in  Dundee.  The  Advertiser  became  the  medium 
through  which  several  able  exponents  of  popular  rights  ventilated  the 
subject,  and  contributed  in  no  small  degree  to  the  ultimate  success  of 
the  movement  Of  those  who  participated  in  this  work  must  be  men- 
tioned R.  8.  Rintoul,  the  editor ;  Mr  Saunders,  one  of  the  proprie- 
tors ;  George  Kinloch  ;  and  Robert  Mudie,  one  of  the  teachers  in  the 
Academy.  The  career  of  Mudie  furnishes  a  striking  instance  of  the 
force  and  vitality  of  inborn  genius.  He  was  the  son  of  a  poor  man, 
and  reared  among  the  solitudes  of  the  Sidlaw  Hills,  without  any  edu- 
cation beyond  what  he  picked  up  after  three  months'  tuition  under  a 
country  "  dominie,"  and  for  whom,  as  he  himself  declared  : 

"  Scarcely  school,  and  never  college, 
Had  ope'd  to  him  their  ctorw  of  knowledge." 

From  shepherding,  young  Mudie  passed  to  weaving,  and  then  enlisted 
in  a  militia  regiment,  contriving  meanwhile  to  acquire  stores  of  learn- 
ing, which,  to  one  in  his  circumstances,  seemed  well  nigh  impossible  of 
attainment  A  good  story  is  told  of  the  astonishment  he  caused  in  a 


ROBERT  MUDW!  AND  HIS  WRITINGS.  143 

cottar's  family,  where  he  was  billeted  in  his  soldiering  days,  by  deliver- 
ing from  shorthand  notes,  a  verbatim  report  of  a  sermon  he  heard  one 
Sunday,  and  winding  up  the  evening  by  expositions  of  Scripture  from 
his  Greek  Testament.  Leaving  the  militia  at  the  end  of  his  four  years' 
term,  he  took  to  teaching,  first  in  Fifeshire,  then  in  Inverness,  and 
from  thence  transferred  himself  to  Dundee,  where  his  versatility 
showed  itself  in  undertaking  such  varied  departments  as  arithmetic, 
book-keeping,  and  drawing.  A  ready  and  trenchant  writer,  gifted 
moreover  with  great  powers  of  sarcasm  and  raillery,  it  may  well  be 
conceived  Mudie's  pen  found  ample  scope  in  the  region  of  local  po- 
lemics. Like  other  masters  of  satire,  he  was  unfortunately  prone  to 
use  that  dangerous  weapon,  without  discrimination  or  good  taste,  eager 
only  "  to  smite  the  natives."  With  certain  public  men  whom  he  stung, 
by  personal  attacks  too  broad  to  be  mistaken  and  too  scathing  to  be 
quietly  endured,  Mudie  found  himself  placed  in  unseemly  relations, 
so  much  so  that  on  one  occasion  he  got  spat  upon  and  kicked  by  a 
future  provost.  In  reading  now  the  effusions  which  provoked  such 
rough  rejoinders,  we  miss  no  doubt  much  of  their  pungency  at  the 
time,  but  enough  remains  to  show  their  literary  ability  and  incisive 
satire — as,  for  instance,  in  "  The  Flamingo,"  which  thus  began  : — 

"  On  Thursday  week,  when  loyalty  and  drink 

Had  worked  our  burghers  into  royal  tune, 
It  might  be  seven  or  eight  o'clock,  I  think, 

Or  haply  later  in  the  afternoon, 
Two  rosy  youths,  whose  half  -shut  eyes  did  wink, 

With  labouring  at  the  bottle,  jug,  and  spoon, 
Anxious  to  try  another  sort  of  funning, 
Left  talk  of  pence  and  punch  to  try  their  skill  in  gunning." 

To  counteract  the  influence  of  the  Advertiser,  sustained  by  such 
writers  as  Rintoul  and  Mudie,  the  Conservative  party  started  the 
Courier  in  1816,  and  the  wordy  war  raged  with  increased  asperity 
between  the  opposing  factions.  That  expedient  seemed,  however,  too 
slow  a  process  to  silence  the  irrepressible  lampooner,  and  a  more  direct 
method  was  resolved  upon  by  the  dominant  party  in  the  Council.  As 
English  teacher,  Mudie  was  subject  to  the  control  of  his  opponents, 
and  that  appointment  was  summarily  withdrawn ;  but,  as  drawing- 
master,  he  had  his  place  for  life.  Negotiations  were  accordingly  opened 
to  buy  him  off,  and  a  limit  of  £120  was  allowed  to  the  committee 
which  undertook  the  delicate  task.  Beginning  at  the  safe  figure  of 
£20,  the  inward  delight  of  the  negotiators  may  be  imagined  when  the 


144  Hirm«T  or  omrmm, 

un«wpootinR  object  of  their  solicitude  readily  accepted  that  wra. 
Shortly  afterwards,  in  1890,  Mudie  left  Dundee  for  London,  after 
having  unsuccessfully  tried  two  periodicals,  the  Indeprndmt  and  the 
Caledonian,  each  of  which  only  survived  over  three  or  four  numbers. 
1  n  the  metropolis,  Mudie  found  employment  on  th«  Morning  CkronicU, 
the  Sunday  Time*,  and  other  newspapers,  contributed  to  the  periodi- 
cal* of  the  day,  and,  in  a  few  ynars,  produced  upwards  of  ninety 
volumes  in  almost  every  depart  m-  :  iture,  "  Many  of  his  works 

were  hastily  produced,  to  provide  for  the  passing  wants  of  the  day, 
and  he  has  been  known  to  throw  off  a  volume  of  his  '  Beaton*,'  in 
vs.  He  was  an  able  writer,  an  elegant  compiler,  an  acute  and 
philosophical  observer  of  nature,  and  particularly  happy  in  his  geogra- 
phical dissertations  and  works  on  natural  history."  Win!.-  resident 
in  lUindee,  he  was  on  terms  of  intimacy  with  I>r  <  IM liners,  then  mi- 
nister of  Kilmany,  in  Fife,  whose  biographer  thus  narrates  one  of 
tlit  ir  meetings: — 

••  In  Che  autumn  of  181 1,  when  Dr  Chalmers  WM  alone  at  the  manae,  Mr  Modi* 
and  Mr  Duncan  [afterward*  a  profeanr— than  raotor  of  buixioc  Academy]  can* 
in  upon  him  fiom  Dundee.  On  couaulting  his  asrvant  privately  M  to  what  there 
waa  for  dinner,  he  found  to  bia  diamay  that  there  was  nothing  whatever  in  the 
houae  hut  two  aq-arate  parcel*  of  aalt  fi«h.  Having  given  particular  directions 
that  a  portion  of  each  ahould  be  boiled  apart  from  the  other,  he  joined  hia  f  rieoda, 
and  went  out  with  them  to  enjoy  a  walk.  On  returning  to  the  houae,  the  dinner 
waa  Barred,  two  large  and  moat  promising  covered  diahea  being  placed  at  the  head 
and  foot  of  the  table.  'And  now,  gentlemen,'  aaid  the  boat,  aa  the  cover*  war* 
removed,  '  you  have  variety  to  chooae  among ;  that  u  aalt  nab  from  St  Andrew*, 
and  thia  ia  hard  fiah  from  Dundee.' " ' 

Poor  Mudie,  with  all  his  acquirements  and  industry,  found  the  life 

of  a  literary  hack  one  drear}' round  of  .labour,  embittered  with  poverty, 

ending  in  complete  bodily  exhaustion.     He  died  at  Pentonville 

on  the  29th  April,   1842,  aged  sixty-four,  leaving  a  widow,  by  a 

second  marriage,  in  indigent  circumstances.1 


b1.  "  Life  of  Chalmera,"  voL  L,  p.  «. 
*  The  following  liat  of  Mudie1.  principal  worka  may  not  b*  without  iutaraat ; 
and  one  cannot  help  wiahing  that  a  collection  of  them  might  ficJ  a  place  in  oar 
PTM   Library  :-"The  Maid  of  Unban— A  Poetical  Fragment,"  1810.     "Ola*, 
fwgua."  a  novel  in  3  vola.,  written  in  Dundee.    "  tint  Seriea  of  Zoology,"  1  o  i- 
don,  1831.     "  Modern  Athena— A  Sketch  of  Edinburgh  Society."     "  Babylou  >ae 
Great— A  Picture  of  Men  and  Thing*  in  London,"  4  vola.     "  The  Brituh  Katurel- 
iat,"  2  vola.     M  A  Popuhtf  Guide  to  the  Obaervation  of  Nature,"  (voL  77  of  Coo- 
•table'.  Miaoellany.)  London,  1832.   M  Firat  Line,  of  Natural  Philoaophy,"  Lond«« 
1032.     "The  Botanical  Annual,"  London,  1882.     " Tb*  Featbewd  THW  of  the 


MEMBERS  OF  PARLIAMENT.  145 

The  Eeform,  for  which  Kinloch,  Eintoul,  Mudie,  and  their  party 
agitated,  came  at  length  in  1832,  when  the  claims  of  Dundee  were 
recognised  to  the  extent  of  having  a  Member  to  itself,  instead  of  being 
grouped  as  formerly  with  the  burghs  of  Forfar,  Perth,  Cupar,  and  St 
Andrews.  Under  the  old  system,  the  small  burghs  each  elected  a 
delegate,  who  proceeded  to  the  burgh  where  the  parliamentary  elec- 
tion took  place — each  becoming  the  returning  burgh  in  succession, 
and  there  voted  for  the  Member.  The  body  of  the  people  had  no 
direct  participation  in  the  matter ;  but,  when  the  provisions  of  the 
Eeform  Bill  took  effect,  by  which  the  franchise  was  extended  to  ,£10 
householders  in  burghs,  who  directly  elected  their  representative,  a 
change  equal  to  revolution  took  place,  and  something  like  an  intelligent 
interest  in  political  affairs  sprang  up.  For  its  first  Member,  Dundee 
chose  Mr  Kinloch,  under  circumstances  elsewhere  described ;  and, 
after  his  too  brief  career,  Sir  Henry  Parnell  was  elected  in  1833,  and 
continued  to  represent  the  burgh  until  the  dissolution  in  1841,  when 
he  was  raised  to  the  peerage  under  the  title  of  Lord  Congleton.  Mr 
George  Duncan,  a  local  merchant,  was  returned  in  1841,  and  continued 
to  represent  his  native  town  with  much  acceptance  until  the  dissolu- 
tion of  Lord  Palmerston's  administration  in  1867,  when  advancing 
age  led  to  his  retirement.  His  successor  was  Sir  John  Ogilvy,  Bart, 
of  Inverquharity,  a  gentleman  long  identified  with  every  good  work 
in  Dundee,  and  who  has  since  assiduously  represented  the  interests  of 
the  constituency  in  Parliament.  Sir  John  was  associated  with  Mr 
George  Arniitstead  from  1868,  when  a  second  Member  was  given,  until 
the  resignation  of  the  latter  in  1872 ;  when,  after  a  stirring  contest 
for  the  vacant  seat  with  Mr  Fitzjames  Stephen  and  Mr  Edward  Jen- 
kins, ex-Provost  Yeaman  was  returned  by  a  large  majority. 

British  Islands,"  2  vols.,  London,  1834.  "Conversation  on  Modern  Philosophy," 
2  vols.  "The  Natural  History  of  Birds,"  London,  1834.  "  The  Elements  :  The 
Heavens  :  The  Earth  :  The  Air :  The  Sea,"  1835.  "  Po;  ular  Mathematics,"  Lon- 
don, 1836.  "The  Seasons,"  4  vols.,  London,  1837.  "  History  of  Hampshire,  and 
the  Channel  Islands,"  8  vols.  "  Gleanings  of  Nature  ;  Fifty-seven  Groups  of 
Animals  and  Plants,"  London,  1838.  "  Domesticated  Animals,"  Winchester, 
1838.  "Man  in  his  Physical  Structure  and  Adaptations,"  London,  1838.  "  Man 
in  his  Intellectual  Faculties  and  Adaptations,"  London,  1839.  "Man  in  his  Re- 
Jations  to  Society,"  1840.  "Man  as  a  Moral  and  Accountable  Being,"  1840. 
"  China  and  its  Resources  and  Peculiarities,  with  a  View  of  the  Opium  Question, 
and  a  notice  of  Assam.  Mudie  also  wrote  the  letterpress  for  "  Gilbert's  Modern 
Atlas  ;"  the  most  of  the  natural  history  articles  in  the  "  British  Cyclopaedia  ;"  and 
conducted  the  scientific  journals  called  the  The  Surveyor,  The  Engineer,  and  The 
Architect. 


146  MBJTOBT  Of  DOXDM. 

Reverting  to  the  en  of  the  Eofbrm  Bill,  we  find  manifestation*  of 
literary  M  well  as  political  activity.  The  death  of  James  Watt  sug- 
gested (Miinmamontiin  memorials  of  hi*  genius  throughout  the  country, 
and  in  Dundee,  as  elsewhere,  the  idea  of  a  literary  and  acientific  inati- 
tute  (bond  favour,  as  being  more  appropriate  than  a  monument  in 
bronze  or  marble.  Though  the  moat  important  and  BUI  COM  fill,  the 
Watt  Institution  was  not  the  first  literary  and  scientific  association. 
In  1810,  a  society  was  organised  under  the  direction  of  Mr  Douglas 
Gardiner,  an  individual  of  some  attainments  in  botanical  and  general 
science,  which  took  the  designation  of  "  The  Dundee  Rational  Insti- 
tution." Its  first  librarian  was  William  Lyon  Mackf>nrie,t  who  after* 
wards  attained  an  unenviable  notoriety  as  a  politician  in  Canada.  In 
this  capacity,  he  became  leader  of  the  Opposition  in  the  Colonial  Par- 
liament ;  and  having,  in  1837,  placed  himself  at  the  head  of  a  party, 
which  sought  to  effect  by  force  of  arms  what  could  not  be  gained  by 
legislation,  he  was  defeated,  and  forced  to  flee,  with  a  price  of  £1000 
set  upon  his  head.  After  sojourning  in  obscurity  in  the  States  for 
some  years,  he  was  permitted  to  return  to  Canada,  and  again  served 
in  its  Parliament  until  his  death  in  1861.  The  "  Rational  Institu- 
tion" possessed  itself  of  a  library,  some  philosophical  apparatus,  and  a 
tolerable  museum  ;  but,  after  a  few  yean  existence,  its  affairs  fell  into 
confusion,  and  its  property  was  scattered  under  the  hamm«rT 

The  Watt  Institution  was  started  in  1824,  under  favourable  auspices, 
and  for  many  years  imparted  a  wholesome  stimulus  in  public  education. 
Its  first  session  was  opened  in  Willison  Church,  Barrack  Street,  oa 
the  19th  January,  1825,  with  an  attendance  of  460  members,  and  the 
close  of  the  year  left  a  surplus  of  £601  6s.  7d.  to  its  funds.  During  the 
next  fifteen  years  of  its  existence,  its  operations  were  generally  suc- 
cessful, and  its  library  and  museum  assumed  respectable  proportions ; 
so  that  the  Directors  were  led  to  erect  a  special  building,  for  better 
accommodation,  in  the  Constitution  Road.  This  was  opened  in  1840, 
and  embraced,  besides  the  museum  and  library,  a  large  lecture  halL 
An  exhibition  of  scientific  and  artistic  objects,  held  in  the  buildings, 
is  yet  remembered  for  its  excellence,  and,  though  highly  successful, 
has,  strangely  enough,  not  been  repeated  in  Dundee  until  1873,  when 
a  similar  exhibition  was  held  in  the  new  Museum  Buildings  in  Albert 
Square.  After  1846,  the  success  of  the  Watt  Institution  fluctuated, 
with  a  steadily  downward  tendency,  from  causes  not  easily  defined, 
but  which  operated  in  the  suiue  way  upon  similar  sssnniaHnni  through- 


THE  If  ATT  INSTITUTION.  147 

out  the  country ;  and,  notwithstanding  various  efforts  put  forth  to 
galvanise  it  into  new  life,  among  which  was  a  monster  meeting  in  St 
Andrew's  Church,  presided  over  by  the  present  Earl  of  Dalhousie,  its 
moribund  symptoms  could  not  he  arrested.  The  building  fell  into  the 
hands  of  parties  who  had  advanced  money  on  mortgage,  and  it  was 
with  difficulty  that  the  library  and  museum  were  secured.  After  being 
temporarily  and  most  inadequately  housed  in  Lindsay  Street,  these 
were  at  length  taken  over  by  the  town  under  the  Free  Library  Act ; 
and  we  may  now  indulge  the  expectation  that  they  will  form  the 
nucleus  of  collections  worthy  of  the  town,  and  command  even  a  greater 
measure  of  prosperity  and  usefulness  than  that  which  attended  the 
Watt  Institution  in  its  best  days.  The  building,  it  may  be  added, 
was  recently  acquired  by  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association,  and 
is  now  devoted  to  uses  of  a  no  less  praiseworthy  kind  than  those  for 
which  it  was  built ;  and  the  energetic  management  of  this  Association 
justifies  the  hope  that  it  may  long  diffuse  intellectual  light,  and  stimu- 
late mental  progress  in  the  community. 

In  the  adoption  of  railways  as  a  means  of  communication,  Dundee 
was  in  the  field  at  an  earlier  date  than  other  places  superior  to  it  in 
population  and  resources.  About  1830 — in  which  year  Stephenson 
had  opened  the  first  English  railway  for  passengers,  between  Liver- 
pool and  Manchester — the  line  between  Dundee  and  Newtyle  was  like- 
wise completed ;  and  though  its  engineering  was  such  as  could  not  be 
tolerated  by  modern  ideas,  there  can  be  no  question  that,  considering 
the  circumstances  in  which  it  was  made,  it  evinced  a  degree  of  enter- 
prise that  deserves  acknowledgment.  After  doing  duty  for  some  five- 
and-thirty  years,  the  exigencies  of  the  traffic  led  to  the  original  lines 
of  the  Newtyle  being  improved  nearly  out  of  existence ;  so  that  the 
once  well-known  sight  of  its  three  or  four  carriages,  crawling  up  the 
acclivity  of  the  Law  at  the  end  of  a  rope,  now  lives  only  in  the  recol- 
lection of  the  lieges.  The  Dundee  and  Arbroath  line,  opened  in  1838, 
proved  more  successful  in  its  engineering,  and  from  the  first  yielded  a 
good  return  for  the  capital  expended  in  its  formation.  The  Dundee 
and  Perth  line  followed,  a  few  years  after ;  and  railway  communica- 
tion with  Fife  and  the  south  was  also  secured  by  the  Edinburgh  and 
Korthern — afterwards  known  as  the  Edinburgh,  Perth,  and  Dundee, 
and  now  part  of  the  North  British  system — as  the  first-named  lines 
are  of  the  Caledonian. 

Prior  to  the  formation  of  railways,  Dundee,  from  its  maritime  posi- 


14  H  IIIBTom  OF  DT7XDKE. 


tion,  WM  tolerably  well  served  with  steam-boats,  lines  of  which  rtfll 
compete  mooessfully  with  the  railways.  In  1834,  the  Dundee,  Perth, 
and  London  Shipping  Company,  superseded  the  smiling  smacks,  by 
which  their  trade  had  previously  been  conducted,  by  two  paddle-ships, 
propelled  by  steam,  which  were  then  regarded  as  exceptionally  hand- 
some and  powerful  vessels.  These,  named  the  "  Dundee"  and  the 
"  Perth,"  were  built  by  Napier  of  Glasgow  ;  and,  with  the  "  London," 
added  in  1838,  sufficed  to  carry  the  whole  trade  with  the  capital  of 
the  empire  for  many  years.  They  were  in  their  turn  superseded  by 
the  fleet  of  improved  iron  screw-steamers,  built  in  Dundee  by  Messrs 
Gourlay  Brothers  &  Co.,  by  which  the  large  trade  with  London  is  now 
conducted  with  great  regularity  and  comparative  safety. 

In  1  838,  however,  a  disaster  occurred  in  connection  with  the  S.B.  "For- 
farahire,"  plying  betwixt  Dundee  and  Hull,  under  circumstances  which 
made  a  profound  impression  in  the  town  and  neighbourhood.  On  the 
morning  of  the  7th  September,  in  that  year,  while  on  her  passage 
from  Hull  northwards,  with  a  valuable  cargo  and  some  fifty  pas- 
sengers, the  "  Forfarshire"  struck  on  a  rock  among  the  Fern  Islands, 
off  the  coast  of  Northumberland.  The  immediate  cause  of  the  catas- 
trophe was  the  defective  state  of  the  boilers,  which  leaked  so  badly  as 
to  extinguish  the  fires,  and  thus  left,  the  vessel  at  the  mercy  of  the 
storm,  which  raged  with  great  violence  during  the  night  The  rock 
on  which  she  struck  cut  her  in  two  immediately  aft  of  the  paddle- 
boxes,  the  after  part  sinking  in  deep  water,  while  the  stem  remained 
upon  the  reef.  Eight  of  the  crew  and  a  passenger  betook  themselves 
to  the  long-boat,  and  were  afterwards  rescued  by  a  Montrose  vessel, 
and  landed  at  Shields  ;  while  such  of  the  others  as  had  escaped  a 
watery  grave  in  the  portion  which  went  down,  clung  to  the  fore  part 
of  the  ship.  At  daylight,  the  handful  of  these,  who  had  not  been 
swept  away  during  the  terrible  night,  were  descried  from  the  Long- 
stone  Lighthouse,  erected  on  one  of  the  islands  about  a  mile  from  the 
scene  of  the  wreck.  John  Darling,  the  keeper,  and  his  heroic  daughter, 
Grace  Darling,  lost  no  time  in  launching  their  little  boat  and  attempting 
ing  to  reach  the  wreck.  In  the  tempestuous  weather  which  raged  at 
the  time,  and  in  a  craft  so  poorly  equipped  to  breast  the  heavy  sea 
than  running,  it  seemed  as  if  the  fate  of  the  two  figures  in  the  boat  — 
now  whirled  aloft  on  the  crest  of  the  wave,  and  the  next  moment  lost 
in  the  trough  of  the  sea  —  were  more  hopeless  and  terrible  than  that 
which  threatened  those  whom  they  wan»  sv  gallantly  attempting 


THE  WHALE  FISHINCk  149 

to  save.  By  incredible  exertions,  however,  the  boat  was  pulled  to 
the  rock,  and  nine  individuals  rescued,  and,  with  the  utmost  diffi- 
culty conveyed  to  the  Lighthouse.  There  they  had  to  remain  for 
three  days  until  the  storm  moderated  so  far  as  to  permit  of  a  boat 
conveying  them  to  the  mainland.  The  loss  of  life  by  this  calamity 
could  not  be  exactly  ascertained ;  but  it  was  believed  that  between 
forty  and  fifty  perished,  among  whom  were  the  captain  and  his 
wife,  and  several  individuals  in  the  upper  class  of  society  in  this 
district.  The  courageous  conduct  of  Grace  Darling,  then  in  her 
twenty-third  year,  and  not  in  robust  health,  sent  a  thrill  of  admira- 
tion through  all  hearts,  and  made  her  the  heroine  of  the  day. 
Testimonials  were  subscribed  for,  and  presented  to  her  and  her  gal- 
lant father,  and  their  portraits  were  painted  and  hung  up  in  the 
Trinity  House. 

In  another  department  of  maritime  enterprise,  that  of  the  whale- 
fishing,  Dundee  has  long  held  the  foremost  place  in  this  country.  So 
long  back  as  1782,  it  was  a  regular  industry,  the  fishing  of  that  year 
being  rendered  notable  by  the  loss  of  the  "Dundee"  in  the  ice,  a  nar- 
rative of  which  was  published  by  Captain  Eobson.  Twelve  years 
afterwards,  another  whaler  of  the  same  name  was  pounced  upon  by  a 
French  privateer,  which  was  about  to  take  its  unsavoury  prize  into 
the  port  of  Bergen,  in  Norway,  when  it  was  recaptured.  The  casual- 
ties attending  the  whaling  trade,  however,  are  mostly  confined  to  the 
crushing  of  the  vessels  in  the  ice,  by  which  something  like  a  score  of 
them  have  been  lost,  within  living  memory.  In  1836,  two  whalers, 
the  "  Advice  "  and  "  Thomas,"  were  beset,  amongst  others  from  vari- 
ous ports,  the  latter  being  wrecked,  her  crew  taking  refuge  in  the 
other  ships.  From  the  severity  of  the  winter  and  the  privations 
undergone  by  the  men,  it  was  found,  when  the  survivors  reached 
home  in  June  of  the  following  year,  that  only  four  were  able  to  be  on 
deck  in  the  "  Advice,"  and  that  83  deaths  had  occurred  amongst  the 
crews  of  the  two  ships.  The  adoption  of  steam  and  the  screw-propel- 
ler has  signally  improved  the  efficiency  of  the  whaling  fleet,  enabling 
the  vessels  to  move  about  the  fishing  regions  with  greater  freedom, 
and  to  prolong  their  search  for  fish  with  less  risk  of  being  beset  in 
the  ice,  while  it  also  enables  them  to  prosecute  the  seal-fishing  in  the 
early  part  of  the  season,  return  with  their  cargoes,  and  again  pro- 
ceed to  Davis'  Straits  in  time  for  the  whale  fishing.  It  has  been 
found,  however,  that  iron  vessels,  though  now  preferred  in  other 


150 


•TSTOftT  OF  DQVDVL 


branches,  an  less  suitable  than  wooden  hulls  for  service  in  the  arctic 
regions ;  at  least  thia  waa  UM  conclusion  drawn  from  the  total  loss, 
on  her  second  voyage,  of  an  iron  vessel  expressly  built  for  the  whal- 
ing trade  a  few  yean  ago ;  and  consequently  wooden  ships  alone  an 
now  employed  in  the  trade.  The  following  is  a  list  of  the  cargoes 
obtained  at  the  whale  and  seal-fishing,  by  the  Dundee  vessels,  dur- 
ing the  last  nine  yean : — 

WHALB  Fi«iinwt  Ban.  Pnsmra. 

s  •:;.,  ou.  MBA       tate  Ofl. 

7 630  tin* ...„._.....  «8,000 7*0 

7 68,000 690 

11 66,000. 


i-:> 

1866 11 

1867 11 

1868 18 

1869 10 

1870 « 


20 
970 
140 
760 


1871 8 1,156 

1878 10 1,010 

1878 10 1,862 


11        .45,600. 

9 90,460. 

9 66,480 

11 40,621. 

...11 J 


...640 
...190 

.440 
...870 
...648 
...489 

..265 


The  money  value  of  the  combined  fishing  in  1873,  was  upwards  of 
£103,000.  The  largest  single  cargo  of  whale-oil  brought  to  the  port 
was  in  1832,  when  the  "  Dorothy"  fetched  290  tuns. 

The  awakened  interest  which  we  have  seen  displayed  in  regard  to 
public  affairs  during  the  first  quarter  of  the  century,  and  which  was  then 
directed  to  political  subjects,  found  another  sphere  for  its  exercise  after 
the  passing  of  the  Reform  Bill,  in  the  ecclesiastical  controversy  which 
agitated  Scotland  during  the  "  ten  years'  conflict"  which  preceded  the 
Disruption  of  the  National  Church  in  1843.  In  this  Non-Intrusion 
controversy  the  Dundee  clergy  took  an  active  share,  and  were  sup- 
ported, as  the  result  showed,  by  a  large  section  of  the  people.  Of  the 
thirteen  ministers  who  held  charges  in  the  Established  Church  within 
the  burgh,  ten  joined  in  the  seooafion,  and  oast  in  their  lot  with  the 
Free  Church.  The  result  was  that  ten  new  places  of  worship  wen 
erected  within  a  few  yean  after  1843  ;  and  the  number  has  since  been 
increased  to  eighteen  congregations,  which  now  constitute  that  deno- 
mination in  the  town,  of  which  some  have  been  planted  as  territorial 
or  mission  churches  in  the  more  populous  and  destitute  districts.  Of 
late  years  the  Established  Church  has  evinced  a  commendable  real  in 
the  same  direction,  having  now  twelve  congregations  in  its  commu- 
nion. The  United  Presbyterian  body,  the  Congngationalists,  the 
Episcopalians,  and  the  Roman  Catholics  have  also  erected  numerous 


THE  "STIPEND  CASE."  151 

places  of  worship  for  their  adherents :  the  United  Presbyterians  now  hold- 
ing eight  churches  ;  the  Congregationalists,  six  ;  the  Episcopalians,  five; 
and  the  Catholics,  five.  Of  other  denominations  represented  amongst 
us  may  be  mentioned  the  Wesley  an,  Baptist,  Catholic  Apostolic, 
Unitarian,  Original  Secession,  Old  Scotch  Independent,  &c.  The 
total  number  of  congregations  may  be  taken  at  seventy,  so  that  the 
religious  wants  of  the  population  may  be  considered  as  fairly  pro- 
vided for  so  far  as  church  accommodation  is  concerned. 

The  edifices  used  for  public  worship  are  mostly  of  unpretend- 
ing character,  being  adapted  more  for  convenience  and  comfort  than 
architectural  display,  although  those  more  recently  erected  show 
a  marked  improvement  in  taste,  and  contribute  to  remove  the 
reproach  which  Presbyterianism  has  been  charged  with,  of  being  ini- 
mical to  artistic  excellence  in  church-building.  Of  elegant  and  ornate 
churches  the  most  prominent  are  St  Mary's,  the  South,  and  St 
Mark's,  connected  with  the  Establishment ;  St  Enoch's,  St  Paul's^ 
M'Cheyne  Memorial,  and  Gaelic,  Free  Churches ;  St  Paul's,  and 
St  Salvador's,  Episcopal ;  St  Andrews  and  two  St  Mary's,  Roman 
Catholic ;  Catholic  Apostolic ;  Lochee  United  Presbyterian ;  and 
Ward  Chapel  and  Panmure  Street  Chapel,  Independent,  &c.  The 
Steeple  Church  provides  the  largest  accommodation,  being  seated  for 
1,800  persons. 

One  result  of  the  Disruption,  which  came  to  be  regarded  with 
less  satisfaction  by  the  community  at  large  than  the  denomina- 
tional activity  and  multiplication  of  churches,  was  the  once  famous 
litigation  known  as  "  the  Stipend  Case,"  which  arose  from  the  policy 
adopted  by  the  dominant  party  in  the  Council  of  cutting  down  the 
livings  of  the  incumbents  in  the  Town's  Churches  to  £105 — on  the 
ground  that  no  larger  pittance  was  legally  exigible  out  of  the  "  Hospi- 
tal Fund."  This  fund  originated  in  the  gift  of  certain  Church  pro- 
perty by  Queen  Mary  in  1567,  for  the  support  of  the  Ministry  and 
the  Poor;  but,  in  course  of  time,  the  income  so  derived  was  mixed  up 
with  the  other  revenues  of  the  town ;  and  the  double  task  of  separat- 
ing it,  and  of  allocating  the  proportions  payable  to  the  ministers  and 
the  poor  respectively  was  one  of  great  difficulty.  Prior  to  1843,  it 
appears  that  the  funds  were  divided  in  the  proportion  of  about  two- 
fifths  to  the  clergy,  and  three-fifths  to  the  poor  ;  but,  in  1847,  the 
Council  disbursed  only  £64  10s.  5d.  to  the  former,  while  £600  7s. 
8d.  was  applied  to  the  poor,  or  rather  to  decayed  burgesses  and  other 


1  •  2  BUTOBT  or  DUWD; 


recipient*.  In  1>54,  the  sums  were  £63  Hi  6d.,  and  £1177  15s. 
fid.  ;  and  to  defend  an  allocation  so  obviously  disproportionate  and 
unreasonable  as  this,  the  Council  embarked  in  a  protracted  and  ruin- 
oos  litigation,  first  as  defenders  against  the  action  raised  by  Bev.  Mr 
Cesar  in  1847,  and  another  by  the  Presbytery  in  1852.  In  order  to 
expisoate  the  facts  involved,  the  Court  of  Session  made  a  remit  to  Mr 
Cosmo  Innee,  whose  report,  issued  in  1856,  gives  an  exhaustive  ac- 
count of  the  origin  and  appropriation  of  the  Fund,  together  with  much 
interesting  information  regarding  the  ancient  Church  revenues  of  the 
town.  After  years  of  unseemly  contention,  in  which  a  vast  sum  of 
public  money  was  wasted,  the  Council  found  it  expedient  to  close  this 
discreditable  litigation  by  a  compromise,  which  conceded  the  major 
part  of  the  ministers'  chums,  and  placed  the  administration  of  the 
Hospital  Fund  on  a  more  intelligible  basis.  The  cost  of  this  con- 
flict— in  addition  to  that  incurred  in  an  equally  ill-judged  dispute, 
which  arose  in  1840,  as  to  whether  a  supply  of  water  should  be  under- 
taken by  the  magistrates  or  a  company— so  reduced  the  burgh  finances 
that  for  many  years  the  town  was  under  trustees.  After  the  settle- 
ment of  the  Stipend  Case,  the  resources  of  the  town  assumed  a  more 
promising  aspect,  and  its  debts  having  been  duly  paid  up,  the  contnl 
of  its  affairs  was  resumed  by  the  proper  authorities,  and  will  not,  let 
us  hope,  be  suffered  to  undergo  such  another  financial  eclipse. 

After  a  lapse  of  almost  two  centurion,  Dundee  was  honoured  by  a 
visit  from  the  Sovereign  in  1844.  The  circumstances  attending  the 
visit  of  Queen  Victoria  were  widely  different  from  those  which  at- 
tended Charles  II.  in  1651.  Her  Majesty  had  then  only  begun  those 
royal  progresses  which  have  since  been  so  frequently  undertaken,  and 
which  have  been  attended  with  such  happy  results ;  and  her  visit  to 
Dundee  was  therefore  an  event  which  aroused  the  liveliest  interest 
amongst  all  HSSBM  of  her  faithful  subjects.  The  royal  party  performed 
the  journey  from  the  Thames  to  the  lay  by  sea.  The  squadron,  con- 
sisting of  seven  steamers,  under  the  command  of  Lord  Adolphus  Fitz- 
clarence,  in  the  "  Victoria  and  Albert,"  arrived  in  the  river  early 
on  the  morning  of  the  1 1th  Sept.  By  five  o'clock,  the  town  was  astir, 
and  carriages  were  rolling  in  from  the  surrounding  country  in  all 
directions.  Thousands  of  people  were  parading  the  streets,  examining 
the  devices  with  which  the  more  loyal  of  the  inhabitants  had  adorned 
their  houses.  There  was  a  meeting  of  the  Magistrates  and  Council  at 
six  o'clock,  who,  along  with  the  public  bodies  of  the  neighbouring 


THE  QUEEN'S  VISIT.  153 

towns,  were  all  on  the  quay,  ready  to  receive  Her  Majesty  by  seven 
o'clock.  The  Eoyal  Yacht,  which  contained  the  whole  cause  of  the 
preparations,  was  lying  in  singular  quietness,  when  contrasted  with 
the  activity  on  shore.  The  uncertain  element  on  which  she  rode  was 
calm  as  a  lake,  while  the  land  was  changing  its  aspect  with  every 
humour  of  a  holiday  crowd.  At  the  harbour,  preparations  on  a  grand 
scale  had  been  made  for  the  landing.  Some  of  the  finest  vessels  were 
ranged  along  the  quay,  with  their  yards  manned  by  seamen  in  blue 
jackets  and  white  trousers.  The  Sixtieth  Rifles  were  drawn  up  in 
double  column  from  the  Royal  carriage  along  the  line  of  procession. 
The  upper  end  of  the  broad  middle  quay  was  occupied  by  a  splendid 
triumphal  arch,  eighty  feet  across,  consisting  of  three  archways,  closed 
by  ornamental  gates,  and  embellished  with  appropriate  emblems  and 
mottoes.  From  the  sides  of  the  arch,  running  down  each  side  of  the 
quay,  were  platforms,  containing  hundreds  of  spectators,  between 
which  the  Royal  carriage  and  Suite  passed  amid  deafening  cheers  and 
waving  of  handkerchiefs,  until  it  arrived  at  the  arch,  whose  doors 
were  thrown  open,  and  the  Queen  was  received  on  the  outside  by  the 
escort  of  the  Scots  Greys. 

Her  Majesty  disembarked  about  eight  o'clock,  accompanied  by  the 
Prince  Consort,  leading  the  Princess  Royal  by  the  hand  ;  and,  after 
receiving  an  address  by  Provost  Lawson,  the  procession  was  formed,  and 
the  cortege  proceeded  slowly  along  Castle  Street,  by  High  Street, 
Hethergate,  and  South  Tay  Street,  amongst  every  demonstration  of 
loyalty  and  respect.  On  arriving  at  Dudhope  Church,  the  public 
bodies  drew  aside,  and  the  Royal  party  proceeded  at  a  rapid  pace 
towards  Coupar  Angus,  en  route  for  Blair  Athole.  After  a  sojourn  of 
three  weeks,  the  Royal  party  returned  to  Dundee,  when  equal  enthu- 
siasm was  manifested,  and  similar  arrangements  observed  on  their  em- 
barkation. As  a  permanent  memorial  of  Her  Majesty's  visit  to 
Dundee,  the  present  "  Royal  Arch,"  a  structure  in  the  Norman  style, 
designed  by  Mr  Rochead  of  Glasgow,  was  erected  on  the  site  of  the 
temporary  arch,  in  1848,  at  a  cost  of  about  £3000. 

During  the  last  quarter  of  a  century,  the  course  of  events  in  the 
town,  while  neither  few  nor  unimportant,  have  been  such  as  require 
no  detailed  narration  from  the  historian,  being  confined  to  internal 
improvement  and  the  steady  development  of  its  commercial  prosperity. 

The  introduction  of  gas  dates  from  1826,  when  the  first  company 
was  formed  for  that  purpose,  with  a  capital  of  £14,664:.  In  1846,  the 


109 

and,  in  September  of  the  eame  jeer,  he  furnished  an  able  report,  recom- 
mending the  Melgum  M  the  source,  with  the  Loch  of  Lintrathen,  M 
the  nucleus  of  a  reservoir  of  413  acres,  which  would  contain  252,000,000 
cubic  feet  of  water,  at  an  altitude  of  655  feet  above  the  tea  level  Mr 
Batamsn  further  advised  that  the  water  should  be  conveyed  by  Moni- 
kie,  in  order  to  utilise  the  existing  works.  A  bill  was  accordingly 
lodged,  and  an  Act  obtained  to  carry  out  this  scheme  ;  but,  before 
proceedings  could  be  taken,  discussious  arose  in  the  Commission,  of  a 
somewhat  acrimonious  character,  as  to  the  propriety  of  changing  the 
route,  so  as  to  bring  the  Lintrathen  supplies  direct  to  Dundee. 
Eventually  this  was  resolved  upon  by  a  narrow  majority;  Messn 
Leslie  and  Stewart  were  appointed  engineers  in  place  of  Mr  Bateman  ; 
and  a  new  Act  was  obtained  giving  legislative  sanction  to  the  "  direct 
route."  Power  to  raise  £230,000  was  taken ;  but,  from  the  enhanced 
price  of  iron  and  other  causes,  this  was  found  likely  to  prove  insuffi- 
cient, and  additional  borrowing  powers  have  been  sought  for  £100,000 
more.  Should  these  sums  require  to  be  expended,  as  there  is  little 
doubt  they  will  be,  the  total  cost  of  the  water  supply  for  the  town 
will  amount  to  £667,362.  The  new  works  have  been  partially  con- 
tracted for,  and  in  a  few  yean  Dundee  will  doubtless  be  in  possession 
of  a  supply  of  water  every  way  equal  to  its  necessities. 

The  latest,  and  not  the  least  important  of  the  public  measures  un- 
dertaken by  the  authorities,  are  those  comprised  under  the  Improve- 
ment Act  of  1871.  Besides  the  opening  up  of  new  sccesees  to  the 
harbour,  the  north-eastern,  and  western  districts,  this  scheme  em- 
braces the  widening  of  the  Murraygate,  Seagate,  and  Nethergate  in  the 
centre  of  the  town,  by  which,  and  the  removal  of  various  blocks  of 
squalid  and  unhealthy  dwellings,  important  improvements  will  be 
effected,  The  Act  likewise  provides  for  many  other  much-needed 
sanitary  and  police  arrangements,  and  secured  an  extension  of  the 
Council,  which  now  consists  of  twenty-eight  members,  of  whom  twenty- 
seven  are  elected  by  the  ratepayers,  with  the  Dean  of  Guild  as  an  ex- 
officio  member.  The  six  Bailies  and  Provost,  chosen  by  the  Council 
among  themselves,  form  the  Magistracy,  and  with  the  Town  Clerk 
and  Chamberlain  as  permanent  officials,  make  up  an  adequate  and 
efficient  Municipal  Executive. 


BABONT  OF  DUNDEK — JUDICIAL  PBTVILEOES — DUDHOPE  CASTLE,  AND  THK  CASTLE  OF 
DUNDEE— EXTENT  OP  THE  BARONY — DUDHOPE  AND  THE  SCRYMSEOURKS  —THE  EARL 
OF  DUNDEE — SECTIONS  OP  THE  ANCIENT  BARONY  : — CLAYPOTTS,  CRAIGIE,  ETC. 

HAVING  brought  down  the  civil  history  of  Dundee  to  the  present 
time,  we  shall  now  proceed  to  give  a  descriptive  sketch  of  the  town, 
its  antiquities,  topography,  &c. ;  but,  as  introductory  to  this,  a  chapter 
may  be  devoted  to  an  account  of  the  Barony  of  Dundee. 

A  Barony  is  denned  to  be  a  certain  extent  of  territory,  granted  by 
and  holding  of  the  Sovereign,  to  which  particular  rights  and  privileges 
were  annexed,  such  as  holding  courts  and  to  a  certain  extent  inflicting 
punishments,  possessing  mills  and  markets,  and  other  privileges.  Dur- 
ing the  palmy  days  of  feudalism,  the  possession  of  a  Barony  entitled 
the  owner,  as  a  tenant  of  the  Crown,  to  a  seat  in  Parliament,  which, 
being  the  supreme  court  of  the  universal  superior,  the  Sovereign,  all 
his  tenants  were  bound  to  give  personal  attendance  in  it,  to  consult 
with  him  upon  such  matters  as  affected  the  interest  and  well-being  of 
the  whole.  This  grand  privilege  in  course  of  time,  from  some  real  or 
imagined  grievance,  dwindled  away  into  a  vote  in  the  election  of  a 
knight  or  baron  of  the  shire,  to  represent  the  body  of  his  brother 
barons  in  the  court  of  the  Sovereign  Lord.  By  the  purchase  and 
abolition  of  the  Heritable  Jurisdictions  in  the  year  1 748,  the  privilege 
of  holding  courts,  civil  and  criminal,  and  of  profiting  by  their  issues 
and  escheats,  was  taken  away  and  vested  in  the  Crown,  from  which  it 
ought  never  to  have  been  separated ;  for,  while  in  former  tunes  the 
King's  Courts  were  not  free  from  suspicion  of  injustice,  the  Baronial 
and  Regality  Courts  were  overwhelmed  with  it,  and  often  were  the 
engines  of  the  most  tyrannical  oppression. 

"  Every  Heritor,"  says  Sir  George  M'Kenzie,  in  his  Institutes  of  the 
Law  of  Scotland,  "  may  hold  Courts  for  causing  his  tenants  pay  their 


158  BISTORT  or  Dtnron 

rents  ;«nd  if  ho  be  infi-fted  etim  curii*,  ha  may  decide  betwixt  tenant 
and  tenant  in  small  debts,  and  may  judge  such  M  commit  Uood  on  hit 
own  ground,  though  hi*  Land  be  not  ereoUd  in  a  Barony ;  but  if  hi* 
Land  be  erected  in  a  Barony  (which  the  King  only  can  do),  he  may, 
lik.  th.  Shi-ritr,  i//i/'iir  f.>r  /7.**J  iri'fr  [fine  for  effusion  of  blood]  in  £50, 
and  for  absence  £10.  If  he  has  power  of  Pit  and  Gallon*,  he  has  ample 
Criminal  Jnri#liciion  as  the  Sherif,  with  this  difference,  that  the 
Sheri/  can  judge  a  Ihii-f  upon  citation,  whereas  the  Baron  can  only 
judge  him  if  he  apprehend  him  in  his  barony  ;  but  if  the  Sheri/ hsu 
first  filed  or  attached  the  Malefactor,  this  supersedes  and  excludes  the 
Baron*  Juried  i<~ti<m"  In  an  account  of  the  ancient  constitution  and 
laws  of  Scotland,1  it  is  stated  that  those  who  "hold  their  lands  in  barony 
have  criminal  jurisdiction  over  the  inhabitants  of  their  lands  as  to 
punish  all  who  strike  and  wound  any,  and  make  effusion  of  blood,  or 
do  other  corporal  injuries,  if  death  or  mutilation  thence  ensue.  In  like 
manner,  because  theft  it  wry  common  in  thi*  kingdom,  the  said  barons 
have  like  power  to  punish  thieves  and  receivers,  and  for  doing  this 
they  have  authority  to  erect  within  their  jurisdictions  as  m&ny potence* 
[gibbets]  as  pleases  them." 

All  Baronies  at  tiu-ir  erection  were  not  granted  privileges  alike,  some 

1  invested  with  one  set  of  privileges,  and  others  with  a  dill- 
class;  but  certain  privileges,  which,  by  the  constitution  of  the  feudal 
system,  were  inherent  in  a  barony,  were  common  to  all.  Besides  ba- 
ronies, there  was  another,  and  a  more  noble  species  of  holding,  because 
invested  with  higher  powers,  called  a  Regality  or  Lordship.  This 
consisted  of  a  jurisdiction  which,  besides  including  the  authority  of  a 
barony,  was  vested  with  powers  equal  to  the  King's  Judges  in  criminal 
cases,  and  to  the  Shi-ritlin  civil  suits.  Under  the  feudal  institutions, 
a  Lord  of  I!«-_v\lity  had  a  right  to  all  the  moveable  property  of  rebels 
and  delinquents  rt>«t<ling  within  his  jurisdiction,  wherever  they  could 
be  found,  win-til <T  within  or  beyond  the  bounds  of  his  Regality.  He 
could  replevy  all  his  own  offenders  (his  tenants  and  vassals)  from  the 
King's  judges  and  the  Sheriff,  ami  c.irry  them  into  his  own  court  and 
tli.-n-  try  th.-in.  ••  \cept  in  cases  of  treason  and  other  pleas  expressly 
reserved  for  the  cognisance  of  the  King's  Courts;  but  at  the  same 
time  he  repledged  an  oti<>n<l«T.  he  was  bound  to  give  r»//.  ••(••/<  ur  col- 
ruth, — that  is,  he  should  give  sufficient  security  to  do  justice  upon  him 

1  Drawn  up  by  command  "f  the  Queen  Dowager  by  the  Lord  CleHt  Register 
M-tiill,  Mid  Loni  Juttioe  Clerk  BeUeaden,  and  dated  llth  J«niur>, 


EXTENT  OP  THE  BARONY.  159 

within  year  and  day  of  the  replevy.  In  former  times,  a  Lord  of  Rega- 
lity possessed  so  much  power  and  so  often  abused  it,  that  Parliament 
assumed  to  itself  the  sole  right  of  erecting  or  granting  a  Regality. 

Previous  to  the  return  of  David,  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  from  Pales- 
tine, the  lands  of  the  Barony  of  Dundee  were  Crown-demesne,  and  it 
does  not  appear  that  they  had  before  that  period  ever  been  other  than 
Crown-lands.  After  the  return  of  the  Earl,  his  brother,  King  "William 
L,  gave  to  him  the  whole  of  this  extensive  barony,  and  it  is  natural  to 
suppose  that  he  would  erect  a  residence  somewhere  within  the  bounda- 
ries of  his  new  and  vast  acquisition.  Possibly  he  may  have  erected  a 
castle  at  Dudhope,  which,  variously  altered  and  modified  from  time  to 
time  by  subsequent  proprietors,  may  be  the  same  house  that  still 
remains.  The  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  of  course,  could  build  where  he 
pleased  within  his  own  territory ;  and  as  in  his  time  people  built  more 
for  security  than  pleasure,  it  is  perhaps  more  probable  that  he  adopted, 
if  he  did  not  erect,  the  Castle  of  Dundee  as  a  residence  for  himself,  a 
defence  to  the  town,  and  for  the  sake  of  aid  in  emergencies  from  the 
inhabitants  of  his  own  burgh.  At  the  time  he  received  the  barony, 
its  extent  covered  a  number  of  square  miles,  comprehending  the  town, 
such  as  it  then  was,  with  a  large  extent  of  land  to  the  westward,  Upper 
and  Lower  Dudhope,  the  Clepingtons,  by  whatever  name  they  Avere 
then  known,  Wallace-Craigie,  all  the  modern  Craigie,  Claypots  and 
Guthriestown,  Baldovie,  Drumgeith,  Pitkerro,  and,  generally,  all  the 
country  from  thence  westwards,  on  the  south  side  of  Dighty  Water, 
to  Upper  Dudhope, — an  extent  of  territory  fully  six  miles  in  length 
by  an  average  breadth  of  about  two  miles.  If  this  be  admitted — and 
as  all  these  properties  were  comprehended  within  the  limits  of  the 
ancient  and  original  Barony  of  Dundee — we  must  come  to  the  con- 
clusion that  Dudhope  Castle  was  erected  by  a  proprietor,  or  Baron, 
much  later  than  the  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  which  view  has  certainly 
every  appearance  of  being  correct. 

How  long  the  Barony  of  Dundee  remained  integrally  in  the  family 
of  the  EarL  is  a  question  impossible  at  this  distance  of  time  to  solve, 
at  least  we  apprehend  so ;  for,  as  he  left  no  legitimate  issue,  excepting 
three  daughters,  his  co-heiresses,  and,  as  they  all  married,  it  is  clear 
that  each  would  carry  a  portion,  her  tierce,  of  his  possessions  to  her 
husband.  King  John  Baliol  was  descended  from  the  eldest  of  the 
three,  and,  as  a  matter  of  course,  he  would  succeed  to  her  portion  of 
the  Prince's  territorial  lauds,  of  which  the  Barony  of  Dundee,  or  at 


1 "  ^  BISTORT  o? 

least  part  of  it,  was  a  parcel ;  and  hence,  in  the  treaty  of  marriage  be- 
tween hi*  ton,  Prim*  Edward,  and  his  bride,  a  niece  of  the  King  of 
France,  part  of  the  revenues  which  were  to  be  aet  apart  for  the  main- 
tenance of  the  royal  pair  was  to  proceed  out  of  the  profit*  of  the 
Cattle  of  Dundee  ;l  and  Wallace,  when  he  conferred  upon  his  illus- 
trious compatriot  in  arm*,  Alexander  Scrymseoure,  the  office  of 
Royal  Standard-bearer  and  Constable  of  Dundee,  gave  also  certain 
of  the  lands  of  Dudhope.*  If  these  lands  had  not  been  in  possession 
of  the  Crown,  or  the  property  of  the  Sovereign,  Wallace  could  not 
have  granted  them,  however  meritorious  or  serviceable  the  services 
were  of  which  they  were  the  guerdon  ;  but,  being  Crown-demesne,  or 
the  personal  property  of  the  Sovereign,  his  authority,  as  Keeper  or 
Governor  of  the  Kingdom,  was  perfectly  competent  to  their  alienation. 

During  these  troublous  times,  a  Knight,  designed  Sir  Ranulph  do 
Dunde,  possessed  a  part  of  the  barony.  In  the  year  1286,  he  is  first 
met  with  as  one  of  an  iuquest  that  inquired  into  the  boundaries  of 
the  pasture  lands  of  Panmure,  In  1292,  he  acquired  the  lands  of 
Benvie  and  Balruthrie,  or  Ralruddery,  with  the  advocation  of  the 
church  of  Ren  vie,  from  Sir  William  de  Maule  of  Panmure.  In  1296, 
he  swore  fealty  to  Edward  L,  probably  on  the  visit  of  that  monarch 
to  Dundee  in  August  of  that  year.  His  son  and  successor,  also  a 
Knight.  Sir  Rodolph,  by  attaching  himself  to  the  interest  of  England, 
and  aggravating  that  imprudent  step  by  doing  homage  to  its  Sovereign 
in  the  year  1 306  for  certain  lands  in  Perthshire,  forfeited  his  estates. 
It  would  appear  from  the  Foedera,  and  the  Rolls  of  Scotland,  that, 
before  the  close  of  that  year,  Sir  Ranulph  had  died,  for  his  wife,  Isa- 
bella, again  did  homage  and  took  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  King 
of  England,  and  thereupon  had  his  letters  addressed  to  the  Sheriff  of 
Angus  to  restore  her  to  the  Barony  of  Dundee  ;  and  hence  the  grant 
of  laud  to  Alexander  Scrymseoure,  dated  two  yean  later,  might  have 
been  a  part  of  the  barony  forfeited  by  these  traitors.  Sir  Rodolph 
in  1312,  and,  after  this  period,  there  is  no  more  mention  of  this  family 
as  connected  with  Dundee  or  the  barony.  At  a  subsequent  period, 
however,  it  showed  itself  in  the  county  of  Perth,  the  lands  of  Benvie 
and  Balruthrie  having  continued  in  the  family  until  1368. 

Dudhope  Castle,  the  principal  seat  of  the  ancient  family  of  Scrym- 

1  The  Treaty  of  Marriage,  concluded  at  P*m,  23d  October,  1295,  u  giren  in 
Ryroer's  Feeder*,  I ,  part  ii.,  p.  891. 
•  See  Appendix.  Note  A. 


CASTLE  OP  DUDHOPE.  161 

secure,  Constables  o±  Dundee,  is  beautifully  situated  on  a  fine  terrace 
at  the  foot  of  the  Law,  on  the  south  side.  The  present  being  a  modi- 
fication of  the  ancient  structure,  shows  but  little  of  the  form  of  the 
original  building,  which,  till  after  the  middle  of  last  century,  consisted 
of  a  square  tower  or  donjon,  with  a  warder's  or  watch-tower  on  the 
top,  and  two  considerable  lateral  buildings  or  wings,  the  one  fronting  to 
the  south,  and  the  other  to  the  east.  The  former  had  in  the  rear  two 
circular  turrets  containing  stairs,  which  rose  from  the  floor  immedi- 
ately above  the  vaults,  and  ascended  to  a  point  higher  .than  the  battle- 
ments. The  whole  house  is  now  of  one  elevation,  the  excess  of  height 
of  the  donjon  being  reduced  by  the  removal  of  the  watch-tower,  and 
the  wings  being  brought  up  by  the  addition  of  a  flat  to  each.  A  small 
turret  has  been  placed  for  a  bell  on  the  top  of  the  keep  in  lieu  of  the 
warder's  tower. 

About  the  year  1792,  the  Castle  of  Dudhope  was  taken  on  lease, 
and  fitted  up  as  a  manufactory,  by  a  speculator  in  woollens  and  worsteds 
from  London ;  but,  previous  to  that  date,  Archibald,  first  Lord  Douglas, 
occasionally  used  it  as  a  residence,  as  it  constantly  was  that  of  Mr 
Lyon,  his  Lordship's  factor.  The  manufactory  failed,  and  very  soon 
after  (in  1794)  the  Castle  was  leased  to  the  Crown  for  barracks, — the 
house,  in  a  sense,  remodelled,  the  gardens  and  orchards  wholly  erased, 
and  the  whole  appearance  of  the  landscape  completely  changed.  As 
barracks  the  Castle  still  continues  to  be  used,  without  any  features  of 
interest  remaining  to  show  its  ancient  baronial  grandeur. 

From  the  time  of  Alexander  Scrymseoure  to  that  of  the  Earl  of 
Dundee,  thirteen  of  his  descendants  or  relations  held  the  office  of  Con- 
stable of  Dundee,  and  that  of  Standard  Bearer  or  Yexillarius.  Sir 
James  Scrymseoure,  the  fourth  Constable,  was  killed  at  the  Battle  of 
Harlaw,  Aberdeenshire,  24th  July,  1411  j1  Sir  John,  fifth  Constable, 

1  Sir  James  entered,  with  the  Earl  of  Mar,  into  the  military  service  of  the  Duke 
of  Burgundy  in  1408,  and  is  thus  celebrated  by  Andrew  Winton,  the  rhyming 
Prior  of  Lochleven  : — 

"  Schere  James  Scremgeoure  of  Dunde, 
Comendit  a  famous  Knight  was  he  ; 
The  kingis  banneoure  of  fe, 
A  lord  that  well  aucht  lovit  be." — II.  433. 

And  HI  the  ancient  ballad  of  the  battle  of  Harlaw  he  is  celebrated  as  follows  :— 
"  Sir  James  Scrymgeor  of  Dudhope,  Knicht, 

Grit  Constabill  of  fair  Dundie, 
Unto  the  dulefull  deith  was  dicht ; 
The  king's  chief  bannerman  was  he ; 


ha. I  the  honour  of  knighthood  conferred  upon  him  at  the  coronation 
of  -lame*  I.,  at  Scone  ;  James,  eighth  Countable,  dying  without  male 
woe,  WM  succeeded  bj  his  cousin,  John,  «on  of  John  Scrymseoure  of 
Gloster,  who  acquired  various  lands  in  1500,  1510,  and  1511.  James, 
hi*  eon  and  tenth  Constable,  who  was  several  times  Provost  of  Dun- 
dee, died  13th  July,  1610,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  John, 
eleventh  Constable,  who  was  knighted,  and,  by  Charles  L,  created 
Baron  Scrymseoure  of  Inverkeithing,  and  Viscount  Dudhope,  15th 
November,  164 1.1  His  son,  James,  twelfth  Constable  and  second 
Viscount  Dudhope,  was  mortally  wounded  at  the  battle  of  Marston 
Moor,  2d  July,  1644,  where  he  was  on  the  side  of  the  Covenanters. 
His  son,  John,  thirteenth  Constable  and  third  Viscount  Dudhope,  was 
also  a  Covenanter,  and  accompanied  Charles  IL  to  Worcester,  as 
colonel  of  a  regiment  of  cavalry,  which  was  raised  and  equipped  in 
Angus  for  the  service  of  that  monarch.  For  a  debt  of  5440  merks, 
incurred  to  John  Fithir.  a  burgees  of  Dundee,  the  hinds  of  Benvie  and 
Balruthrie  were  made  over  to  him  by  the  Viscount  On  the  18th 
September,  1660,  Charles  created  him  Earl  of  Dundee.  He  was  the 
only  Karl  of  the  family,  and  the  only  peradn  who  ever  bore  that  title. 
His  Lordship  married  Lady  Ann  Ramsay,  second  daughter  of  William, 
first  Earl  of  Dalhousie  ;  but,  dying  without  issue  in  or  about  1669,  the 
title  and  family  became  extinct,*  and  the  representation  of  the  family 
devolved  upon  John  Scrymseoure  of  Kirk  ton,  whose  descendant,  Mr 
Scrymseoure  Wedderburn  of  lUrkhill  and  Wedderburn,  is  the  present 
representative  and  .Standard  Hearer. 

After  the  death  of  the  Earl  of  Dundee,  Charles  Maitland  of  Hatton 
bmther  of  the  Duke  of  Lauderdale,  acquired  the  life  rent  of  the  Coon 
tees  in  the  Dudhope  estates  by  means  which  do  not  clearly  appear, 
and  along  with  it  the  office  of  Constable  of  Dundee.     After  the  death 
of  Charles  11.  and  accession  of  James  VII.,  Hatton  was  divested  of 
the  Dudhope  estates  as  well  as  the  Constableship ;  but,  instead  of 

A  valiUnt  man  of  chiralrit, 

Quhaue  predcceeaor  wan  that  place 
At  8pey,  with  glide  King  William  frie, 

XJaiiut  Murray  and  Maoduncan'*  race." 

'  It  WM  in  the  time  of  thai  Constable  that  Jamw  VI.  raited  Dundee,  and  slept 
on*  night  at  Dudhope  Ca*Ue. — See  p.  84  a*u. 

1  The  CoontMi  WM  again  married  to  Mr  Bruce  of  Clackmannan  on  the  13th 
October,  1670.— See  Lament'*  Diary  fur  thia,  M  well  M  two  or  three  other  curioua 
anecdote,  oansetsd  with  the  EarL 


THE  LAW.  163 

"being  restored  to  the  lawful  heir,  they  were  granted  to  John  Grahame 
of  Claverhouse,  afterwards  Viscount  Dundee,  upon  payment  of  £2000 
sterling,  in  1684.     At  his  death  and  forfeiture  in  1689,  all,  or  at  least 
the  greater  part,  of  his  estates  were  granted  to  the  Earl  of  Forfar,  who, 
dying  without  issue,  of  the  wounds  he  received  at  the  Battle  of  Sheriff- 
muir  in   1715,  where  he  was  on  the  Koyal  side,  the  whole  devolved 
on  the  Marquis,  afterwards  Duke  of  Douglas,  who  was  succeeded,  after 
the  famous  litigation  called  the  Douglas  cause,  by  a  nephew,  a  son  of 
Lady  Jane,  his  Grace's  only  sister.     On  the  death,  in  1848,  of  Charles, 
third  Lord  Douglas,  the  estates  passed  to  his  half-brother,  the  last 
Lord,  who  died  without  issue  in  1857,  and  are  now  the  inheritance  of 
the  Countess  of  Home,  through  her  mother,  a  half-sister  of  the  last 
Lord  Douglas.     In  the  year  1748,  the  Duke  of  Douglas  very  modestly 
claimed  the  sum  of  £4000  for  the  baronial  jurisdiction  of  Dudhope,  and 
£6000  for  the  Constabulary  rights  of  Dundee,  but  was  contented  to 
take  £100  9s.  Id.  for  the  former,  and  £1800  for  the  latter,  being  the 
sums  at  which  they  were  respectively  valued  by  the  Court  of  Session. 
A  particular  and  prominemt  part  of  the  Barony  of  Dundee  is  the 
beautiful  hill  which  rises  immediately  on  the  northern  side  of  the 
town,  to  an  elevation  of  571   feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.     In  the 
old  Statistical  Account  of  the  town,  drawn  up  for  Sir  John  Sinclair  in 
1792,  Dr  Small  says, — "  On  the  top  of  the  Law,  which  is  the  most 
remarkable  hill  in  the  parish,  are  the  remains  of  a  fortified  post ;  the 
ditch  is  yet  visible.     Though  the  whole  enclosure,  which  is  of  square 
form,  is  not  of  the  structure  with  the  towers,  which  have  been  sup- 
posed to  have  been  cemented  by  the  force  of  fire,  one  small  part  of  it 
has  been  thus  compacted.     Probably  on  this  the  fires  for  alarming  the 
town  were  lighted,  and,  by  frequent  lighting,  some  of  the  stones  have 
been  put  in  fusion."     The  length  of  the  fort  or  body  of  the  place  is 
about  forty  yards  from  no'r'th  to  south,  and  about  twenty-five  from 
east  to  west.     The  angles  present  the  remains  of  circular  towers  ;  and, 
along  the  verge  of  the  hill,  the  remains  of  an  outer  rampart  are  dis- 
cernible.    The  entrance  was  on  the  east  side  by  a  winding  path,  and 
upon  this  side  the  outer  rampart  seemed  to  have  been  strongest ;  and 
below  the  summit  several  terraces  or  outworks  appear.     In  the  neigh- 
bourhood, great  quantities  of  human  bones  have  been  turned  up  by  the 
plough  and  spade  in  all  directions,  unequivocal  evidences  of  the  de- 
structive rage  of  the  demon  of  war ;  but,  unfortunately,  no  records 
survive  from  which  any  particular  account  can  now  be  given  of  the 


1 64  nnrroRv 

•anguinary  oonflicU  that  most  have  occurred  about  the  Law  while 
Edward  I.,  Muntrose,  and  Monk  entrenched  their  facet  upon  iU 

Another  extensive  and  important  part  of  the  ancient  Barony  of  Dun- 
dee is  that  which  constitutes  the  Barony  of  Claypotts,  with  its  capital 
messuage,  the  castle  of  the  same  name.  The  first  mention  of  Clay- 
potts,  separate  from  the  Barony  of  Dundee,  which  we  have  seen,  occurs 
in  the  reign  of  Alexander  III.,  who,  on  the  12th  November,  in  the 
thirty-third  year  of  his  reign  [1282],  granted  the  lands  of  the  western 
third  part,  or  Hilltown  of  Craigie,  and  the  lands  of  Claypotts,  both  in 
the  Barony  of  Dundee,  with  the  lands  of  Balmaw,  in  the  parish  of 
Newtyle,  to  the  Abbey  of  Lindores,  near  Newburgh,  which  was 
founded  and  erected  in  the  year  1178,  by  his  granduncle,  David,  Earl 
of  Huntingdon ;  and  David  II.  confirmed  these  grant*  respectively  to 
the  Abbot  and  Chapter,  by  Charter  under  the  Great  Seal  dated  at 
Dundee,  20th  September,  in  the  thirty-sixth  year  of  his  reign. 

It  is  commonly  believed  that  Cardinal  Beaton  erected  the  Castle  of 
Claypotts ;  but  this  belief  is  erroneous,  as  the  estate  continued  ecclesi- 
astical property,  from  the  time  of  the  grant  by  Alexander  HI.,  till  the 
proscription  of  the  ancient  Church  in  1560.  It  Is  true  that  the  eccle- 
siastical dignitaries  in  ancient  times  had  castellated  residences  upon 
their  more  valuable  estates,  and  occasionally  resided  in  them,  unr 
for  the  time,  the  hierarchical  splendour  of  a  Lord  Spiritual  to  the  bar- 
baric pomp  of  a  temporal  Baron ;  but  to  suppose  that  the  Castle  of 
Claypotts  was  erected  by  an  Abbot  of  Lindores,  as  a  place  to  which 
he  could  occasionally  retire,  is  rather  too  much  for  credulity.  Equally 
groundless  is  the  story  that  it  was  erected  by  Cardinal  Beaton  for  th- 
accommodation  of  one  of  the  numerous  mistresses  with  whom  tradi- 
tion has  honoured  his  eminence ;  for,  as  the  lands  of  Claypotts  never 
formed  a  part  of  the  temporalities  of  his  preferments,  the  supposition 
that  he  built  the  Castle  is  quite  untenable. 

The  first  lay  proprietor  of  the  Castle  and  Barony,  after  the  Refor- 
mation, with  whom  we  have  met  is  Gilbert  Strathauchtyn  or  Strachan, 
as  the  name  is  now  rendered  ;  but  the  time  and  manner  in  which  he 
acquired  them  are  probably  unknown,  at  least  we  have  seen  no  record 
mentioning  the  transaction.  It  appears,  however,  that  he  had  became 
proprietor,  either  by  purchase  or  right  of  succession  to  his  predecessor, 
very  soon  after  the  Reformation.  That  it  had  been  by  purchase  we 
consider  evident  from  the  fact  that  the  date  1569  is  on  what  may  ho 


BAEONT  OF  DUNDEE.  165 

called  the  oldest  part  of  the  house,  nine  years  after  the  Reformation 
was  established  by  law ;  and,  on  another  part,  there  are  a  coat  of 
arms,  the  initials  I  and  S,  and  the  date  1588,  nineteen  years  later 
than  the  other.  This  last  date  appears  to  us  to  have  been  put  on  the 
castle,  as  well  as  the  initials  and  'scutcheon  of  arms,  by  John  Strachan, 
son  and  successor  of  Gilbert,  when  he  erected  the  north  wing,  on  which 
they  are.  In  the  Eegister  of  Eetours  of  Services,  we  find  it  recorded 
that,  on  the  15th  December,  1599,  John  Strathauchtyn,  son  and  heir 
of  Gilbert  Strathauchtyn  of  Claypotts,  was  restored  in  half  of  the 
lands  of  Skryne,  three-fourth  parts  of  the  mill  and  mill-lands  of 
Skryne,  called  Craigie-mill,  half  of  the  lands  of  Fishertown  of  Skryne 
[East  Haven],  with  half  of  the  port  and  fishings  of  the  same,  all  within 
the  Barony  of  Panmure  and  parish  of  Panbride,  stented  at  £4  old,  and 
£16  new  extent.  This  retour,  we  think,  is  decisive  of  the  point  that 
neither  an  Abbot  of  Lindores  nor  Cardinal  Beaton  had  anything  to 
do  with  the  erection  of  the  castle. 

From  the  Strachans  the  estate  passed  to  the  Grahames  of  Claver- 
house,  on  the  8th  of  June,  1625;  and,  on  the  forfeiture  of  Lord  Dun- 
dee, their  descendant  and  representative,  it  was  granted  to  the  Earl  of 
Forfar ;  and,  at  his  death  in  1715,  it  passed  to  the  senior  branch  of  the 
noble  House  of  Douglas,  in  possession  of  whose  representative  it  remains. 
The  castle  stands  very  near  the  high  road  from  Dundee  to  Arbroath, 
at  a  distance  of  about  thre3  miles  and  a-half  from  the  former.  The 
centre  part  of  the  house  is  square,  with  a  large  round  tower  in  the 
south-west  angle,  which  has  a  square  sloping  roof,  and  has  been  fur- 
nished with  a  small  and  narrow  battlement.  The  oldest  date  is  upon 
this  part  of  the  edifice,  which  would  seem  to  show  it  is  all  that  had 
originally  been  intended  to  be  erected.  The  part  which  bears  the  second 
date  is  at  the  north-east  angle  of  the  body  of  the  house,  and  is  a  tower 
exactly  similar  in  form,  and  dimensions  to  the  other,  and  seems  to  have 
been  erected  by  John  Strathauchtyn  after  he  had  succeeded  to  the 
estate. 

Of  the  other  parts  of  the  Barony  of  Dundee  we  can  only  speak  with 
certainty  of  Wallace-Craigie,  Craigie,  Baldovie,  Drumgeith,  and  Pit- 
kerro ;  but  that  it  was  more  comprehensive  is  without  doubt,  though 
we  are  not  in  a  state  to  give  the  details.  Wallace-Craigie,  which  compre- 
hends an  eastern  suburb  of  the  town,  extends  to  about  one  hundred 
and  twenty  acres ;  and,  since  1824,  has  been  wholly  taken  up  for 
building  purposes.  The  first  proprietor  of  it,  as  a  detached  portion  of 


TORT  or  Devon. 

til-  Harony,  we  have  found  mentioned  is  Sir  William  Bruce  of  £*na 
Hall,  in  the  pariah  uf  l.«  u.  h.ir*,  Knight  Thii  gentleman  had  a  crown- 
charter  of  the  lands  of  Wallace-C'raigie,  or,  aa  they  are  «ouietime« 
called,  "  the  Wallace  of  Craigie,"  along  with  some  other  lands,  sup- 
poeed  to  be  thoee  of  Newton,  in  the  pariah  of  Longforgan,  with  a 
salmon  fishing  in  tho  Tay,  in  the  pariah  of  ErroL  The  charter  was 
dated  10th  February,  1539.  Long  after  this,  we  find  that  one  of  his 
descendant*,  designed  of  Earl's  Hall,  in  conjunction  with  Sir  John 
KIli.it  uf  N.-wtuu,  Knight,  sold  WaUaoe-Craigie  to  Alexander  Watson, 
Tiovost  of  Dundee,  for  the  sum  of  9509  merks,  or  £6333  6s.  8d. 
Scots.  The  purchase  was  ratified  by  act  of  Parliament,  passed  2 1st 
February,  1672,  at  which  time  the  tenure,  which  was  by  wardholding, 
was  changed  to  freehold.  Previous  to  this,  both  Elliot  and  Bruce 
were  proclaimed  infamous  for  mal-practices  by  the  Court  of  Session, 
and  all  persons  cautioned  against  having  any  transactions,  especially 
in  money  matters,  with  either  of  them,  which  seems  to  be  the  reason 
why  the  Provost  had  sought  the  security  of  an  act  of  Parliament  In 
the  course  of  last  century,  the  laud*  became  the  property  of  the  family 
of  Constable,  one  of  whom,  George  Constable,  who  died  at  an  advanced 
age  in  1803,  is  supposed  to  have  been  the  original  Jonathan  Oldbuck 

•  lonkbarns,  in  Sir  Walter  Scott's  "  Antiquary."  The  Craigie  pro- 
perty was,  in  former  times,  divided  into  parcels  among  different  pro- 
l-rii-tors.  Next  to  port  of  it  being  granted  to  the  Abbey  of  Lindores, 

Alfx.unliT  III.,  the  first  mention  we  find  of  it  is,  that,  on  the  llth 

.  uary,  1366,  David  II.  confirmed  a  charter  of  Margaret  de  Lesly, 
relict  of  Norman  de  Lesly,  ancestor  of  the  Earls  of  Kothes,  to  William 
Guphyld,  and  Norman,  his  son,  of  her  parts  of  the  lands  of  Craigie 
ait'l  Linlathen,  which  belonged  to  her  as  grand-daughter  and  one  of 
th«  co-heiresses  of  Sir  Alexander  de  Lamberton.  At  a  period  long  sub- 
sequent to  this,  the  whole  estate  becam-  th<  i>n>]»  ny  of  a  family  called 
Ki-ld,  from  one  of  whom  it  was  acquired  by  purchase  by  the  (iuthrie 
family.  The  first  proprietor  of  Pitkerro  whom  we  have  found  men- 
tioned was  Mr  Durham,  descended  from  the  Durham*  of  (I range 

:iiliuth.)  Pauiug,  iu  the  reign  of  James  V.,  to  Mr  George  M'Kenae, 
he  iu  turn  sold  it  Mr  Dick,  ancestor  of  the  present  proprietor.  B»l- 
dovie  was  the  property  -f  Mr  liobert  Clayhills  before  1640;  and  at 
the  end  of  last  century  it  was  the  property  of  a  family  called  Anderson. 
Drumgeith  was  a  longtime  in  th.-  possession  of  the  predecessors  of  Major 
i'ylle  ol6uuUilioid,aad  luw  twice ciiau^oJ  liaiul» aaicu  UmtfamU) 


szscoisrix 


Stttion 


SITUATION  AND  ARBA  OF  DUNDEE — VIEW  OP  THE  TOWN  FHOM  THE  OLD  STEEPLE  AND 
THK  LAW — GEOLOGICAL  CHARACTER — LEADING  THOROUGHFARES  AND  OBJECTS  OF 
INTEREST. 

DUNDEE  is  pleasantly  situated  on  the  north  side  of  the  estuary  or  Firth 
of  Tay,  ten  miles  above  its  confluence  with  the  German  Ocean  at 
Buddonness.  The  Town-house,  which  may  be  taken  as  the  central 
point,  stands  in  56°  27'  37"  N.  latitude,  and  2°  58'  6"  W.  of  the 
meridian  of  Greenwich.  It  is  distant  twenty-two  miles  east  of  Perth, 
fourteen  south  of  Forfar,  seventeen  west  of  Arbroath,  and  forty-two 
miles  northward,  by  way  of  Cupar  through  Fife,  from  Edinburgh. 
The  ancient  town,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  sketch  map  here  given,1 
lay  wholly  to  the  eastward  of  the  High  Street,  and  was  comprised 
within  very  narrow  limits  ;  but,  in  the  16th  century,  it  had  extended 
considerably  Avestward,  so  as  to  form  the  nucleus  from  which  the  modern 
town  has  expanded  itself — with  tolerable  equality  as  regards  extent — 
to  the  north,  east,  and  west.  The  boundary  of  the  ancient  royalty, 
which  embraced  a  larger  area  than  could  have  been  enclosed  by  even 
the  latest  walls  or  defensive  works,  and  which  may  be  assumed  to  have 
denned  the  town  in  the  middle  of  the  17th  century,  gives  an  area  of 
104  acres.  The  present  parliamentary  boundary  stretches  four  miles 
in  length  from  its  western  side  at  Hazel  Hall  to  its  eastern  at  Craigie 
Terrace ;  the  greatest  breadth  (from  Magdalen  Green  on  the  south  to 
King's  Cross  on  the  north)  being  two  miles ;  and  the  area  thus  enclosed 
is  about  2640  acres,  or  4£  square  miles. 

Although  military  critics  would  pronounce  Dundee  untenable, 
according  to  modern  ideas  of  warfare,  from  its  being  accessible  on  all 
sides,  and  commanded  from  every  point,  it  is  of  more  consequence  to 
know  that  its  situation  is  highly  advantageous  for  commerce,  and 

1  It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  say  that  no  other  means  exist  for  compiling  this 
map,  and  the  later  one  given  in  another  place,  beyond  historical  allusions — the 
Rent  Rolls,  given  in  Appendix,  Note  F. — and  inferences  deduced  from  natural 
features,  the  first  trustworthy  map  being  an  excellent  one,  surveyed  by -William 
Crawford  in  1770,  and  engraved  by  Lizars. 


WBTORT  <">r  r>rxnn. 


favourable  to  the  development  of  those  sanitary  mjniifment*  which 
conduce  to  the  public  health  of  a  dame  population.     Nor  hat  the 
genera)  aspect  of  the  town,  stretching  upward*  from  the  noble  riv 
the  bold  emfaeooes  which  form  its  background,  failed  to  eroke  the 
admiration  of  every  lover  of  the  beautiful  ;  and,  when  seen  from  .- 
IH.  nits  as  the  roadstead  or  the  opposite  shore  of  Fife,  it  fully  justifies  the 
title  "  Bonnie  Dundee"  of  national  song,  and  Ait-lee  (the  beautiful) 
-bland  enthusiasm. 

The  view  of  the  town  from  the  upper  parapet  of  the  old  Tower  is 
peculiarly  striking;  and,  if  one  may  be  pardoned  the  com  par 
recalls  that  of  London  from  the  dome  of  8t  Paul's.  Though  situated 
as  it  is  on  the  lower  level  of  tho  town,  the  spectator  finds  himself,  on 
(•limbing  to  this  coign  of  vantage,  occupying  a  position  like  the  pro- 
scenium of  an  amphitheatre.  A  dense  foreground  of  grey  roofs  lie  at 
his  feet,  vaguely  discernible  through  the  smoky  base,  but  which  the 
hum  of  traliic  mark*  as  the  hive  of  labour  and  activity.  One  by  one, 
as  the  eye  become*  accustomed  to  the  medium,  the  features  become 
distinct  enough  for  identification  —  here  a  huge  mill,  with  its  serried 
rows  of  windows  and  guardian  chimney  -shaft  —  there  a  public  build- 
ing rising  in  massive  form  above  its  more  common-  place  neighbours, 
and  there,  again,  a  bit  of  sinuous  street,  dotted  with  moving  things, 
that  appear  no  bigger  than  flies  alternating  with  spider-like  objects, 
which  closer  scrutiny  identifies  as  laden  carts  and  lorries.  Raising 
tlf  eye  above  the  lower  stratum,  an  atmosphere  less  sombre  in  colour 
reveals  rank  upon  rank  of  buildings  of  every  grade  rising  up  the  slope 
as  far  as  the  eye  can  reach,  until  the  encircling  heights  bound  the  view 
to  the  northward,  embracing  a  sweep  of  four  miles  from  the  height* 
of  Craigie  on  the  east  to  the  Balgay  Hill  on  the  west  of  the  town,  the 
rounded  cone  of  the  Law  standing  out  tx>l<lly  in  the  centre. 

KMIII  the  summit  of  the  Law  the  prospect  is  equally  striking,  and 
so  varied  and  extensive  that  no  one  can  pretend  to  have  seen  Dundee 
without  planting  foot  on  this  eminence,  dear  to  every  Dundonian 
alike  in  its  natural  features  and  its  historic  associations  The  road  — 
if  road  it  can  be  called  —  is  devious,  making  laborious  wh.it  mi^ht  be 
a  comparatively  easy  ascent,  and  which  the  awaken  t  in  the 

matter  will  surely  secure  at  no  distant  date  ;  bat,  once  seated  on  its 
grassy  ramparts,  the  spectator  quickly  forgets  fatigue  in  the  splendid 
panorama  which  is  unfolded  to  his  gaze,  The  town  is  now  seen  as  it 
were  fruin  the  gallory  of  the  theatre,  an  I  the  exteut  oud  beauty  of  its 


GEOLOGICAL  CHARACTER.  171 

site  and  surroundings  can  be  fully  appreciated.  Looking  eastward  to 
the  horizon,  the  Bell  Eock  Lighthouse  lifts  its  white  shadowy  form  in 
the  blue  expanse  of  the  German  Ocean,  while  nearer,  the  picturesque 
promontory  of  Broughty,  guarded  by  its  old  fortalice,  on  the  one  side, 
and  the  irregular  outline  of  Tayport,  equally  picturesque  from  a  dis- 
tance, on  the  other,  form  as  it  were  the  gates  of  the  Tay.  The  noble 
river,  carrying  stately  ships  on  its  ample  bosom,  and  the  crowd  of 
masts  in  the  spacious  harbour  fills  what  the  painter  would  call  the 
middle  distance  in  the  picture ;  while  beyond,  the  swelling  hills  of 
Fife  engage  the  eye,  among  which  are  seen  the  grey  towers  of  St  An- ' 
clrews,  the  silver  thread  of  the  Eden  in  its  fertile  valley,  the  peaks  of 
the  Lomonds,  Largo  and  Norman's  Law,  and  even  the  Pentland  Hills, 
beyond  the  Forth,  looming  between  earth  and  cloudland  in  the  far 
distance.  Further  west,  the  Ochil  range  bounds  the  horizon,  while 
nearer  "the  fair  plains  of  Gowrie"  lie  spread  out  in  fertile  luxuriance. 
Turning  northwards,  the  view  embraces  the  Perthshire  Grampians, 
with  the  leonine  mass  of  Schiehallion  rising  into  the  clouds ;  while 
lower  and  nearer,  appear  the  classic  Dunsinane,  and  the  bold  chain 
of  the  Sidlaws,  enclosing  the  picturesque  valley  of  the  Dichty,  the 
course  of  which  is  traceable  almost  from  its  source  among  the  Crags 
of  Lundie  eastward  to  the  Linlathen  woods.  Whichever  way  we 
turn,  the  eye  luxuriates  in  scenery,  which  is  delightful  from  its  variety 
and  contrast,  and  almost  sublime  in  its  effect.  It  is,  indeed,  such  a 
prospect  as  one  might  suppose  the  poet  of  the  "  Seasons  "  to  have  con- 
templated when  he  sung — 

"  Enchanting  vale  !  beyond  whate'er  the  muse 
Has  of  Achaia  or  Hesperia  sung ! 
0  vale  of  bliss !  0  softly  swelling  hills ! 
On  which  the  power  of  cultivation  lies, 
And  joys  to  see  the  wonder  of  his  toil. 
Heavens  !  what  a  goodly  prospect  spreads  around 
Of  hills  and  dales,  of  woods,  of  lawns,  and  spires, 
And  glittering  towns,  and  gilded  streams !" 

Having  already  noticed  the  historical  incidents  in  connection  with 
the  Law,  we  may,  before  leaving  the  spot,  advert  to  its  geological  for- 
mation, and  that  of  the  immediately  adjacent  district.1  This  may  be 
described  as  the  intermediate  series  of  rocks  subjacent  to  the  carboni- 

1  A  fuller  account,  from  the  pen  of  Dr  M'Vicar,  will  be  found  in  the  "  New 
Statistical  Account  of  Scotland,"  Vol.  V. 


172  BISTORT  OF 

ferotu  strata,  awl  interposed  between  theee  and  tb*  members  of  the 
primitive  series.  The  nearest  ooal  measures  are  found  about  tilleen 
miles  south,  in  Fifeshirc  ;  and  of  the  primitive  rocks  the  nearest  is 
the  mica  slate  of  the  Grampians,  some  twenty  miles  to  the  north. 
Dundee  rests  on  rock  of  igneous  or  volcanic  formation  ;  the  amygda- 
loid form  of  Trap  being  interjected  through  msssos  of  Sandstone 
and  Porphyry.  In  the  I  AW,  Balgay  Hill,  the  Castle  Hill,  and  the 
heights  of  Craigie,  the  Trap  has  been  upheaved  in  masses,  more  or 
lets  conical  in  form.  Much  of  it  is  of  a  tufaceous  texture,  and 
durable  when  exposed  ;  but  other  samples,  as  at  Craigie,  are  mor 
a  basaltic  character,  and  make  excellent  material  for  the 


of  roads  and  building  purposes.  The  underlying  Sandstone  appears 
at  Itlackness  and  the  Roodyards,  the  junction,  or  rather  the  fissure 
1..  t  w.-t-ii  it  and  the  Trap,  being  traceable  at  the  Dens.  The  Sandstone 
frequently  exhibits  the  characteristics  of  the  variety  known  as  Clay- 
stone,  an  earthy  and  compact  stone,  so  called  from  its  purplish  colour 
and  resemblance  to  indurated  clay.  Porphyry,  the  lowest  of  the 
group,  is  seen  in  the  clilf  and  railway  cutting  at  Will's  Braes,  in  the 
western  suburbs  of  the  town.  It  is  of  a  brownish-red  colour,  marked 
by  crystalliform  spots,  and  intersected  with  veins  of  jasper,  heavy 
spar,  and  sparry  iron  ore,  with  occasional  acicular  crystals  of  manga- 
nese. The  surface  drift  is  chiefly  a  clay  deposit,  which,  in  the  lowest 
depression  in  front  of  the  Law,  was  pure  enough  to  furnish  for  many 
years  materials  for  brick-making.  In  other  hollows  and  slopes  upon 
the  Trap,  drift-sand  and  gravel  are  found  ;  while  the  tract  of  deep 
mossy  ground,  extending  from  Panmure  Street  to  Ward  Foundry, 
marks  what  in  primeval  times  had  been  a  wide  ravine  or  basin, 
through  which  the  Logie  burn  had  found  its  way  to  the  Tay,  and  in 
which  fossil  trees  have  been  discovered,  from  time  to  time,  at  a  con- 
siderable depth.  As  the  diluvium  accumulated  in  this  hollow,  it 
\v<>uld  assume  the  form  of  swampy  ground,  and  in  that  state  doubtless 
facilitated  the  defence  of  the  town  on  the  north  in  the  old  lighting 
il.iy.t.  From  swamp  it  advanced  by  easy  transition  to  the  Haughs, 
Meadows,  or  Wards,  which  are  the  subject  of  frequent  allusions  in 
our  history.  They  then  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  religions  houses  in 
the  nighbourhood,  and  were  either  cultivated  by  the  inmates  or  farmed 
out  to  others.  The  stream  of  water,  which  formerly  had  served  to  fill 
the  ditch  outside  the  walls,  was  now  utilised  by  being  stored  in  dams 
to  grind  the  citizens'  corn.  Of  these  dams,  one  exceeding  an  acre  and 


MAIN  LINES  OP  STREETS.  173 

a-liali  in  area,  was  situated  on  the  north  of  the  West  Port,  and 
another  occupied  part  of  the  area  now  covered  by  Messrs  Keiller's 
works. 

In  the  disposition  of  its  principal  thoroughfares,  Dundee  resembles 
other  old  Scottish  towns — the  ancient  roads  which  formed  the  means 
of  communication  with  the  neighbouring  towns  still  forming  the  main 
arteries  of  the  modern  burgh.  Its  situation  on  the  river  side  fixed 
one  line  of  road,  roughly  parallel  with  its  banks,  leading  to  Perth  on 
the  west,  and  still  retaining  its  original  name",  the  Perth  Road,  until 
near  the  centre  of  the  town,  where  it  is  known  as  the  Nether- 
gate  (anciently  the  Fleuk&rgaitt ;)  while  the  Seagate,  starting  from 
the  High  Street,  or  MarTcetgaitt,  formed  the  access  to  Arbroath  on 
the  east.  Starting  also  from  the  High  Street,  the  road  to  Coupar 
Angus  proceeded  north-westerly  in  a  more  sinuous  Iine0  skirting  the 
basin  of  the  Meadows,  and  ascending  by  Lochee.  This  street,  from 
its  commencement  at  the  High  Street  to  the  West  Port,  now  bears 
the  name  of  Overgate,  and  was  anciently  known  as  Argylesgaitt, 
though  from  what  circumstance  it  took  the  name  of  the  chief  of  the 
Western  Highlands  does  not  appear.  On  passing  through  the  west 
gate,  a  branch  road  diverged  due  west,  ascending  a  considerable  accli- 
vity, which  still  bears  the  name  of  the  Ha  \vkhill,  and  which  terminates 
in  a  junction  with  the  Perth  Eoad.  Another  road  diverges  in  like 
manner  from  the  old  Coupar  Angus  Road  (now  known  as  the  Scour- 
ingburn),  a  little  beyond  the  West  Port,  and  runs  also  in  a  westerly 
direction,  having  served  as  the  road  to  the  suburban  property  of  Black- 
ness, which  name  it  still  bears.  Returning  to  the  High  Street,  we 
again  find  that  the  old  road  to  Forfar  and  the  northern  district  passed 
out  by  the  Murraygate  Port,  and  then  struck  due  north  up  the  stoop 
acclivity  of  the  Bonnethill  (anciently  Eottenraw;)  but  in  time  the 
impracticability  of  such  a  route  for  traffic  became  intolerable — the  gradi- 
ent of  the  "  Hill"  being  something  like  1  in  7 — and  a  new  road  starting 
from  near  the  Murraygate  Port,  was  laid  out  on  the  sensible  plan  of 
going  round  the  hill  instead  of  over  its  summit.  This  thoroughfare,  by 
King  Street,  Princes  Street,  &c.,  is  now  the  leading  communication  to 
the  north-eastern  districts. 

The  old  lines  being  thus  perpetuated,  the  modern  streets  have  par- 
taken too  much  of  their  characteristics,  being  for  the  most  part  irregular 
in  line  and  gradient,  and  varying  in  width  from  sixteen  to  eighty  feet — 
the  narrowest  being  nearest  the  High  Street,  precisely  where  the  accumu- 


1 74  H18TORT  OF  DPXDKE. 

it  <>f  traffic  renders  thorn  most  inconvenient  and  dangerous.  Like 
all  okl  town*,  the  imperfect  ideM  of  convenience  which  obtained  in 
early  time*  required  no  cro«  street*,  our  forefathers  being  content  to 
:  i  <>m  the  back  quarters  by  narrow  classes,  so  numerous,  how- 
ever, that  one  occurs  alongside  of  almost  every  house.  The  houses 
were  usually  placed  with  their  gabies  to  the  street,  after  the  fashion 
of  Flemish  and  other  continental  towns.  It  is  due  to  the  memory  of 
our  earliest  citizen*,  however,  to  say  that  the  demolition  of  old  t 
ments  reveals  the  fact,  that  the  street*  originally  were  more  spacious, 
nud  that  such  thoroughfares  as  the  Murray  gate,  Seagate,  and  Over- 
gate  have  be*-:  t«*l  by  encroachments  on  either  aide,  supinely 
permitted  by  the  authorities  of  the  day.  Before  shop*  were  intro- 
duced, moveable  booths,  in  which  the  merchant  displayed  his  good*, 
were  set  up  in  front  of  his  dwelling ;  these  gradually  came  to  be 
erected  permanently  in  wood,  ami,  win  u  one  citizen  came  out  in  this 
way,  it  may  be  readily  assumed  his  neighbours  would  follow.  When 
a  fire  or  decay  rendered  rebuilding  necessary,  the  now  structure  came 
boldly  to  the  front.  In  some  instances,  we  have  seen  the  old  front 
walls  standing  ten  or  twelve  feet  back  from  the  false  front,  which 
occupies  the  present  line  of  street ;  and  it  is  curious  to  notice  the 
repetition  of  a  similar  process  in  the  present  day,  even  in  the  Scot- 
tish metropolis,  where  the  front  areas  in  many  of  the  street*  are  being 
last  absorbed  as  shops,  to  be  succeeded  by  loftier  buildings.  It  is 
satisfactory  to  know  that  our  local  authorities  are  now  fully  alive  to 
the  importance  of  spacious  thoroughfares,  and  have  initiated  many 
important  improvements  in  that  direction,  with  the  full  support  of 
pnMic  opinion.  Within  a  few  yean,  therefore,  such  dangerous  streeta 
an  the  narrow  of  the  Murraygate  and  the  Bucklemaker  Wynd  will 
have  become  things  of  the  past. 

There  are  points  of  interest  connected  with  some  of  the  older  street* 
which  deserve  to  be  put  upon  record.  Beginning  at  the  I 
Street,  we  find  several  features  worthy  of  note,  and  may  recal  othev* 
which  now  live  only  in  the  memory  of  very  old  inhabitant*.  On 
the  south  side,  standing  forward  a  little  from  the  line  of  the  adjacent 
building*,  and  occupying  as  fine  a  site  as  could  be  desired  for  a  pul  lie 
edifice,  the  Town -House  first  attract*  our  attention.  It  was  erected  in 
1734  ;  and,  though  now  regarded  as  scarcely  worthy  of  Dundee  in  point 
of  accommodation  and  architectural  character,  it  was  undoubtedly  an 
achievement  at  tliu  time  of  its  erection,  ami,  in  !•  I,  so  taxed  the 


THR  T'^WN  HOUSE.  175 


finances  ot  the  burgh  that  a  portion  of  its  internal  finishing  remained 
for  twenty  years  unexecuted.  The  building  has  a  frontage  of  ninety- 
eight  feet  to  the  High  Street,  and  a  depth  of  fifty  feet.  It  is  three 
storeys  in  height  above  the  street  level,  and,  with  the  exception  of  the 
two  large  rooms  at  either  end  of  the  first  floor,  is  vaulted  throughout. 
The  basement  is  also  vaulted  in  stone,  and  one  of  its  compartments, 
used  for  many  years  as  a  place  of  durance,  is  still  remembered  as  "  The 
Thief's  Hole."  Several  cells  in  the  upper  floor  formed  the  regular 
prison  down  to  the  opening  of  the  new  Bridewell  in  1836,  and  the 
condition  of  the  inmates  was  wretched  in  the  extreme,  as  many  as 
fifty  prisoners  being  frequently  packed  into  four  or  five  small  apart- 
ments. 

Externally,  the  Town  House  is  a  fair  specimen  of  that  phase  of 
classic  architecture  known  as  the  Palladian.  It  was  designed  by  Wil- 
liam Adam,  "  the  elder  Adam,"  the  father  of,  and  associated  in  busi- 
ness with,  the  brothers  Adam,1  who,  as  the  fashionable  architects  of 
the  time,  executed  many  important  buildings  throughout  the  kingdom, 
including  the  College,  Eegister  House,  St  George's  Church,  &c.,  in 
Edinburgh  ;  and  the  Adelphi,  Portland  Place,  and  Finsbury  Square, 
in  London.  The  marked  peculiarity  of  their  buildings  is  excessive 
rustication,  which  is  well  exemplified  in  our  Town-House.  The  street 
floor  exhibits  an  open  vaulted  arcade  or  loggia,  formed  of  seven  arched 
openings  with  square  piers  —  popularly  known  as  "  The  Pillars,"  —  -and 
giving  access  to  several  small  shops,  which  extend  back  to  the  rear  of 
the  building.2  Over  the  three  central  arches  the  front  is  marked  by 
coupled  Roman  Ionic  pilasters  carrying  an  entablature  and  pediment, 
in  which  appear  the  town's  arms  and  the  inscription  :  — 

Conferuandis  Legibus   Goercendis   Boeleribus  Basilica  haso  a 
Qleidonanis  extructa.  Ji.^.C.  Jtf(Z>OCXXXIIII. 

The  building  is  surmounted  by  a  spire  140  feet  in  height,  which 
contains  a  clock,  marked  1735,  with  four  dials  and  three  bells.  "To 
these  were  added,  about  seventy  years  ago,  at  the  instance  of  Mr 

1  The  father  acquired  the  estate  of  Blair-  Adam,  near  Kinross,  for  which  county 
his  eldest  son,  Robert,  sat  in  Parliament,  and  the  seat  is  now  occupied  by  the  pre- 
sent representative  of  the  family. 

2  The  eastmost  of  these  shops  was  the  first  office  of  the  Dundee  Banking  Coir. 
pany,  which,  in  1788,  was  plundered  by  parties  who  had  descended  through  the 
floor  above.     Six  persons  were  apprehended  on  suspicion  ;  three  of  these  were 
condemned  to  death,  and  two  executed,  though  it  was  believed   they  were  inno- 
cent, and  that  oue  more  c'oseiy  connected  with  the  Bank  was  the  guilty  party. 


1 70  RI8TQBT  OF  DUMUU 

Adam*,  ft  merchant  in  town,  four  small  bell*  to  chime  the  quartet*, 
which  were  replaced  after  a  fire,  in  1857,  by  the  present  peal. 

Internally,  the  building  has  a  wide  turnpike  stair,  from  the  ftrat 
1  in  l;:i_-  uf  which  a  short  corridor  branches  to  the  large  rooms  at  either 
end.  These  extend  the  full  width  of  the  building,  and  measure  thirty- 
a  feet  by  twenty-three  feet.  The  west  room  is  the  Council  Cham- 
ber or  Town  Hall,  of  no  special  pretensions  internally,  but  containing 
several  good  pictures,  including  portrait*  of  Admiral  Duncan,  by 
Gainsborough ;  George  Dempster  of  Dunnichen,  long  Member  of  Par- 
liament for  this  district  of  burghs ;  and  James  Johnston,  a  provost 
>luring  last  century.  The  large  room  at  the  opposite  end  of  the  build- 
ing was  long  used  as  a  Sheriff  Court-room,  but  is  now  restricted  to  the 
•  in^'-i  <>f  ill--  < JuiMry  and  Justice  of  Peace  Court  The  other  apart- 
ments are  small  and  inconvenient,  yet  until  three  years  ago  were  made 
to  serve  for  the  accommodation  of  the  Magistrates,  Town-Clerk,  Cham- 
berlain, and  other  officials.  A  movement  then  took  place  for  the  eree- 
ti'.n  of  a  new  Town  Hall  and  Municipal  Buildings,  on  a  scale  worthy 
"f  the  town,  but  it  resulted  only  in  the 'immediate  necessity  being 
iii<-t  by  erecting  a  plain  block  of  offices  behind,  and  in  communication 
with  tli-  present  building.  To  make  way  for  these,  several  old  buil-l- 
:.  11  to  be  cleared  away,  one  of  which,  on  the  west  of  8t  Clement's 
Lane,  had  experienced  some  vicissitudes  of  fortune.  Its  vaults  are 
supposed  to  have  been  originally  in  some  way  or  other  an  appurten- 
ance of  St  Clement's  Church  (which  occupied  the  site  of  the  Town 
Huuse;)  at  a  much  later  period  it  was  the  Grammar  School;  afterwards, 
during  the  time  of  the  Fencibles  and  the  volunteering  consequent  on 
the  French  war,  it  became  a  guard-house — then  successively  a  police 
office,  auction  hall,  printing  office,  coffee-rooms,  &c. 

Thrice  since  its  erection  the  Town  House  has  been  in  danger  of 
destruction  from  fire.    The  first  accident  occurred  last  century,  about 
1773,  when,  by  the  carelessness  or  recklessness  of  some  persons  confined 
iu  the  prison  rooms,  the  roof  was  actually  in  flames,  but  happily  * 
were  extinguished  before  much  material  damage  was  sustained.     The 
second  happened  during  the  riots  that  occurred  while  the  Reform  Bill 
was  before  Parliament     A  party  of  youths,  having  prepared  a  bon  tr» 
on  the  High  Street,  were  dispersed  by  the  police,  and  the  apprehe 
sion  of  some  of  the  ringleaders  was  the  signal  for  an  outbreak  • 
popular  frenzy,  much  more  potent  than  any  that  had  been  witnessed 
in  the  town  since  the  destructive  "  meal  mob"  in  1816.     In  course  of 


THE  HIGH  STREET  AND  "  OBOSS.;s  177 

the  riot,  the  windows  of  the  Town  House  were  smashed  in  pieces,  the 
Police  Office  (behind  it)  literally  gutted,  and  all  the  books  and  other 
property  either  wholly  or  partially  destroyed  by  fire ;  and  a  desperate 
attempt  was  made  to  fire  the  Town  House  itself,  by  forcing  a  ship's 
boat  blazing  up  the  stair,  where  fortunately  it  stuck,  and  the  flames 
were  extinguished. 

The  site  of  the  additions  in  the  rear  of  the  Town-House  embraced 
what  was  formerly  the  Meal  Market,  which  was  transferred  thence  on 
the  erection  of  the  old  Episcopal  Chapel,  from  its  former  location  at 
west  end  of  the  High  Street.  In  process  of  time,  the  stalls  and  court 
of  the  Meal  Market  became  deserted  by  the  dealers,  and  were  made 
use  of  by  the  Police  Board  on  its  first  establishment,  the  entrance 
being,  as  before,  from  the  Vault,  on  the  western  side  of  the  Town 
House.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  Vault,  within  a  small  walled 
court,  an  old  lofty  house  still  exists,  which  was  formerly  the  town 
residence  of  the  Barons  of  Strathmartine,  and  hence  called  "  Strath- 
martine's  Lodging." 

At  the  west  end  of  the  High  Street,  on  the  north  side,  may  be  seen 
an  old  timber-framed  house,  almost  the  only  specimen  of  that  ancient 
style  of  building,  and  closely  resembling  the  examples  to  be  found  at 
the  top  of  the  Lawnmarket  in  Edinburgh.  It  bore  the  name  of  "  Our 
Ladie  Warkstayris,"  and  would  thus  appeal  to  have  been  an  elee- 
mosynary establishment  under  the  auspices  of  the  Church  before  the 
Reformation. 

Near  the  middle  of  the  High  Street,  but  inclining  to  the  north  side, 
stood  the  Market  Cross,  a  tall  octagonal  pillar  surmounted  with  a 
unicorn  sejant,  holding  between  its  fore  paws  a  'scutcheon  of  the  royal 
arms  of  Scotland  ;  but  the  artist  has  placed  the  lion  looking  to  the 
sinister  or  left,  instead  of  to  the  dexter  or  right  side  of  the  shield. 
Near  the  top  of  one  of  the  sides  of  the  column,  the  arms  of  the  town 
are  placed,  with  the  motto,  del  donum,  and  the  date  1586,  the  time  of 
its  erection,  and  under  this  there  is  a  peculiar  mark  incised  into  the 
stone,  similar  to  those  made  by  masons  when  they  are  performing 
what  is  technically  called  "tasked"  work.  The  whole  was  supported 
v  by  a  small  octagonal  building,  surrounded  by  a  flight  of  six  steps. 
:From  the  gargoyle  water-spouts  of  this  building,  wine  was  made  to 
•.(flow  on  the  King's  birth-day  and  other  occasions  of  public  rejoicing. 
As  the  erection  was  considered  to  incommode  the  street,  it  was  removed 
in  1777.  The  lower  part  was  carried  away  as  rubbish,  the  pillar  laid 


178  niirroRT  or  DOTWE& 

betide  the  Old  Steeple,  and  the  unicorn  lodged  below  the  staircase  m 
the  tame.     Wli.-n  tho  Steople  became  a  prwon,  U-foru  the  erection  of 
lirulwwcll,  the  pillar  was  erected  clone  to  the  west  door,  and  the  unicorn 
placed  again  on   iU  top,  tastefully  garnished  with  an  additional  tail, 
manufactured  for  the  nonce,  the  new  queue  waving  wttraye,  while  the 
ual  one  lower*  eoifard,  as  Snowdoun  would  express  it.     I'ntil  the 
•et  was  lowered,  a  few  yean  after  the  opening  of  Reform 
t,  the  site  of  the  "  cross"  was  pointed  out  by  a  peculiar  arrange- 
ment of  the  stones  in  the  causeway,  indicating  tho  extent  of  the  base, 
with  the  figures  of  the  dates  of  erection  (1586)  and  demolition  (17 
occupying  the  eight  divisions  of  the  octagon.     It  is  now  marked  by 
a  circle  in  the  paving.     It  is  satisfactory  to  record  that  the  "  cross"  is 
now  in  process  of  restoration,  and  is  to  be  set-up  in  the  south-weak 
corner  of  the  grounds  of  the  Town's  Churches. 

When  tho  public  wells  were  erected,  in  or  about  the  year  1749,  one 
of  them  was  placed  on  the  High  Street,  near  the  east  side  of  the 
"  cross,"  and  of  course  contributed  its  share  to  render  the  passage  of 
the  street  incommodious.  The  removal  of  the  "  cross"  occasioned  the 
removal  of  tho  well,  which  was  re-erected  in  St  ( 'lement's  Lane, 
behind  the  Town  House,  whence  it  was  cleared  away  for  the  Town 
House  additions  already  referred  to. 

Taking  our  departure  from  the  Town  House,  we  may  note  that,  on 
the  north  side  of  the  High  Street,  at  tho  entrance  into  the  OVEROATB, 
in  ancient  times  were  situated  a  Palace  and  a  Mint.  Several  sovereigns 
resided  occasionally  in  the  Palace.  It  subsequently  became  in  succes- 
sion the  property  of  the  Earls  of  Angus,  "t"  th<-  1  >..u-l;u$  family,  of 
the  Viscounts  of  Dudhope,  and  last  of  t  '*.',"  the 

Viscount  Dundee.  On  the  lintol  of  th«  <  himn  y  of  a  Urge  upper 
room  there  is  an  uncharged  armorial  escutcheon,  with  tho  «late  1507. 
The  Mint  was  used  as  such  only  by  Robert  III.,  by  whom  it  was  pro- 
bably erected.  According  to  tradition,  the  Palace  was  inhabited  by  a 
Mr  Watson  when  Sir  James  Kiuloch  took  possess  i  town  in 

course  of  the  Rebellion  in  1745.  Mr  WaUon  favoured  the  cause  of 
the  Insurgents,  and  gave  an  entertainment  at  tho  top  of  the  Mint 
Court  to  the  officers  of  a  reinforcement  that  had  arrived  from  France. 
After  the  Rattle  of  Culloden,  Watson  is  said  to  have  succeeded  in 
reaching  home  in  safety,  where,  for  a  considerable  time,  he  avoided 
his  pursuers  by  secreting  himself  within  a  recess  in  the  wall  of  one  of 
the  apartments.  This  was  discovered  within  this  century,  and  was 


THE  OVERGATE.  179 

found  to  contain  a  decayed  pair  of  old-fashioned  trooper's  boots  and  a 
rusty  broadsword. 

On  [the  opposite  side  of  the  gorge  of  the  Overgate  stands  an  old 
house  fronting  the  High  Street,  having  a  flat-capped  turret  at  its  north- 
east angle.  This  building  was  once  connected  with  the  erections  used 
as  the  Council  Chambers  and  other  public  offices,  after  the  Town 
House  in  the  Seagate  was  deserted,  and  before  the  Vestry  of  St  Cle- 
ment's Church  was  applied  to  these  uses.  It  was,  indeed,  known  as 
the  "  new  tolbuith ;"  and  the  records  of  the  Guildry,  under  date  Oct. 
1590,  contain  a  curious  memorandum  of  contract,  entered  into  with 
"Alex.  Young,  meason  and  burges  of  the  burgh,"  for  erecting  an 
octagonal  bell-turret  on  this  edifice — the  preamble  running  thus  : — 
"  Whilk  day  ye  Deane  of  Gild  and  assessors,  with  consent  of  ane  great 
number  of  ye  merchandis,  hes  resolved  to  cause  edifie,  and  repaire 
vpon  yaire  common  charges  and  expensis,  ane  steiple,  and  pricket  of 
aistler  wark  upon  ye  east  newk  and  tunzie  of  ye  new  tolbuith  of  ye 
burgh,  for  hingin  yairintill  of  ye  Gild  bell."1  In  this  house  also,  about 
the  year  1650,  was  born  Anne,  in  her  own  right  Countess  of  Buc- 
cleuch,  and  afterwards,  by  marriage  with  the  ill-fated  Duke  of  Mon- 
mouth,  the  first  Duchess  of  Buccleuch  and  Monmouth — the  lady  to 
whom  the  aged  Minstrel  addresses  himself  in  Sir  Walter  Scott's  "  Lay 
of  the  Last  Minstrel." 

From  the  north-west  corner  of  the  High  Street,  the  Overgate  strikes 
away  in  a  westerly  direction  until  it  terminates  at  the  West  Port, 
whence  the  Hawkhill  and  Scouringburn,  two  long  and  sinuous  streets 
diverge,  and  .where  North  and  South  Tay  Street  cross  it  at  right 
angles.  In  the  Calender  Close,  a  long  narrow  court  on  the  south  side 
of  the  Overgate,  at  a  short  distance  east  of  the  Long  Wynd,  a  house 
is  shown  which  the  reputed  witch,  Grizzel  Jaffray,  is  said  to  have 
occupied  previous  to  her  execution.  In  ancient  times  this  street  was 
the  chief  entrance  into  the  town  from  the  west ;  and  until  the  year 
1812,  a  large  block  of  stone,  with  the  word  "  Dundee  "  rudely  scratched 
upon  it,  lay  at  the  north-east  corner  of  South  Tay  Street,  and  marked 
the  western  limit  of  the  official  peregrinations  of  the  public  crier.  It 
was  also  the  point  whence  distances  were  measured,  when  the  rule 
was  to  reckon  from  town-wall  to  town-wall,  and  was  known  as  "  Dun- 
dee Stone ;"  being  thus  mentioned  in  several  muniments  of  property, 

1  "  Warden's  Burgh  Laws,"  p.  145. 


180  HISTORY  OF  DUNDEE. 

as  well  M  in  the  town's  archive*,  to  long  ago  M  1565.     It  now  lie* 
buried  under  the  causeway  of  the  street 

The  eastern  end  of  the  Orergate,  where  it  joins  the  High  Street, 
WM  formerly  called  the  "  Lucken- Booths,"  a  name  now  almost  forgot- 
ten. This  name  is  derived  from  the  old  Scottish  word  lufJctn,  a  word 
signifying  close  or  shot,  as  applied  to  a  very  narrow  passage,  which 
doubtless  had  arisen  from  the  circumstance  of  booths,  as  shop*  were 
anciently  styled,  being  erected  in  front  of  the  house*  on  each  side  of 
the  street,  and  thus  rendering  the  passage-way  between  them  very 
narrow.  The  entire  length  of  the  Overgate  presents  a  continuous  line 
of  lucken-booths,  very  inconvenient  as  a  business  thoroughfare,  now 
that  wheeled  vehicles  are  almost  innumerable,  although  it  might  have 
suited  the  traffic  of  the  town  down  to  the  close  of  last  century,  when 
there  were  only  one  carter  within  the  royalty. 

In  ancient  times  several  families  of  note  resided  in  this  street, 
among  whom,  exclusive  of  the  noble  family  of  Angus,  were  some  of 
the  Wedderburnes,  Stirling  of  East  Breikie,  in  the  parish  of  Kinnell, 
and  Scrymseoure  of  Fordell.  This  last  occupied  an  old  house,  which 
stood,  until  two  yean  ago,  near  the  top  of  South  Lindsay  Street,  and 
which,  before  the  Reformation,  had  been  the  residence  of  the  Chanter 
or  Superior  of  the  Chantry  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  and  St  George  the 
Martyr,  in  the  Parish  Church. 

On  the  north  side  of  the  Overgate,  and  opposite  the  top  of  Tally 
Street,  Barrack  Street,  a  well-finished  thoroughfare,  strikes  off  in  a 
northern  direction,  and  along  with  the  Constitution  Road,  into  which 
it  expands,  forms  a  line  of  more  than  half  a  mile  in  length.  Originally 
this  street  was  called  the  Friars'  Veuuel,  subsequently  the  Burial 
Wynd,  and,  since  1812,  Barrack  Street  Its  first  name  it  received  as 
the  direct  passage  to  the  Grey  and  Black  friars'  Monasteries,  it*  second 
from  the  proximity  of  the  Burial  Ground,  and  its  third  as  the  readiest 
access  to  the  Barracks. 

On  the  north  side  of  the  NBTHBROATB,  towards  the  east  end,  stands 
the  Church  of  the  Blessed  Virgin,  with  its  fine  lofty  square  tower ; 
and  on  the  south,  opposite  the  Church,  Union  Street,  an  elegantly 
built  thoroughfare,  opened  since  1828,  communicates  directly  with 
the  Ferry  Harbour  and  Perth  Railway  Station.  At  the  east  end  of 
the  Nethergate,  the  old  English  <  'hajwl,  now  doomed  in  the  march  of 
street  improvement,  stands  on  the  site  of  the  old  Meal  Market  and 
Salt  Tron.  ftearlj-  opposite,  within  a  dirty  narrow  court  called  White- 


THE  NETHERGATE.  181 

hall,  there  existed  until  recently  the  remains  of  a  very  strong  vaulted 
building,  in  which  Queen  Mary,  James  YL,  and  his  grandson,  Charles 
II.,1  have  resided.  On  the  lintel  of  a  door  that  opened  from  the 
court  into  one  of  the  vaults  there  was  inscribed,  "  TENDIT  .  ACERRIMA.  . 
VIRTVS  ;"  and  on  the  broken  lintel  of  a  chimney,  which  is  built  in  the 
wall  of  a  house  on  the  opposite  or  east  side,  but  a  little  nearer  to  the 
top  of  the  court,  the  royal  achievement  of  Scotland  is  placed,  along 
with  an  escutcheon  uncharged,  but  parted  per  cross,  the  date  1588, 

and  the  inscription,  "  OBAY.  ZE.  KING.  KING.  IAMIS.  6.  IN.  DE ,"  the 

remainder  of  the  word,  "  PENS,"  is  broken  off;  and  in  the  front  of  the 
house  to  the  Nethergate,  at  the  top  of  the  court,  is  placed  the  coat- 
armour  of  Charles  IL — Scotland,  England,  France,  and  Ireland  quar- 
terly— with  "GOD  SAVE  THE  KING.  c.  R.  1660."  In  the  wall  of  the 
building  that  constitutes  the  present  Whitehall,  and  beside  the  door, 
appears  an  ornamented  niche,  and  the  figure  of  a  flying  angel,  which, 
though  they  were  built  in  the  wall  of  the  former  house,  may  have 
been  brought  from  the  ruins  of  the  chapel  that  stood  in  the  next  court 
to  the  west.  It  was  here  that  the  Convention  of  Royal  Burghs  met 
on  the  13th  of  July,  1692,  at  the  instance  of  James  Fletcher,  at  that 

1  While  Charles  resided  here,  before  his  defeat  at  Worcester,  he  gave  an  audi- 
ence to  the  Rev.  John  Livingstone  of  Ancrum,  who  was  one  of  the  deputation  of 
ministers  sent  by  the  General  Assembly  to  arrange  ecclesiastical  matters  with 
him  in  Holland.  In  the  autobiographical  account  of  his  life,  Mr  Livingstone 
says,  "  When  I  took  my  leave  of  the  King  at  Dundee,  I,  being  alone  with  him, 
begged  liberty  to  use  some  freedom  with  him,  which  he  granted.  After  I  had 
spoken  some  things  about  his  carriage,  I  propounded  that  he  saw  the  English 
army,  animated  by  many  victories,  for  his  sake  coming  upon  Scotland,  which  at 
present  was  in  a  very  low  condition,  and  therefore  that  he  might  with  his  Council 
devise  some  way  to  divert  the  present  stroke  by  a  declaration,  or  some  such  way, 
wherein  he  needed  not  quit  or  weaken  his  right  to  the  crown  of  England  ;  only 
show  that,  for  the  present,  he  was  not  to  prosecute  his  title  by  the  sword,  but 
wait  till  their  confusions  being  evanished,  they  were  in  better  case  to  be  governed, 
and  till  he  were  called  by  the  people  there,  which  I  was  confident  a  short  whiles' 
good  government  in  Scotland  would  easily  produce.  He  was  not  pleased  to  relish 
the  motion,  and  said  he  hoped  I  would  not  wish  him  to  sell  his  father's  blood. 
By  that,  and  some  other  passages  of  my  life,  I  gathered  that  either  I  was  not 
called  to  meddle  in  any  public  State  matters,  or  that  my  meddling  should  have 
but  small  success  ;  for,  in  the  year  1645,  when  I  was  in  London,  I  propounded  to 
the  Lord  Protector,  that  he  would  take  off  the  heavy  fines  which  they  had  laid  on 
several  in  Scotland,  which  neither  they  were  able  to  pay,  and  the  payment  would 
alienate  their  minds  the  more.  He  seemed  to  like  the  overture  ;  but  when  he 
had  spoken  with  his  Council,  many  of  them  being  to  have  a  share  in  these  fines, 
they  went  on  in  their  purpose." — Stevenson's  Edition  of  the  Life  of  the  Rev.  John 
Livingstone,  Glatgow.  1751. 


IB 3  •BTOftT  0V  DUWDBB. 

time  Pmvont,  whose  vanity,  in  the  occupancy  of  the  chair,  it  believed 
to  have  been  tome  what  seriously  detrimental  to  the  "  common  good" 
of  the  town.  The  chief  business,  in  so  far  at  we  know,  transacted  at 
this  famous  annual  gathering  of  the  Delegates  of  the  Royal  Burghs, 
was  the  granting  the  privilege  of  trade  and  manufacture*  to  the  burghs 
of  regality  and  barony,  clogged,  however,  with  the  condition  of  paying 
ten  .per  cent,  of  the  missive-dues  or  tax-roll  of  their  royal  patrons. 
This  transaction  was  confirmed  by  Act  of  Parliament,  passed  14th 
June,  1693.  The  missive-dues  vary  according  to  the  ability  of  each 
individual  burgh.  From  1711  to  1792,  Dundee  receiv-d  from  the 
Convention  the  sum  of  £90,  in  aid  of  its  harbour  improv  •  nv;uU  ;  and 
in  the  course  of  ten  yean  from  July  1823  to  July  1833,  it  was  called 
on  to  pay  the  sum  of  £426,  in  aid  of  the  improvements  in  some  of 
the  less  wealthy  burghs. 

At  some  distance  west  of  Whitehall  was  situated  the  most  aristo- 
cratic of  private  edifices  which  old  Dundee  could  boast  of — the  ancient 
residence  of  the  Earls  of  Crawford.  The  "  Earl's  Lodging,"  as  it  was 
called,  with  iU  grounds  and  gardens,  covered  a  large  space  extending 
from  the  Nethergate  southwards  to  the  river,  and  from  Spalding's 
(now  Couttie's)  Wynd,  westward  to  the  line  of  South  Lindsay  Street 
In  the  15th  century,  the  marriage  of  the  famous  Archibald,  fifth  Earl 
of  Angus,  of  the  Douglas  family,  to  the  Lady  Maud,  daughter  of  the 
Earl  of  Crawford,  was  celebrated  with  unusual  splendour  in  this  house. 
Long  afterwards,  when  changing  fortunes  led  to  the  alienation  of  the 
property,  the  Earl  of  Kellie  obtained  a  portion  next  the  Nether- 
gate,  and  erected  a  residence  there.  When  demolished,  some  forty 
years  ago,  to  make  way  for  Union  Street,  the  Kellie  arms  were  found, 
in  good  preservation,  carved  upon  the  lintel  of  a  chimney-piece,  which 
seemed  to  have  adorned  the  hall. 

The  SEAGATE  was  at  one  time  the  fashionable  region — the  "  Bond 
Street "  of  the  town — containing  the  greater  part  of  the  winter  resi- 
dences of  the  landed  gentry  of  the  surrounding  country  ;  but  it  has 
now,  alas !  fallen  from  its  former  dignity.  In  ancient  times,  it  also 
m. -laded  the  Market  Cross  and  "  Tollbwith,"  or  Town-House.  Both 
stood  nearly  opposite  the  foot  of  Peter  Street,  which  was  completed 
and  opened  for  passage  only  in  1 775.  Tin-  .-it.-  of  the  "  cross,"  which 
was  removed  to  t  Streot  in  1586,  is  identified  by  a  peculiar 

arrangement  of  the  stones  on  the  causeway  ;  and  the  Town-House, 
from  a  stum-  which  was  dug  out  of  the  foundation  when  the  site  was 


THE  SEAGATE.  183 

preparing  for  the  erection  of  the  buildings  opposite  the  foot  of  Peter 
Street,  seems  to  have  been  built  about  the  middle  of  the  13th  cen- 
tury, perhaps  the  year  1260.  So  late  as  1736,  the  only  tolerable 
dwelling-house  in  the  whole  street  was  that  of  Provost  Alexander 
Robertson  (of  the  family  of  Bandirran),  which  stood  on  the  north 
side,  its  site  being  afterwards  occupied  by  the  Baptist  Meetiug-house ; 
while  on  the  opposite  side  there  were  several  older  houses  occupied 
by  families  of  some  distinction,  such  as  the  old  burghal  family  of 
Brown  of  Horn,  in  the  Carse  of  Gowrie.  A  member  of  this  family, 
Bailie  George  Brown  of  Horn,  was  mortally  wounded  at  the  storm 
of  the  town  by  General  Monk,  on  the  5th  September,  1651.  His 
son,  Provost  George  Brown,  founded  an  educational  institution  in 
1695.  Besides  all  this,  the  Seagate  is  understood  to  have  been  the 
scene  of  the  incremation  of  Grizzel  Jaffray,  whose  treatment  for 
"  witchcraft"  we  have  already  noticed.1 

At  the  head  of  the  Seagate,  on  the  south  side,  stood  an  old  hostelry, 
which,  a  few  years  ago,  was  removed  to  effect  a  much-needed  improve- 
ment of  the  street,  and  which  was  long  as  familiarly  known  by  the 
excellency  of  its  entertainments  as  by  its  sign  of  the  "  Blue  Bell," 
especially  by  the  bon  mvant  agriculturists  of  the  Carse  of  Gowrie,  many 
of  whom  made  it  their  "  houff "  on  market-days.  This  old  building 
possessed  an  interest  as  being  the  reputed  residence  of  Sir  George 
Stewart  of  Grandtully,  in  which  the  Chevalier  St  George  slept  one 
night  in  January,  1716,  and  in  which  also  Admiral  Lord  Viscount 
Duncan  was  born  on  the  1st  July,  1731.  His  Lordship's  father  was 
Provost  of  Dundee  in  the  stirring  era  of  "  the  forty-five,"  and  this  was 
probably  his  town-house,  purchased  or  rented  from  Sir  George  Stewart. 
Tradition  designated  it  the  Magazine  of  the  Castle,  obviously  from  no 
other  reason  than  its  proximity  to  the  Castle  rock,  the  fortress  which 
crowned  it  having  been  demolished  centuries  before  a  stone  of  the 
"  Magazine"  could  have  been  dug  from  the  quarry. 

Nearly  opposite  this  building,  at  the  east  end  of  the  High  Street, 
and  filling  the  space  between  the  Seagate  and  Murraygate,  is  the 
Trades'  Hall,  occupying  the  site  of  the  old  Shambles  and  Flesh 
Market,  and  which  in  its  turn  is  doomed  to  demolition  for  improve- 
ment purposes.  The  site  was  purchased  from  the  town  in  1776  for 
£391,  and,  two  years  afterwards,  the  building  was  erected  from  the 

1  See  ante,  p.  102. 


184  BBTOBT  OF  DUNCE*. 

design  of  Samuel  Bell,  by  the  Nine  Incorporated  Trades,  and  KM 
undergone  rarioua  transformations  to  adapt  the  ground-story  for  modem 
•hop*.  The  west  front  shews  attached  Roman  Ionic  columns  on  the 
upper  story  surmounted  by  a  pediment,  while  a  domical  lantern  sur- 
mount* the  roof,  in  which  is  hung  a  good-toned  bell,  baring  the  fol- 
owing  inscription  recording  the  names  of  the  office-bearers  of  the 
ue  in  One"  for  the  time  :— 

"ConraoeT— W.  Biaet;  Win.  Keith,  Traaeurar  ;  and  Deacon*— Oeo.  Mudie, 
Rt.  Brown,  lUtw.  Buirt,  Patk.  MUUr.  Jaa,  Mill,  SamL  Matten,  Wm.  Kinnmr, 
lit.  Elder,  and  Ja,  Andenon,  contributed  to  th«  boll  to  the  TradtV  Hall,  Dun- 
dee. Pack  *  Chapman,  of  London,  foot.  1778." 

The  upper  floor  contains  a  rather  handsome  room,  fifty  feet  by  thirty, 
and  twenty-five  in  height,  which  was  long  used  as  the  Exchange 
Coffeeroom,  occasionally  as  a  theatre  by  itinerant  players,  and  latterly 
as  a  Banking-office — the  Clydesdale  Bank  having  acquired  the  whole 
building  in  1864. 

From  the  south-east  corner  of  the  High  Street,  Castle  Street,  a  well- 
built  thoroughfare,  which  was  cut  through  the  vast  rock  on  which 
the  ancient  Castle  stood,  affords  a  direct  communication  with  the 
Harbour  from  the  very  centre  of  the  town,  as  does  Crichton  Street 
from  the  south-west  corner  of  the  High  Street.  Castle  Street  termi- 
nates at  right  angles  with  Dock  Street,  a  spacious  thoroughfare 
running  along  the  Docks,  and  in  which  the  bulk  of  the  traffic  of 
the  port  is  conducted.  The  Green  Market  is  only  remarkable  for 
having  once  been  a  Fish  Market,  and  at  its  west  side,  filling  the  space 
between  Butcher  Row  and  Fish  Street,  for  a  large,  heavy,  old-fashioned 
building,  with  a  circular  turret  at  each  of  three  of  its  angles,  and  the 
ground  flat  sunk  several  steps  below  the  level  of  the  street,  and  orna- 
mente  I  with  slight  recesses  arched  at  the  tops,  some  of  which  might 
once  have  been  open.  In  the  year  1808,  a  mason,  while  employed  in 
repairing  the  chimney  tops,  found  a  "  pose,"  consisting  of  nearly  two 
hundred  pieces  of  silver  coin,  embedded  among  the  mortar.  They 
belonged  to  the  mintages  of  James  VL  and  Charles  I. ;  and  it  is 
thought  that  they  were  concealed  there  by  some  careful  citizen  about 
the  time  of  the  siege  of  the  town  in  1651,  and  that  the  owner  had 
been  killed  in  the  assault  Until  a  few  years  from  the  beginning  of 
the  present  century,  this  old  house  was  used  for  the  "  receipt  of  cus- 
tom," in  which  Robert  Middleton,  Esq.  (father  of  Admiral  Charles, 
first  I /ml  Barnaul,  who  was  born  here  about  1730),  acted  as  Collector 
on  behalf  of  the  Lords  of  his  Majesty's  Treasury,  long  before  and  for 


THE  MT7RRAYGATE.  185 

some  time  after  the  middle  of  last  century.  This  edifice  is  also  made  the 
scene  of  much  of  the  incident  in  Grant's  novel,  "  The  Yellow  Frigate." 

Until  sometime  before  the  commencement  of  the  Harbour  Works,  iu 
1815,  a  broad  walk,  paved  with  flags,  extended  from  the  south  end  of 
the  Public  Weigh-house,  along  the  west  side  of  the  Green  Market, 
about  midway  to  Fish  Street.  A  bench  ran  along  a  considerable 
extent  of  the  line,  and  a  row  of  fine  plane  trees  bounded  the  outside 
of  the  pavement,  affording  an  agreeable  shade  in  sultry  weather.  This 
spot  was  the  great  resort  of  retired  skippers  and  seamen,  and  idlers 
about  the  port ;  but  it  would  appear  from  the  following  extract  that, 
in  former  times,  it  was  used  in  a  different  way — "  From  the  Harbour 
to  the  town  is  a  pleasant  walk,  paved  with  flag-stones,  and  shaded 
with  rows  of  trees  on  each  side,  which  serves  for  an  exchange  to  mer- 
chants and  shipmasters ;  and  on  one  side  are  large  storehouses  for 
goods,  and  granaries  for  corn."1  The  Harbour  works  and  street  im- 
provements have  long  ago  swept  away  the  trees,  but  some  of  the  ware- 
houses remain. 

On  the  north  end  of  the  MURRAYGATE,  an  old  house  once  looked 
directly  east,  which  was  taken  down  to  make  way  for  Panmure 
Street.  To  this  house  there  was  a  lofty  outside  staircase,  on  the 
top  of  which  stood  formerly  a  turret,  containing  a  clock  and  bell,  for 
the  benefit  of  that  part  of  the  town.  When  St  Andrew's  Church 
was  erected  in  1772,  the  clock  was  for  a  time  placed  in  the  steeple, 
and  the  bell  sold  to  Colonel  Hunter  of  Burnside,  who  took  it  to 
Broughty  Ferry ;  and,  when  the  church  there  was  erected  in  1826, 
his  son,  General  David  Hunter,  bestowed  it  for  the  use  of  the  con- 
gregation. When  sent  next  year  to  Messrs  Carmichael's  Foundry,  at 
the  West  Ward,  to  be  re-cast,  the  bell  was  found  to  bear  the  following 
inscription  in  Eoman  capitals  : — 

"  Gloria,  in.  altissimis.  Deos.  Monvmentvm.  hoc.  Testimonio.  amoris. 
ne.pro.  vrbe.  Taodvana.  fieri,  fed.  Georgivs.  Gardine.  ivnior.  Margarita 
Gardine.  conivnx.  ne.  mar.  M.O.D.  6  Ivtti.  1636" 

At  the  -  point  where  the  "  narrow  of  the  Murraygate  "  merges  into 
the  broader  portion  of  the  thoroughfare,  a  public  well  stood  until  a 
few  years  ago,  known  as  the  "Dog-well."  It  was  set  up  in  1749,  by 
Mr  Alexander  Doig,  a  merchant  in  the  neighbourhood,  who  placed 
the  figure  of  a  dog,  cut  in  stone,  on  the  top,  where  it  remained  till 
1824.  Beside  this  well  there  had  stood  one  of  the  towers  in  the 
1  Brice's  Universal  Dictionary  of  Geography,  folio,  London,  1759. 


1  -  '"•  HUTORT  OF  DUNDU. 


ancient  town  wall,  called  Mauchline  Tower ;  but  how  it  came  to  bo 
associated  with  the  eeoondary  title  of  the  noble  family  of  London  doea 
not  appenr.  The  tower  waa  not  wholly  crated  till  after  1812,  when  a 
Mr  Hackney  erected  a  block  of  dwellings  on  iU  site,  in  the  lower  flat 
of  which  the  Commercial  Bank  waa  first  located,  in  1825.  The  sola 
memorial  of  the  Mauchline  Tower  w  now  the  adjoining  court,  which 
bean  ita  name. 

At  the  north  end  of  the  Morraygate,  but  on  the  east  aide  and  within 
the  Port,  stood  the  town  residence  of  Mrs  Gilea  Gall,  the  first  Lady  of 
Claverhouse  of  the  family  of  Grahame,  who  occupied  it  at  and  before 
the  year  1565.  From  her  sprung  the  celebrated  Viscount  of  Dundee. 

From  the  port  or  gate  at  this  end  of  the  Murray  gate,  the  Cow- 
OATB  strikes  off  eastward,  until  it  terminates  a  few  yards  beyond 
the  Port  in  an  arched  gateway,  the  sole  relic  of  the  ancient  fortifica- 
tions, and  from  the  top  of  which  it  is  believed  George  Wiahart 
preached  in  the  time  of  the  plague,1  There  is  some  reason  to  doubt 
however,  whether  this  could  be  the  gate  in  question,  as  Wiahart  aut 
fered  in  1546,  while  it  would  appear  that  the  fortifications  of  the  town 
were  not  commenced  until  late  in  the  following  year,  and  hence  it 
must  have  been  the  gate  which  stood  at  the  top  of  Fintry'a,  now  the 
Sugarhmise  Wynd,  where  the  martyr  preached.  Previous  to  1547 
and  1548,  the  only  defences  the  town  possessed  were  the  courage  of 
the  inhabitants,  and  a  gate  at  each  end  of  the  street,  uniting  tin- 
houses  on  the  opposite  sides  ;  and,  when  the  fortification*  were  > 
plcted,  the  gate  at  Fintry's  Wynd  became  the  gate  in  the  inner  wall, 
as  the  present  Cowgate  Port  was  that  in  the  outer.  Several  applica- 
cations  have  from  time  to  time  been  made  to  the  Council  to  have  this 
time-honoured  relic  of  a  bygone  age  removed,  on  the  plea  that  it  nar- 
rowed and  incommoded  the  street ;  but  these  applications  have  always 
been  met  with  a  negative — respect  for  the  memory  of  the  martyr, 
and  the  affectionate  services  rendered  by  him  to  the  inhabitants,  being 
specially  urged  aa  reasons  for  its  retention.  Years  ago,  it  was  proposed 
to  erect  some  statue  or  memorial  of  WUhart  at  the  Port,  but,  like  many 
other  magnificent  designs  that  have  been  formed  in  the  town,  it  never 
took  practical  shape.  Something  after  all  has  been  dono  by  the 
United  Presbyterian  body,  who,  in  1841,  erected  a  neat  chapel  with- 
out the  Port,  with  the  name  and  date,  "  Wisaurr  CHTJBCH,  MOOOCXLI," 
inscribed  on  a  marble  tablet  in  the  front  wall 
>  BM  anU,  p.  47. 


THE  COWGATR  187 

In  the  year  1756,  the  Cowgate  was  poorly  built  and  as  poorly 
tenanted,  consisting  chiefly  of  gardens  and  old  Avails,  apparently  the 
remains  of  former  edifices,  as  there  is  good  evidence  that  in  1560  tha 
street  was  better  built,  though  the  buildings  were  chiefly,  if  not 
wholly  of  wood.  In  the  former  year,  a  house  which  had  been  recently 
erected  at  the  top  of  Fintry's  Wynd,  and  another  near  the  Port  Well, 
were  the  only  inhabited  tenements  on  the  south  side ;  while  on  the 
north  there  were  only  the  Trades'  Hall,  such  as  it  then  was,  and  a 
few  mean  cottages,  occupied  by  some  weavers  and  their  families. 
Certain  small  courts  that  communicate  with  the  Cowgate  contain  now 
more  inhabitants  than  did  the  whole  street  in  the  middle  of  last  cen- 
tury. The  storm  of  the  town  by  Monk,  in  1651,  is  the  probable 
cause  why  this  part  of  the  town  had  been  so  backward  in  the  march 
of  improvement,  as  it  is  believed  to  have  been  here  that  the  assault 
was  made,  and  the  greatest  desolation  effected. 

The  general  disposition  of  the  older  thoroughfares  and  landmarks  of 
the  town  was  sought  to  be  conveyed  in  a  quaint  "  Description  of  the 
County  of  Angus"  published,  in  Latin,  in  1678,  from  the  pen  of  Mr 
Edward,  the  minister  of  the  neighbouring  parish  of  Murroes,  from 
which  the  following  translation,  by  James  Thomson,  may  be  quoted 
to  close  this  section  : — 

"  The  town  is  divided  into  four  principal  streets,  which  we  may  suppose  to 
represent  a  human  body,  stretched  on  its  back,  with  its  arms  towards  the  west, 
and  its  legs  towards  the  east.  The  steeple  represents  the  head,  with  an  enormous 
neck,  rising  upwards  of  eighteen  storeys,  into  the  clouds  and  surrounded  with 
two  battlements  or  galleries,  one  in  the  middle,  and  another  at  the  top,  like  a 
crown  adorning  the  head — whose  loud-sounding  tongue  daily  calls  the  people  to 
worship.  The  right  hand  is  stretched  forth  to  the  poor,  for  there  is  a  large  and 
well-furnished  hospital  on  that  side  ;  but  the  left  hand,  because  nearer  to  the 
heart,  i»  more  elevated  towards  heaven  than  the  right — indicating  a  devout  mind 
panting  after  celestial  joys.  In  the  inmost  recesses  of  the  breast  stand  the  sacred 
temples  of  God.  On  the  left  breast  is  a  Christian  burying-place,  richly  and 
piously  ornamented,  that  the  pious  dead  may  be  long  held  in  veneration  and 
esteem.  In  the  belly  is  the  market-place,  at  the  middle  of  which  is  the  '  cross,' 
like  the  navel  in  the  body.  Below  the  loins  stand  the  shambles,  which,  as  they 
are  in  a  proper  place,  so  are  they  very  neat  and  convenient,  having  a  hidden 
stream  of  fresh  water,  which  (after  wandering  through  the  pleasant  meadows  on 
the  left),  runs  under  them  ;  and  which  having  thus,  as  it  were,  scoured  the  veins 
and  intestines  of  the  town,  is  afterwards  discharged  into  the  river.  Here  the 
thighs  and  legs  are  separated.  The  sea  approaching  the  right,  invites  to  the 
trade  and  commerce  of  foreign  countries  ;  and  the  left  limb,  separated  from  the 
thigh  a  full  step,  points  to  home  trade,  in  the  northern  parts  of  the  country." 


II. 


THE  ANCIENT  CHTIECH  AND  TOWER  OP  ST.  MART. 

HAVING  described  what  may  be  called  the  minor  ecclesiastical  antiqui- 
ties, we  now  propose  to  give  an  account  of  an  edifice  of  a  higher  rank, 
which  in  former  times  was  regarded  as  the  glory  of  Dundee,  and  the 
surviving  fragment  of  which  is  still  an  object  of  pride  to  every  native, 
and  of  admiration  to  every  stranger  who  surveys  its  noble  proportions. 
The  Church  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  has  long  ago  disappeared,  by  the 
violence  of  warfare  or  the  flames  ;  but  the  great  Tower  has  outlived 
human  and  elemental  violence,  and  restored,  as  it  has  been  by  rever- 
ent and  skilful  hands,  stands  in  something  like  its  pristine  grandeur, 
to  recal  the  memories  of  the  past,  and  gather  round  it  the  associations 
of  the  present  and  future  generations  of  Dundee. 

The  story  of  its  foundation,  by  David  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  in  ful- 
filment of  a  vow  made  on  his  return  from  the  Crusades,1  has  been  so 
frequently  repeated,  and  possesses  moreover  that  air  of  romantic  interest 
which  commends  it  to  popular  belief,  that  it  almost  seems  a  pity  to 
disturb  the  illusion.  But  the  historian,  who  aims  at  presenting  a 
truthful  narrative,  must  not  evade  the  duty  of  eliminating  fact  from 
fiction,  and  presenting  the  sober  truth  in  preference  to  legendary 
stories,  highly  seasoned  with  the  marvellous,  and  having  nothing  to 
support  them  but  constant  reiteration.  In  opposition,  therefore,  to 
the  belief  hitherto  accepted,  we  venture  to  affirm  that  the  Earl  of 
Huntingdon  was  certainly  not  the  founder  of  the  edifice,  of  which  the 
western  tower  remains  to  us ;  and  as  the  question  is  of  considerable 
interest,  the  evidence  which  can  be  adduced  in  rapport  of  this  state- 
ment may  be  briefly  submitted. 

In  the  first  place,  it  may  be  mentioned  that  the  story  of  Earl  David's 
1  8w  anu,  p.  19. 


ST   MARY'S     TOWER        SIR  G-G.SCOTT'5    DESIGN  FOR 


TRADITION  AS  TO  FOUNDER.  189 

shipwreck,  the  vow,  and  fulfilment  of  it  in  the  erection  of  St  Mary's 
at  Dundee,  originated  with  Boece,  since  whose  day  it  has  been  merely 
copied  and  re-copied,  without  doubt  or  enquiry,  into  other  works,  until, 
by  the  force  of  iteration,  it  has  come  to  be  accepted  without  challenge. 
As  Boece's  History  was  published  in  1526 — more  than  three  centuries 
after  the  event  described — it  is  obvious  that  he  could  only  have  ob- 
tained his  material  in  one  of  two  ways — either  from  writings  then 
accessible,  or  from  floating  tradition.  No  previous  writer,  such  as 
Fordun  or  "Wynton,  and  none  of  the  archives  of  the  great  religious 
houses  of  St  Andrews,  Arbroath,  or  Brechin,  make  any  allusion  to 
Boece's  story,  so  that  we  are  in  a  manner  shut  up  to  the  alternative  of 
tradition  as  the  source  of  it.  It  seemed  to  be  the  fashion  of  the  times 
to  associate  the  foundation  of  every  important  religious  building  with 
some  unusual  occurrence,  and  where  recourse  was  not  had  to  a  miracle, 
some  legendary  marvel  supplied  its  place.  It  is  too  well  known  that  from 
this  vague  and  dubious  source  Boece  drew  much  of  his  matter,  so  that 
his  unsupported  statement  carries  little  or  no  weight.  He  is  an  author 
whom  succeeding  writers  might  copy,  but  would  not  quote.  Lord 
Hailes,  an  author  of  a  very  different  stamp,  and  whose  work  is  well 
known  as  a  model  of  learning  and  research,  gives  the  gist  of  the  story 
from  Boece,  but  with  the  important  substitution  of  Lindores  for  Dun- 
dee. Here  is  the  passage  : — "  Many  were  the  disasters  of  this  zealous 
prince.  Shipwrecked  on  the  coast  of  Egypt,  he  was  made  captive. 
His  rank  unknown,  he  was  purchased  by  a  Venetian,  who  brought 
him  to  Constantinople ;  there  some  English  merchants  accidentally 
recognised  him ;  they  redeemed  and  sent  him  home.  After  having 
surmounted  various  difficulties,  he  was  in  imminent  danger  of  a  second 
shipwreck  on  the  coast  of  Scotland.  He  ascribed  his  deliverance  to  the 
Virgin  Mary,  and,  in  memory  of  her  efficacious  intercession,  founded 
a  monastery  at  Lindores,  in  Fife.  There  is  nothing  incredible  in 
this  story ;  yet  the  evidence  of  it  is  somewhat  suspicious.1" 

The  suspicion  does  not  apply,  however,  to  the  founding  of  the 
Abbey  at  Lindores  by  the  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  and  which  he  dedi- 
cated to  St  Mary  and  St  Andrew.  That  is  matter  of  history,  and 
beyond  all  doubt ;  and  being  so,  it  will  be  at  once  seen,  that,  if  the 
date  (1198)  given  by  Hailes  for  that  foundation  be  correct,  it  is  in 
the  highest  degree  improbable,  to  say  the  least,  that  the  Earl  should 
be  simultaneously  building  another  splendid  votive  church  in  Dundee, 
1  Annals,  vol.  I.,  p.  134. 


r    >  BIBTOBT  OF  DCX DK1. 

dedicated  to  the  Mine  saint1  This  supposition  is  farther  negatived 
by  this  other  ascertained  fact,  that,  about  the  year  1200,  Earl  David 
granted  the  church  of  Dundee,  with  the  tithes  of  the  church  laud*,  to 
the  Abbey  of  Liudores.  This  would  imply  that  our  church  was  thei 
but  a  small  cure,  such  as  might  be  gifted,  along  with  a  score  of  other 
pariah  churches,  to  swell  the  revenues  and  power  of  the  greater  and 
more  favoured  establishment  on  the  other  side  of  the  Tay.  Indeed, 
it  is  ascertained  that  the  church  was  rated  in  the  taxation  at  only 
forty  pounds  Scots,*  a  sum  which,  singularly  enough,  was  afterwards 
assigned  to  defray  the  maintenance  of  a  promising  student  from  Isi- 
dores, while  pursuing  a  theological  coarse  at  tin-  I" Diversity.  From 
these  considerations,  we  are  justified  in  holding  with  Mr  Jervise,  that 
"  there  is  nothing  to  show  that  Earl  David  ever,  in  the  literal  sense  of 
the  word,  founded  a  church  at  Dundee, — the  very  name  of  8t  Mary's 
itself  not  being  met  with  in  any  chart ulary  or  other  writing  until 
about  the  year  1406."* 

Passing  from  the  scanty  documentary  evidence  which  exists  on  the 
subject,  we  shall  next  examine  the  architectural  style  of  the  "  <  >K1 
Steeple,"  fr-'in  which  a  reliable  conclusion  may  bo  arrived  at  as  to 
its  ago.  That  also  justifies  the  statement  that  tho  edifice,  of  which  it 
formed  a  part,  could  not  have  been  reared  in  the  days  of  the  Earl 
of  Huntingdon.  To  enable  the  general  reader  to  appreciate  the 
clusiveness  of  this  argument,  it  may  be  explained  that  the  development 
of  Gothic  architecture  was  in  a  regular  progression,  which  admitted 
of  classification  into  styles  <>r  "  j --rinds,"  having  certain  well-del 
features,  and  each  extending  over  a  space  of  time  which  can  be  fixed 
with  tolerable  certainty.  This  classification  provides  a  basis,  auala- 
gous  to  that  laid  down  in  the  science  of  geology  for  example, 
enabling  one  to  refer  with  confidence  any  particular  example  to  its 
proper  place  in  the  series.  The  large  field  for  generalization  aflui 
by  the  numerous  (Jothk-  IniiMmx.s  of  England  has  enabled  the  cLisai- 
fication  of  styles  to  be  satisfactorily  fixed  for  that  country.  Kvery 

1  It  U  right  to  My,  that  some  writer*  give  1178  M  the  date  of  foundation  of 
Lindorea,  but  apparently  that  U  either  «  tuujirint  or  an  error.  To  aaaume  it 
would  HUM  many  diffioaltiaa,  such  a*  the  youth  of  the  Karl,  and  hit  being  about 
th*t  time  a  hortage  in  England  for  obligation*  undertake  by  his  brother.  King 
William,  to  eay  nothing  of  inooMutency  with  the  known  penud  of  toe  Cruiade, 
from  which  he  had  juct  returned. 

'  Reg.  Kp.  Brechin.  ii.,  \-.  Sid. 

»  MenmriaU,  p.  17V. 


STYLES  OP  GOTHIC  ARCHITECTURE.  191 

country  has,  however,  more  or  less  of  individuality  in  its  architecture, 
and  in  none  is  this  more  marked  than  Scotland  ;  besides  which,  our 
adoption  of  the  successive  styles  was  tardier,  and  the  transitions  were 
more  prolonged,  than  in  the  sister  country.  "  Though  so  near  a  neigh- 
bour, and  so  mixed  up  with  England  in  all  the  relations  of  war  and 
peace,  the  Scotch  never  borrowed  willingly  from  the  English ;  but,  owing 
probably  to  the  Celtic  element  in  the  population,  all  their  affinities  and 
predilections  were  for  continental  nations,  and  especially  for  France. 
So  completely  is  this  the  case,  that  there  is  scarcely  a  single  building 
in  the  country  that  would  not  look  anomalous  and  out  of  place  in 
England ;  and  though  it  is  true  that  the  edifices  are  not  entirely  French 
in  design,  the  whole  taste  and  character  of  them,  is  continental,  though 
wrought  out  in  a  bolder,  and,  generally,  in  a  simpler  and  ruder  fashion, 

than  the  corresponding  examples  in  other  countries The  one 

thing  which  the  Scotch  seem  to  have  borrowed  from  the  English  is 
the  lancet  form  of  window,  which  suited  their  simple  style  so  com- 
pletely that  they  clung  to  it  long  after  its  use  had  been  abandoned  in 
England.  This  circumstance  has  given  rise  to  much  confusion  as  to 
the  dates  of  Scottish  buildings,  antiquarians  being  unwilling  to  believe 
that  the  lancet  windows  of  Elgin  and  other  churches  really  belong  to 
the  middle  of  the  14th  century,  after  England  had  passed  through  the 
phases  of  circle  and  flowing  tracery,  and  were  settling  down  to  the 
sober  constructiveness  of  the  Perpendicular."1  The  retention  of  the 
round  arch,  which  naturally  belonged  to  the  Norman,  through  suc- 
ceeding styles  down  even  to  the  days  of  the  Flamboyant — as  seen  in 
the  doorways  of  St  Giles's,  Edinburgh ;  Balmerino  ;  and  our  own  Tower 
— is  another  distinctive  peculiarity  of  our  Scottish  Gothic.  It  has 
also  been  remarked,  that,  in  our  ecclesiastical  edifices,  features  of  civil 
and  castellated  buildings  were  not  unfrequently  .adopted,  so  that  our 
Tower  has  been  characterised  as  more  like  one  belonging  to  a  conti- 
nental hotel  de  ville  than  a  church.  All  these  minor  variations,  how- 
ever, do  not  interfere  with  the  general  classification  of  the  successive 
styles  which  prevailed  in  Scotland. 

To  convey  a  proper  idea  of  the  subject,  we  submit  a  chronological 
table  of  the  various  styles  of  Gothic  architecture  in  England,  parallel 
with  their  development  in  Scotland.  In  the  former,  the  nomenclature 
of  Eickman  has  been  adopted  as  being  simplest  and  best  known,  but 
with  the  synonyms  of  other  authors  appended : — 

1  .Fergusson's  Architecture,  vol.  iL,  p.  893. 


192 


BJINNaT  Of  DUVDU. 


HHUUTD. 

SCOTLAJfD 

*^     *~ 

**«*«*. 

U«a       ^^ 

^»« 

William  I,     10W 

1057,  Malcolm  III. 

William  II.,  1087 

1095,  Duncan  II. 

Henry  I,       1100 

NOBXAV. 

1098,  Edgar. 

Stephen,        1135 

,.';   " 

^ 

1107,  Alexander  I. 

:*a*a,  Daafcna 

|l_-_ 

Henry  II,      1154 

'•         •     • 

|      • 

1124,  Dand  I. 

HIM. 

Richard  L,    1189 

^ 

1153,  Malcolm  IV. 

nthaany. 

John,             1199 

EARLY  EHGLUH. 

1156,  Wm.  the  Lion. 

;•         -   -    • 

,-,        ;•    :    . 

Henry  III.,    1216 

(Laae*. 

«a«  .    •*    «^A  —  m 

rint  roftfiMQ. 

1214.  Alexander  II. 

Edward  I.,     1272 

PUnUcMMC) 

| 

1249,  Alexander  III. 

Arbroatk.  Kcteo. 

Edward  II.,   1307 

t  DECORATED  Eno. 

1 

M. 

j 

128e,  Margaret 
1292,  John  Baliol. 

C32£ro~' 

Bdward  III.,  1327 

{OwoMtrlcal. 
Middle  pointed. 

2 

•. 

1298,  Wallace,  Regt 

Kdwardiao.) 

" 

- 

13M,  Robert  Brace. 

OMr  Btte.  W 

..     !! 

1329,  Darid  H 

Richard  II.,  1377 
H^nrylV.,    1399 
Henry  V,      1413 
Henry  VI..     1422 
Edward  IV..  14>  1 
Edward  V.    1483 
Richard  1  1  1.,  1483 
Henry  VII  .  1485 
Henry  VII  1,1509 

PnnoroicrLAB. 

(Thlrd-poinUd, 
Tudor,  nortd. 
LaooactriMi.) 

f 

i 

Q 

jj 

- 

1370,  Robert  II. 
1390,  Robert  III. 
1406,  Jamea  L 
1437,  Jameall. 
14«0,  Jamea  III 
1488,  James  IV. 
1513,  Jamea  V. 

.... 

II    .          .' 

Omiialm«Met 
E%in.  Tow 
OtaarwCMba. 

W  &Tl'*a\    Dti^a^HA. 

UaUUvow,  Ovav 

•       : 

,              -'. 

-•        • 

v.  ....     »    . 

The  Decorated  style,  it  will  be  observed,  was  being  developed  in 
England  shortly  before  th<-  War  of  Independence.  Daring  that  pro- 
tracted and  heroic  struggle,  tin-  wln>le  energies  of  the  Scottish  people 
were  devoted  to  sterner  duties  than  the  erection  or  embellinhmont  of 
public  building*,  and  a  great  gap  therefore  occurs  in  our  architecture, 
until  some  yean  of  peace  had  supervened  upon  the  decisive  battle  of 
Bannockburn  (1314).  The  Decorated  Vtyle  was  then  taken  up,  but 
in  a  feebler  spirit,  that  told  of  the  impoverished  state  to  which  the 
sacrifices  of  the  war  had  reduced  the  country.  The  English  types,  too, 
gave  place  to  a  distinctly  foreign  influence — the  outcome  evidently  of 
the  closer  intercourse  with  France  and  the  Low  Countries ;  so  that, 
whilt-  th-  l.uglidli  IVijx-mlkular  is  scarcely  represented — the  east  end 


I                                             PECULIARITIES  OF  SCOTTISH  GOTHIC.  193 

of  Melrose  (circa  1460)  being  almost  the  only  example — the  Conti- 
nental Flamboyant,  which  never  took  root  in  England,  became  the 
dominant  style  in  Scotland.  This  style  is  characterised,  amongst  other 
features,  by  the  waving  flame-like  forms  of  the  tracery,  the  prevalence 
of  circular  windows,  the  retention  of  the  round  arch  in  doorways,  and 
elaborately  pierced  parapets.  It  is  also  to  be  remarked,  that,  "  during 
the  1 5th  century,  the  figure  of  the  blessed  Virgin,  bearing  in  her  arms 
the  infant  Saviour,  occupied  much  more  frequently  a  prominent  posi- 
tion on  the  exterior  of  churches,  in  a  niche  over  the  portal,  or  in  a 
niche  in  the  western  wall  of  the  towers Sculptured  represen- 
tations of  the  Annunciation,  and  of  the  Lily  Pot,  the  symbol  of  purity, 
which  was  considered  an  emblem  of  the  blessed  Virgin,  were  not 
uncommon."1  We  need  scarcely  point  out  how  distinctly  the  above 
and  other  peculiarities  of  this  late  style  appear  in  St  Mary's  Tower. 
The  church  at  Linlithgow  contains  a  window  with  tracery  of  the 
Scotch  Flamboyant  style,  unsurpassed  for  the  elegance  of  its  design, 
of  which  Dunkeld  had  a  duplicate,2  and  which  has  been  found  in 
almost  identical  form  in  the  Lamberti  Kirche  at  Munster,  and  else- 
where in  Westphalia  f  while  the  large  circular  window  of  our  Tower 
may  be  described  as  a  simplified  reproduction  of  that  in  the  west  front 
of  St  Pierre  at  Caen,  in  Normandy. 

Having  fixed  their  character,  let  us  now  examine  the  dates  of 
Scottish  churches,  which,  from  their  coincidence  of  style — the  late 
Decorated  verging  into  the  Flamboyant — may  be  held  to  be  contem- 
poraneous with  St  Mary's.  Linlithgow  and  Dunkeld  belong  to  the 
latter  end  of  the  15th  century.  The  former  had  its  Tower  finished 
with  flying  buttresses  supporting  an  open  lantern,  in  imitation,  it  is 
supposed,  of  the  ancient  Scottish  Crown  ;  but  which,  in  recent  times, 
was  removed  as  insecure.  St  Giles's,  at  Edinburgh,  a  well  known 
example  of  the  same  style,  dates,  for  the  Choir  (now  High  Church) 
and  Tower,  from  the  reign  of  James  II.,  1 437-1460  ;4  King's  College 
at  Aberdeen,  was  finished  so  late  as  the  early  part  of  the  16th  century  ; 
and  St  Nicholas  at  Newcastle — the  last  of  the  crowned  towers,  the- 
only  one  known  out  of  Scotland — was  completed  about  1450.  The 

1  Bloxam's  Gothic  Arch.,  8th  ed.,  p.  290. 

1  This  may  be  accounted  for  by  the  circu instance  that  Bishop  Brown,  of  Dun- 
keld, was  also  vicar  of  Linlithgow  at  the  time  of  its  completion  (1484-1514). 
s  Fergusson,  vol.  II.,  p.  911. 

*  The  crown,  which  had  become  dilapidated  and  dangerous,  was  rebuilt  in  1644. 
N 


194  B1HTORT  Or  DUICDtt. 


crown  of  the  last-named  work  is  accepted  by  all  good  judges  M  the 
BMicut  to  what  our  Dundee  Tower  WM  originally  designed,  and, 
accordingly,  Sir  O.  Scott  propose*  to  reproduce  it,  with  a  change  ot 
the  angle  piunadM  from  octagon  to  square,  and  some  other  unimport- 
ant modifications  in  detail. 

The  concurrence  of  these  examples  of  square  towers,  identical  in 
general  style,  and  exhibiting  in  particular  that  peculiar  finish,  leave* 
no  reasonable  doubt  that  our  Tower  must  be  referred  to  the  same 
period  in  which  they  were  erected  This  view  might  be  further  sup- 
ported by  reference  to  numerous  other  churches,  which  exhibit  the 
same  late  Decorated  or  Flamboyant  features,  and  agree  historically 
with  the  recognised  time  in  which  that  style  prevailed.  We  shall 
only  mention  King's  College  Chapel,  Aberdeen  ;  Brechin  ;  St  John's, 
Perth  ;  St  Monan's  ;  Corstorpnine  (1429) ;  Trinity  College  Church, 
Edinburgh  (1470);  Haddington  (1290);  Seton;  Paisley  (1445),  Ac, 
Roslin  Chapel  (1466)  is  an  example  which  stands  by  itself;  but,  in  the 
exuberance  of  its  ornamentation,  many  details,  identical  with  those 
found  elsewhere,  may  be  detected — as,  for  instance,  the  small  buttress 
niches,  the  corbels  of  which  are  segment-aided,  a  peculiarity  which  is 
found  also  in  our  Tower.1  In  the  case  of  Roslin,  the  foreign  influence 
is  directly  traceable,  William  St  Clair,  the  founder,  baring  brought 
the  workmen  specially  from  the  north  of  Spain,  where  it  is  ascerti 
French  Freemasons  had  been  extensively  employed*  These  bands  of 
masons,  it  is  well  known,  moved  from  place  to  place,  establishing  their 
"  lodges"  at  the  scene  of  their  labours.  Masons'  "marks"  are  to  be 
found  on  St  Mary's  Tower  identical  with  those  found  on  other  build- 
ings in  the  South  of  Scotland,  which  both  accounts  for  similarity  of 
details,  and  strengthens,  if  that  were  needed,  the  argument  for  fixing 
the  age  of  a  particular  edifice  from  that  of  others  presenting  similar 
features. 

»  We  should  rather  say  they  wtn  so  ;  for  Mr  Soutt  has,  in  restoring  the* 
niches,  departed  from  UM  original*,  by  nuking  the  corbel*  all  straight-aided.  As 
Tery  alight  details  are  often  of  great  value  in  Boolssiologiesl  discussions,  we  ap- 
prehend few  will  approve  the  liberty  thus  taken 

'"  We  are  not  left  to  infer  the  influence  which  France  exercised  upon  Scottish 
the  similarity  or  identity  of  style :  we  have  record  of 


who  had  oversight  of  the  chief  temples  of  the  north.  A  rhymed 
inscription,  on  the  south  transept  of  Melrose,  relates  that  John  Murdo, 4  born  in 
Parys  oertaynely,  had  the  charge  of  St  Andrews,  Glasgow,  Melrose,  Paisley,  sad 
the  abbeys  of  NithsdaJe  and  Galloway."-  QmarltHf  Muum,  Jon* 


DATE  OF  ERECTION.  195 

The  conclusion  at  which  we  arrive,  from  the  comparison  of  style, 
and  collation  of  ascertained  dates  of  contemporaneous  edifices  in  Scot- 
land, is  that  the  Tower  of  St  Mary's,  so  far  from  belonging  to  the 
time  of  David,  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  must  be  assigned  to  the  period  of 
the  Jameses,  most  probably  the  first  half  of  the  fifteenth  century.  At 
the  same  time,  it  may  be  observed  that,  where  a  western  tower  formed 
part  of  the  design  for  a  church,  it  was  usually  the  last  portion  to  b* 
built,  and  thus  the  main  body  of  the  edifice  might  have  been  of  an 
earlier  style.  St  Mary's  followed  the  orthodox  plan  of  such  structures, 
in  taking  the  form  of  a  Latin  cross,  having  its  greatest  length  from 
east  to  west,  and  consisting  of  Chancel  or  Lady  Chapel,  Choir,  Tran- 
septs, and  Nave,  terminating  with  the  western  Tower.  It  was  cus- 
tomary to  commence  with  the  eastern  end  or  head  of  the  cross  ;  and, 
when  the  choir  was  finished  down  to  the  Transepts,  that  portion  was 
used  for  the  celebration  of  divine  service.  The  remaining  sections 
were  proceeded  with,  often  after  the  lapse  of  many  years,  as  necessity 
arose,  or  the  funds  could  be  provided;1  and  "hence  considerable  diver- 
sity of  style  appears  in  almost  every  edifice  of  any  magnitude.  It  has, 
indeed,  been  supposed  that  a  chapel  occupied  part  of  the  site  of  St 
Mary's  Church,2  and,  being  converted  into  the  Chancel,  formed  the 
nucleus  of  the  larger  structure,  to  which  the  Transept,  Nave,  and  other 
parts  were  added  to  complete  the  cruciform  figure  ;  but  this  is  mere 
conjecture,  and  the  probabilities  are  against  it.  The  more  likely  sup- 
position is,  that  the  eastern  portions  were  commenced  from  thirty  to 
fifty  years  prior  to  the  completion  of  the  Tower — say,  during  the  latter 
years  of  the  fourteenth  century,  which  accords  with  the  earliest  au- 
thentic notice  of  the  fabric.  In  that  case  the  choir  and  chancel  would 
be  of  early  Decorated,  possibly  of  a  transitional  character  from  Early 
English,  while  the  Transepts  and  Nave  might  present  a  later  Decorated 
character,  approaching  that  of  the  Tower  itself. 

Owing  to  the  limited  extent  of  the  town,  which  then  extended  no 
further  .westward  than  the  present  High  Street,  the  church  was  erected 
in  the  fields  outside  the  western  gates,  and  for  a  long  period  was  desig- 
nated the  •''  Kirk  in  the  fields."  In  some  titles  of  property,  in  the 

1  The  Metropolitan  Cathedral  of  St  Andrews,  begun  in  1159,  was  not  completed, 
through  various  causes,  until  1318. 

2  A  chapel,  dedicated  to  St  Mary,  is  believed,  on  good  grounds,  to  have  stood 
not  far  from  the  present  churches,  on  the  east  side  of  Couttie's  Wynd,  and  this 
may  h  ,ve  been  the  old  St  Mary's  referred  to 


196  HWTO«T  OF  DtTITDO. 

Nethergate,  Mill  extant,  to  which  the  churchyard  was  a  bonndanr,  the 
church  WM  called  bj  that  name  so  late  a*  the  beginning  of  the  aeren- 
teenth  century.  The  dimensions  of  the  original  edifice,  when  entire, 
can  be  approximately  stated,  and  are  here  given,  along  with  thoee  of 
other  cathedral  or  collegiate  churches  in  Scotland  : — 


liiit1 


St  MaryX  Dundee, ...  250*     120      M      64     174       44     146 

8t  Mary'a,  Landcree, 240 

Bdmetino  Abbey  Church, 235  M  185      52 

ArbroAth  Abbey  Church, 284 

Melrwe  Abbey  Church, 258  69  115 

Duddingtoo  Collegia*  Church, .....  210  62  110  90 

StGil^X  Edinburgh,  Collegiate  Church,  206  76  129  156 

I.inlithgow  CollegUt*  Church,.... 187  105 

Gkugow  Cathedral  Church, 288 

DunbUne  Cathedral  Church, 216  56 

•  Exclu»iv«  of  Tow«r,  which  would  add  other  M  feet. 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  above  that  St  Mary's,  in  point  of  size,  hold 
an  honourable  place  in  comparison  with  even  the  moat  celebrated 
ecclesiastical  edifices  in  Scotland  ;  nor  is  the  itlea  of  its  importance 
diminished  when  we  come  to  enumerate  the  chaplainries  connected 
with  it,  and  the  numerous  altars  before  which  tin-  sen ice*  of  the  old 
faith  were  celebrated  within  its  walla.  From  various  sources,  more  or 
leas  authentic,  we  have  compiled  the  following  particulars  of  the 

FOUNDATIONS  THAT  WERE  WITHIN  THE  CHURCH  OF  THE 
BLESSED  VIRGIN. 

I.  Chantry  of  our  Lady  and  St  George  the  Martyr,  ami  Altar  of 
All  Saints. — In  the  year  1398,  Sir  David  Lindsay  of  Olenesk,  knight, 
the  first  Earl  of  Crawford,  having  been  victorious  in  a  tournament  at 
L 'ii< Ion  Bridge,  on  the  festival  of  St  George,  the  tutelary  Saint  of 
land,  founded  and  endowed  in  this  church,  in  December  1406,  a 
chantry  of  five  priests  or  vicars  choral,  which  he  dedicated  to  the 
honour  of  our  Lady  of  Victory  and  St  George  the  Martyr,  in  remem- 
1  trance  of  his  prowess.  At  the  same  time,  he  also  founded  an  altar, 
which  he  dedicated  to  the  memory  of  All  Saints,  at  which  he  appointed 
two  cliajjlaina  to  officiate,  and  endowed  both  the  chantry  ami  this 


FOUNDATIONS  "WITHIN*  ST  MART'S.  197 

altar  with  an  annual  stipend  of  forty  merks,  payable  out  of  his  dwel- 
ling-house, called  the  "  Earl's  Lodging,"  which  stood  at  the  foot  of 
Union  Street  The  other  endowments  of  the  choristers,  separate  from. 
All  Saints,  in  so  far  as  our  means  of  information  extend,  are  as 
follow  : — 

At  the  foundation  of  the  choir,  the  noble  founder  granted  annually, 
and  for  ever,  for  its  support,  twelve  merks,  payable  out  of  his  lands  of 
the  Kirktown,  and  Halltown,  or  Hatton  of  Inverarity,  near  Forfar ; 
twelve  merks,  payable  out  of  his  lands  of  Aberbothrie  (now,  we  be- 
lieve, called  Balmyle),  near  Meigle  ;  twelve  merks,  payable  out  of  his 
lands  of  Balgray,  Megginch,  and  Barony-mill  of  Megginch,  all  in  the 
parish  of  Errol ;  and  twelve  merks,  payable  out  of  lands  of  Dunfin, 
Dounie,  and  Mill  of  Dounie,  all  in  the  barony  of  Dounie,  and  parish 
of  Monikie.  Each  of  these  grants  was  conveyed  by  a  separate  charter, 
and  each  was  separately  confirmed  by  Robert,  Duke  of  Albany,  Regent 
of  the  kingdom,  under  his  seal  of  office,  being  all  dated  at  Perth  ou 
the  same  day,  the  24th  February,  1406.  Besides  these,  the  choristers 
had  revenues  amounting  to  £83  2s.  lid.,  which  were  drawn  out  of 
the  profits  of  certain  houses  and  properties,  situated  at  different  places 
in  the  town  and  elsewhere.  Of  this  sum,  however,  a  part,  amounting 
to  £1  5s.  4d.,  was  payable  out  of  the  Mill  of  Ballumbie  ;  £1  10s.  out 
of  the  Laird  of  Fin  try's  mill,  and  a  merk,  or  12s.  4d.,  out  of  the  mill 
of  one  of  his  tenants,  both  at  Mains.  The  gross  income  of  the  choir, 
so  far  as  known,  including  the  moiety  of  forty  merks  granted  by  the 
founder,  was  £128  9s.  7d.,  averaging  to  each  of  the  choristers  an  an- 
nuity of  £15  12s.  9d. 

II.  St  Andrew  the  Apostle. — In  the  beautifully  groined  vault,  which 
formed  the  east  end  of  the  south  or  front  aisle  of  the  Chancel,  there 
were  a  chapel  and  an  altar,  dedicated  to  the  honour  of  St  Andrew  the 
Apostle  and  national  tutelary.     At  what  time  and  by  whom  they  were 
erected  we  cannot  say,  neither  can  we  state  how  the  chaplain  was 
endowed,  farther  than,  at  the  Reformation,  the  revenues,  as  ascer- 
tained by  the  mort  ancient  existing  Rent  Roll  of  the  town's  property, 
amounted  to  only  £13  13s.  6d. 

III.  The  Rood  or  Holy  Gross. — There  is  nothing  known  concerning 
the  founder  or  foundation  of  this  altar,  beyond  the  somewhat  dubious 
fact  of  its  having  occupied  one  of  the  arches  of  the  Chancel ;  and  all 
that  is  known  relative  to  its  endowments  is,  that  they  amounted  to 
only  £9  16s.  8d.,  arising  from  certain  properties  in  the  town.    Of  this 


10-  HfflTOBT  OF  DOTtt>n. 

paltry  provision,  an  annuity  of  £1  6s.  8d.  was  paid  by  the  Laird  of 
Fmtry  out  of  his  mill  at  Mains. 

IV.  The  Holy  Blood.— Tbi*  was,  perhaps,  the  last  altar  or  ehapelry 
which  was  founded  within  the  church,  or  within  the  town,  before  the 
Reformation  ;  but,  as  the  particulars  concerning  it  are  fully  stated  in 
the  Merchant's  Letter  or  Charter  of  the  Guildry,  it  is  unnecessary  to 
repeat  them  here. 

These  four  foundations,  with  the  exception  of  the  doubt  expressed 
in  connection  with  No.  IIL,  are  all  that  are  known  with  certainty  to 
have  been  within  the  church  before  the  Reformation,  as  t'tere  wen 
none  founded  after  that  era,  although  Sir  George  Douglas  says  there 
is  a  charter  under  the  Great  Seal,  dated  19th  February,  1589,  for  the 
support  of  a  chaplain  in  the  Church  of  Dundee,  but  we  suspect  the 
date  is  a  misprint  for  1389,  or,  perhaps,  1489.  Besides  those  above 
mentioned,  there  were  other  four  altars,  which,  as  their  sites  cannot  be 
traced  to  any  particular  point  in  the  town,  it  is  possible  may  have 
been  erected  within  the  Church ;  but  as  this  is  a  matter  wholly  uncer- 
tain, we  shall  content  ourselves  with  stating  their  names  and  the 
value  of  each  living  at  the  Reformation.  1st,  St  John  the  Baptist, 
living.  £17  138.  4d  ;  of  this  sum  £4  were  an  annuity  paid  out  of 
Trotti.  k  Mill  by  the  Laird  of  Wester  Powrie.  2d,  St  Agatha,  living, 
£1 1  Gs.  8d.  3d,  St  Catherine  of  Sienna,  living,  £9  18s.  4d.  4th,  St 
Ninian,  living,  £8  14s.  lOd. 

The  exact  position  of  the  various  chapels  and  altars  within  the 
Church  cannot  now  be  determined  ;  but,  from  casual  allusions  to  several 
of  them,  the  known  position  of  similar  foundations,  in  contemporary 
churches  and  other  data,  it  is  believed  that  the  accompanying  ground- 
plan  of  the  Church,  in  which  an  attempt  is  made  for  the  first  time  to 
indicate  these  and  other  arrangements  of  the  ancient  edifice,  is  at  least 
an  approximation  to  the  truth.  It  is  confessedly  a  work  of  difficulty 
thus  to  recal  the  features  of  a  building  of  which  every  fragment  ha* 
long  been  obliterated,  and  some  of  these  features  must  be  regarded 
only  as  probabilities,  derived  from  the  study  of  contemporaneous 
buildings  of  the  same  class.  One  of  these,  the  rlirrvt  or  open  apse, 
surrounded  by  an  aisle  having  chapels  grouped  around  it.  i«  a  sugges- 
tion based  upon  French  models.  This  beautiful  feature  grew  out  of 
the  practice  of  enlarging  the  small  ancient  chapel,  by  piercing  its  waBs 
to  communicate  with  an  encircling  aisle,  and  adding  the  choir  portion 
to  the  west  end.  The  latter  was  used  for  the  accommodation  of  the 


THE  ORIGINAL  CHURCH.  199 

people,  while  the  original  chapel  became  the  sacred  shrine  of  tomb  or 
relic — the  Holy  of  Holies,  in  which  the  clergy  celebrated  high  rites 
and  prayed  apart.  Later,  this  arrangement  formed  the  model  of  new 
churches  ;  and,  although  we  profess  no  favour  for  traditions  as  such, 
it  may  be  conceded  that  the  one  already  noticed,  relating  to  an  early 
existing  sanctuary  on  the  site  of  St  Mary's,  gives  some  colour  to  the 
chevet  arrangement  introduced  into  our  plan. 

Having  set  aside  the  traditional  account  of  the  building  of  the 
Church,  it  would  have  been  satisfactory  if  we  could  oifer  an  authentic 
narrative  of  its  erection,  but  unfortunately  no  records  can  be  found  for 
such  a  task.     Ecclesiologists  have  the  same  confession  to  make  regard- 
ing almost  every  one  of  the  ancient  ecclesiastical  edifices  of  Scotland ; 
nor  is  this  to  be  wondered  at  when  it  is  remembered  that,  generally 
speaking,  churchmen  were  the  designers,   and   migrating   bands  of 
craftsmen  the  rearers  of  these  medieval  works.     Any  chronicles,  there- 
fore, which  would  throw  light  upon  their  erection,  are  to  be  sought 
for  in  the  archives  of  the  mother  abbeys  or  cathedrals  ;  yet  even  in 
regard  to  famous  places  like  St  Andrews,  Arbroath,  or  Glasgow,  asso- 
ciated with  the  names  of  such  dignitaries  as  Lamberton,   Bethune, 
and  Wischart,  the  Registers  that  have  been  preserved  contain  little  to 
dispel  the  uncertainty  which  invests  the  subject.     We  have  already 
seen  that  St  Mary's  belonged  in  property  to  the  Abbey  of  Lindores, 
which  drew  the  tithes  of  the  church  lands.    These  included  the  ancient 
burgh ;  and,  in  return,  the  Abbey  undertook  to  maintain  the  vicar, 
and  to  uphold  the  fabric  of  the  choir  as  the  parish  kirk.     "  By  dio- 
cesan and  papal  authority,  it  was  afterwards  arranged  that  the  vicar 
should  receive  the  altarage,  or  the  baptismal,  burial,  and  certain  other 
dues,   instead  of  the  vicarage  teinds  ;  and,  subsequently,  by  consent 
of  the  bishop,  the  burgesses  bound  themselves  to  maintain  the  choir, 
and  the  church  in  general,  on  receiving  an  annuity  of  five  nierks  from 
the  Monastery  of  Lindores."1     This  took  place   in  1442,  and,  as  we 
surmise,  about  the  time  or  not  long  after  the  fabric  had  been  com- 
pleted. -  From  that  date,  frequent  mention  occurs  of  gifts  made  to  the 
magistrates,  in  the  way  of  church  furniture  and  ornaments.     In  1491, 
George  Spalding,  a  wealthy  and  pious  burgess,  presented  some  altar 
plate,  including  "  ane  Ewcaryst  of  syluer  owr  gylt,  ane  gryt  bell,  ane 
syleuer  chalyss  owr  gylt,  ane  new  mess  buyk,  ....  ane  new  war 
stall  to  keip  the  vestiamentis  of  the  hye  altar  in  till,  ane  gryt  kyst,  and 
1  Jervise  :  Memorials,  p.  180. 


BISTORT  OF  ntnrnm 

tweraty  aehi'lngis  of  annuell  rent"— a  proviso  bring  added  that  the 
book  and  chalice  were  only  for  the  service  of  "  the  Lady  preyst"  The 
magistrates  evinced  their  sense  of  the  costliness  of  this  gift  by  requir- 
ing the  officiating  priori  to  exhort  the  people  to  pray  for  Kpalding, 
44  hys  sawll,  hy»  wyf,  and  for  thar  anteceMowria  and  suocessowris,* 
after  his  own  and  his  wife's  death,  and  to  aay  psalms,  and  "  katt  haly 
waiter  on  thar  grawya.  An  annual  man  wai  alao  to  be  aaid  in  the 
choir  of  the  kirk,  with  "  diregeia  and  torchyt  at  the  aawll  meaa  f  and 
they  were  to  "  gar  ring  thar  belli*  of  the  kirk,  and  the  hand-bell  throu 
the  tovne  as  efferis."  The  donor  and  his  successors  were  a'  o  to  have 
"  larys  [graves]  in  the  quer  of  the  kirk,  under  the  farrast  gree  befor 
the  hye  altar."1  This  was  a  concession  which  sufficiently  shows  the 
high  estimation  in  which  Spalding  was  held,  aa  in  early  times  inter- 
ments were  forbM<lon  in  the  Church  ;  and,  after  this  rule  came  to  be 
relaxed,  the  remains  of  high  personages  or  church  dignitaries  only  were 
honoured  with  sepulture  within  the  Church.  The  western  Tower  was 
not  so  scrupulously  preserved,  and  it  is  found,  in  the  case  of  St  Mary's, 
to  be  full  of  human  remains. 

Though  belonging  t»  I. in' lore*  in  property,  the  Church  of  St  Mary's 
was  subject  ecclesiastically  to  the  See  of  Brechin,  and  accordingly  such 
references  as  the  above  are  met  with  in  the  Register  of  that  bishopric. 
The  earliest  recorded  "  person  de  Dundee"  was  William  of  Kerneil, 
who  was  alive  in  1214.  Down  to  1455,  no  other  name  is  found ; 
but  in  that  year  Pope  ( 'alwtus  III.  issued  a  bull  in  favour  of  Gilbert 
Forster,  Archdeacon  of  Brechin,  in  virtue  of  which  he  was  to  suc- 
ceed one  Richard  Craig  in  the  vicarage  of  the  Church  of  Dundee. 
The  only  other  ascertained  incumbent,  before  the  Reformation,  was 
John  Barry,  who  h.-H  th-  cure  about  1490-5.*  With  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Protestant  faith,  the  succession  of  pastors  becomes  more 
readily  traced.  According  to  the  accounts  hitherto  accepted,  the  first 
minister  was  Mr  William  Christ  won  ;  but,  as  we  have  already  shown, 
the  post  was  previously  tilled  by  Paul  Methven.'  His  successor,  Mr 
Christison,  is  described  by  Melville  as  "  a  faithful  pastor,"  and  a  par- 
ticular friend  of  his  elder  brother,  Roger  Melville,  burgess  of  Dundee. 
The  stipend,  in  1567  was  200  merks  (£11  2s.  2]d.) — payable  out  of 
the  thirds  of  the  Abbey  of  Lindores,  and  of  "  Scone,  in  the  barooye 
of  Angus  vnder  the  Bra"  (probably  Kinnochtry  near  Conpar  Angus). 

1  Reg.  Ep.  Brechin,  ii  S16. 
•  Rag.  Kp.  Brechin,  134.  •  8»e  anU,  p.  «1. 


MINISTERS  OF  ST  MART'S.  201 

Besides  Mr  Christison,  who  died  in  1603,  there  was  one  William  Kyd, 
whose  duty  it  was  to  read  prayers  or  Scripture-lessons  within  the  church, 
and  whose  salary  was  the  modest  pittance  of  £40,  Scots  (£3  6s.  8d.) 
The  following  is  the  succession  of  ministers  from  the  Reformation  : — l 

Admitted.  ST  MARY'S  or  FIRST  CHARGE. 

1558. ..PAUL  METHVEN — removed  to  Jedburgh  1560. 

19th  July,     1560. ..WILLIAM  CRTSTESONE — Moderator  General  Assembly,  1569. 
1 4th  March,  1 597 ...  ROBERT  HOWIE — afterwards  Principal  of  St  Mary's,  St  Andrews. 

1606. ..DAVID  LYNDSAT,  A.M. — appointed  Bishop  of  Brechin  1619. 

1626... PATRICK  PAKTER,  A.M. 

1635. ..ANDREW  COLLAGE,  A.M. — deposed  1639. 

,ft,9  (ANDREW  AUCHINLECK,  A.M. — taken  prisoner  to  London  after 

a  I         siege  in  1651. 

25th  Aug.      1664... HENRY  SCRYMSOUR,  A.M. 
6th  Sept.      1699... SAMUEL  JOHNSTONE,  A.M. 
16th  March,  1732. ..THOMAS  DAVIDSON. 

20th  May,      1761. ..ROBERT  SMALL— elected  D.D.  1778,  Mod.  Gen.  Assem.  1791. 
5th  Oct.       1808... ARCHIBALD  M'LACHLAN,  D.D. 
12th  July,      1848... CHARLES  ADIE,  D.D. 
20th  Feb.       1862. ..ARCHIBALD  WATSON,  D.D. — the  present  minister. 

The  choir  and  chancel  portion  of  the  ancient  fabric,  which  we  are 
now  describing,  was  variously  known  as  St  Mary's,  the  East,  and  the 
Old  Church — the  latter,  from  its  being  the  first  of  the  four  divisions  of 
the  complete  structure,  which  was  used  as  a  place  of  worship  accord- 
ing to  the  Reformed  ritual.  After  the  appropriation  of  the  Transept, 
it  acquired^the  name  of  the  "  Eist  Littile  Kirk  "  The  numerous  alter- 
ations made,  at  different  times,  upon  this  portion  so  changed  its  cha- 
racter that  the  original  form  could  scarcely  have  been  recognisable. 
The  spaces  between  the  twelve  piers  which  separated  the  aisles,  were 
all  filled  with  galleries,  resting  on  the  capitals,  with  the  exception  of 
four  in  the  south,  and  one  on  the  north  side.  From  the  Council 
minute  of  10th  January,  1561,  when  a  kirk-master  was  appointed,  it 
appears  that  the  edifice  was  in  very  bad  order,  repairs  were  authorised, 
and  "  na  stanes  or  tymrner  to  lie  in  the  kirkyaird  on  pane  of  confisca- 
tion." Three  years  afterwards,  little  or  no  progress  had  been  made  :  the 
repairs  had  become  so  urgent,  and  funds  so  scarce  for  executing  them, 
that  various  expedients  were  resorted  to,  such  as  the  fines  imposed  on 
delinquents,  special  collections  every  Sunday,  and  privileges  granted 
to  such  craftsmen  as  could  be  found  to  give  their  services.  A  "  glasin 
wricht"  was  rewarded  with  a  "maill-free"  house  or  lodging,  forrepair- 

1  These  lists  are  mostly  compiled  from  Dr  Scott's  great  work — Fasti  Ecclesice 
Scoticana — vol.  III.,  part  2. 


OF  rrvririt 

ing  the  "glass  woundoki*,"  and  agreeing  to  uphold  them  during  hw 
lifetime,  which  he  found  to  he  no  easy  task,  in  consequence  of 
"bairnis  reclesslie  broking  the  glass."1  In  1581,  special  collection* 
were  again  ordered  for  "  repairation  of  the  kirk,  revestrie,  and  loft  ot 
steple  ;"  and  again,  in  1588-9,  a  vigorous  effort  was  made  to  accom- 
plish certain  repairs,  and  have  "  all  impediment U  within  the  samin 
removit,  and  loftis  maid  therein."  By  what  seems  a  strange  per- 
versity, accommodation  of  a  very  different  sort  was  also  ordered  to  he 
provided  within  the  walls  of  the  church,  as  we  find  by  the  following 
Council  minute,  under  date  Jan.  1588  : — "  The  bail  lie*  and  counsall, 
finding  the  place  of  imprisonment  devyrit  for  fornicatoris  and  adnlt- 
eraris  to  be  very  incommodious,  it  is  concludit  that  there  sail  be  ane 
new  prissoun  biggit  above  the  volt  of  8.  Androis  lyile,  in  the  eisi  end 
of  the  Kirk  for  that  effect,  and  the  present  passage  to  serve  thairto, 
and  hes  nominal  William  Man,  baillie,  attendare  on  that  wark." 

As  the  greater  part  of  the  accommodation  in  this,  the  parish  church, 
belonged  in  property  to  the  heritors,  to  the  various  incorporated  trades, 
and  private  families,  the  galleries  and  pews  exhibited  great  diversity 
of  taste.  The  front  seats  of  some  were  covered  with  coloured  cloths, 
prettily  festooned  and  fringed,  while  those  of  the  Magistrates  and 
Hammermen,  with  the  double-fronted  gallery  of  the  Fraternity  of  Sea- 
men, were  richly  decorated  with  carved  work.  Until  the  year  1834, 
when  the  church  was  thoroughly  cleansed  and  gas  introduced,  numbers 
of  brazen  chandeliers  were  suspended  at  different  places,  and,  when 
all  were  blazing  on  a  winter  evening,  they  produced  a  very  splendid 
effect  The  pulpit  and  desk,  both  covered  with  velvet  of  so  deep  a 
green  as  to  be  almost  black,  were  built  of  oak,  upon  one  of  the  pillars  on 
the  south  side  of  the  middle  aisle,  and  were  ornamented  with  elaborate 

1  "  Ye  Magistrates  and  Counamll  have  duponit  to  yatr  well  belurit  Andrew 
Cowper.  gburin  wright  and  master-eunner,  all  and  haill  ye  biggin,  whilk  ye  amid 
Andro  preeentlie  occupies,  by  and  on  ye  south-east  end  of  ymir  new  fleach-houee, 
with  free  iah  and  entre  yairto,  for  all  ye  dayii  and  space  of  ye  amid  Androwie  lyf- 
time,  bott  ony  rerooatjoun ;  for  ye  whilk  ye  amid  Andrew  Cowpr  has  aehi  himatilf, 
now,  preeentUa  to  mend  and  repair  ye  haill  glaaa  woundouka  of  ye  amid  Paroche 
Kirk  of  yis  burgh,  and  mak  ye  ammen  sufficient,  and  alaua  tall  uphald  ye  ammen 
during  his  Ijfetime,  prowiding  giff  ye  amid  Andro  can  try  ony  pereoune  broken  ye 
amid  glaea  windouka,  or  ony  bairnis  of  yis  burgh  reoklialie  doing  ye  samen,  or  wiJ. 
f  ulie,  yat  ye  amid  bairnis  sail  recompense  and  pay  to  ye  said  Andro  ye  hafl  of  ye 
skayth ;  and  abua  the  said  Andro  sail  attend  ye  ArUilyria  of  his  burgh  in  Tstag 
yearoff,  quhen  tym  neceammr  sail  chance,  and  yu  luring  Above  written  to  be  raaill 
are  to  ye  said  Andro  duraing  ye  space  forseid."— ^MS.  Head  Court  Minute,  2ftk 


THE  INTERIOR.  203 

carvings — chiefly  flower  pieces,  and  these  principally  roses,  in  all  stages 
of  growth,  from  the  bud  to  the  full-blown  flower,  all  of  which  were 
extremely  beautiful.  The  octagonal  canopy  of  the  pulpit  was  particu- 
larly fine,  and  was  much  and  justly  admired.  The  whole  was  the 
work  of  a  native  artist,  Mr  Bruce,  who  spent  two  years  in  executing 
them.  This  pulpit  was  erected  about  1731,  and  at  the  same  time  the 
church  was  seated  with  fixed  desks  or  pews — forms,  stools,  and  such 
like  moveable  seats  hav'ng  been  previously  used.  The  old  pulpit, 
with  its  appurtenances,  was  sold  to  the  Scots  Episcopal  congregation, 
and  was  fitted  up  in  St  Paul's  Chapel  in  Castle  Street.  The  pews 
which  belonged  to  the  Incorporations  were  marked  with  their  symbols 
or  armorial  ensigns,  but  only  two  of  the  shields  were  accompanied  with 
devices — the  Bakers  and  Coopers ;  the  former  having  "  FLORIANT  PIS- 
TORES,"  and  "  PRAISE  GOD  FOR  ALL  ;"  and  the  latter  "  CIRCUMEUNDO 
VINCIT."  '  The  gallery  in  the  east  end,  appropriated  to  the  use  of  the 
Magistrates  and  Council,  which  stretched  across  the  middle  aisle, 
was  marked  in  the  centre  panel  of  its  finely  carved  front  th'us — "  FOR 
PRO  VEST,  BAILZIES,  AND  covNSEL,  16zl,"  along  with  the  arms  of  the 
town  in  bold  relief.  This  gallery,  until  the  year  1826,  was  covered 
with  a  coarse  woollen  carpet,  which  then  gave  place  to  a  covering  of 
velvet,  similar  to  that  on  the  pulpit,  and  just  so  deep  as  not  to  obstruct 
the  view  of  the  carvings.  Previous  to  the  same  year  also,  the  access 
to  this  gallery,  and  that  of  the  Hammermen  in  St  Andrew's  aisle,  was 
by  a  broad  clumsy  stair  on  the  outside  of  the  church,  which  was 
dignified  with  the  high  sounding  name  of  the  "  King's  Stair,"  de- 
rived from  Charles  II.,  who  attended  divine  service  in  this  Church 
while  he  resided  in  the  town,  before  his  march  to  and  defeat  at  Wor- 
cester. Part  of  the  accommodation,  being  the  front  pews  in  the  west 
gallery, — which  like  the  eastern,  stretched  across  the  middle  aisle, — 
was  the  property  of  the  Incorporation  of  Bonnetmakers,  according  to  the 
following  quaint  inscription,  which  was  on  a  large  board  bearing  three 
"blue  bonnets"  with  red  rims,  and  other  symbols  of  the  Trade,  fixed 
to  the'south  wall,  adjoining  the  pews  : — 

THIS  IS  THE  BONETMAKERS  SET  QVHA  LIST  TO  8PEYR. 

There  was  formerly  another  gallery  above  this,  which  was  taken  down 
in  or  shortly  before  1790 ;  and  below  it,  in  the  area  of  the  church, 
there  was  one,  if  not  two,  pews  which  belonged  to  the  ancient  family 
of  Abercrombie  of  Pitalpin,  and  seem  to  have  been  originally  erected 
by  Captain  Andrew  Abercrombie  of  Pitalpin,  who  put  his  arms  and 


204  unroBT  or 

the  date,  1620,  upon  a  small  pillar  which  stood  at  the  entrance  of  one 
of  the  pews,  a  few  feet  within  the  north  door  of  the  Church. 

Before  the  abrogation  of  the  ancient  ecclesiastical  establishment, 
this  part  of  the  original  building  contained  the  high  or  chief  altar,  and 
the  choir,  whence  it  was  appropriated  to  the  celebration  of  the  grandest 
rites  of  the  Catholic  communion.  Its  length  was  95  feet,  the  width  of 
the  middle  span  25  feet,  and  of  the  lateral  aisles  16}  feet,  making  an 
aggregate  width  of  58  feet 

The  Chnpter-houte  or  Sc*tion-hoiue, — Behind  the  East  Church  there 
was  a  strong  rectangular  building,  within  which  the  Parochial  Kirk- 
session  and  the  Presbytery  of  the  bounds  held  their  meetings.  This 
building  was  divided  into  two  floors  by  a  groined  vault.  The  lower 
apartment,  which  communicated  with  the  church  by  a  low  pointed- 
arched  doorway,  was  the  place  in  which,  before  the  Reformation,  the 
members  of  the  chantry  and  the  other  priests  belonging  to  the  church 
assembled  to  transact  their  several  affairs.  The  upper  apartment,  to 
which  there  was  access  from  the  lower  by  a  very  narrow  stsircase, 
erected  in  1826,  but,  before  that  time,  from  the  outside  of  the  build- 
ing, was  thought  to  have  been  used  in  ancient  times  as  a  penitentiary, 
or  place  of  durance,  for  such  persons  as  brought  themselves  under  the 
ban  of  the  Church  by  their  irregular  conduct  The  lower,  and  larger 
apartment,  or  Session-house,  as  it  was  called,  was  considered  as  having 
been  the  confessional ;  but  it  would  rather  seem  to  have  been  the 
capitular  hall  of  the  Church  and  choristers,  where  they  met  in  chapter 
when  their  affairs  required  attention.  Whether  the  upper  apartment, 
which  had  a  low  stone  bench  carried  round  it,  had  ever  been  used  as 
a  place  of  restraint  in  the  Catholic  times  is  not  easy  to  say,  as  it  rather 
appears  to  have  been  a  record  room.  It  is  certain  that,  under  the  fir»t 
Reformed  Establishment,  it,  as  well  as  the  Steeple,  was  used  as  a  place 
of  punishment  for  those  convicted  of  immorality,  and  for  setting  at 
nought  the  statutes  of  the  "  ecclesiastical  magistrates."  Having,  at 
some  early  period,  been  found  inconvenient,  from  the  lowness  of  the 
roof,  or  some  such  cause,  an  addition  was  made  to  the  elevation  of  the 
walls,  which  were  covered  with  a  stone  arch,  and  above  that  with  a 
sloping  roof  of  flag  slates.  Even  with  this  accommodation  it  was  still 
found  incommodious,  and  another,  much  less  in  capacity,  but  more 
convenient  perhaps  in  point  of  position,  was,  as  we  have  already  seen, 
ordered  to  be  erected  at  the  south-east  angle  of  the  church,  above  St 
Andrew'*  aisle.  In  the  same  angle  there  was  a  slender  octagonal 


THE  VESTRY  AND  LIBRARY.  205 

tower,  covered  with  a  stone  spire,  between  forty  and  fifty  feet  in 
height.  This  tower  contained  a  staircase,  by  which  inveterate  trans- 
gressors of  the  rules  of  decorum  were  conveyed  to  the  prison,  and 
thence  to  the  leads  of  the  aisle,  to  do  penance  in  the  fashion  of  Paul 
Methven,  or  in  any  other  approved  method,  their  necks  being  encircled 
by  the  clasps  of  the  iron  "  jouggis"  or  "  chokes,"  a  ring  for  fixing  these 
being  found  at  each  of  the  clerestory  windows.  The  prison  was  taken 
down  in  1826,  and  more  appropriate  embellishments  were  substituted 
in  its  place.  Upon  a  spur  that  supported  one  of  the  cupples  of  the  roof 
the  arms  of  the  Guildry  were  rudely  scrieved,  bearing  the  date  1610. 
Under  the  shield,  the  word  IVLLIOZ  was  placed,  and  below  that  i.  AVGS, 
but  in  much  larger  letters.  What  these  words  signify  we  do  not  pre- 
tend to  say,  unless  that  the  first  may  be  supposed  to  be  July  2,  the 
the  figure  2  being  anciently  represented  by  z ;  and  the  second  to  be  1st 
August,  indicating  a  space  of  time  more  than  sufficient  for  the  erection 
of  the  prison.  We  consider  the  erection  of  the  Session-house  to  date 
no  higher  than  the  establishment  of  the  chantry,  and  to  have  been 
built  by  Lord  Crawford  for  the  use  of  the  members  of  his  foundation. 

It  may  be  interesting  to  state  that  George,  second  Earl  of  Panmure, 
having  died  at  Edinburgh,  on  the  24th  March,  1671,  his  remains 
were  brought  for  interment  at  Panbride,  and  lay  some  days  in  this 
apartment.  At  the  meeting  of  Town  Council,  18th  April,  1671,  a 
letter  was  read  from  George,  third  Earl,  inviting  the  magistrates  and 
"  neighbours,"  that  is,  the  burgesses,  to  the  funeral,  and  requesting 
liberty  to  entertain  the  invited  in  the  Council-house  and  outer  Tol- 
booth ;  and,  also,  that  the  body  should  remain  in  the  Vestry  of  the 
East  Church  till  the  day  of  burial.  Again,  on  the  9th  of  May,  the 
Council,  in  consideration  that  his  Lordship's  remains  were  to  be  brought 
to  Dundee  that  day,  authorised  the  Provost  to  order  as  many  "  great 
guunes"  to  be  fired  as  he  should  think  fit,  and  the  same  to  be  done 
on  the  day  of  the  funeral. 

The  Vestry  and  Library. — At  the  west  end  of  the  south  aisle  of  the 
East  Church  there  was  a  small  apartment,  the  dimensions  of  which 
were  similar  to  those  of  St  Andrew's  aisle  at  the  east  end.  In  this 
apartment  the  clergymen  who  officiated  in  the  East  and  South  Churches 
assembled  before  and  after  service  ;  and  it  contained  a  library  of  nearly 
eighteen  hundred  volumes,  among  which  there  were  many  rare  ami 
curious  works,  some  of  them  being  as  old  as  the  invention  of  printing 
by  moveable  types.  The  older  books  were  in  their  original  oaken 


•_''  "i  HISTORY  Of  DUXDM. 

bin. ling*,  literally  in  boar-It,  and  many  of  them  bore  to  bare  been 
repaired  by  William  Christison,  the  aeooud  reformed  minuter  of  the 
town  and  pariah,  who  died  about  1590,  which  give*  a  considerable 
antiquity  to  the  library,  and  evidently  shows  that  its  formation  be- 
longed to  the  ancient  Church  and  the  Catholic  clorgy.  The  know- 
ledge of  iU  existence  did  not  extend  to  many  beyond  the  lay  and 
clerical  members  of  the  Kirk-session ;  and  few  besides  them,  it  it 
believed,  took  the  trouble  to  inquire  into  the  nature  of  its  con  tea  U. 
The  original  founder,  and  time  of  foundation  of  the  library,  are  equally 
unknown,  and  will  in  all  probability  remain  so.  All  that  can  at  the 
present  time  be  advanced  with  certainty  concerning  it  is,  that,  by  act 
of  Head  Court,  dated  6th  March,  1636,  entitoled  "  Anent  the  Li  bra- 
no,"  the  Kirkmaster,  and  (as  we  understand)  the  parish  minister,  both 
for  the  time,  were  joint  librarians — that  the  Magistrates  and  Town 
ncil  were  patrons  and  visitors— that  in  former  times  it  was  open 
to  the  inhabitants  at  large,  upon  leaving  a  pledge  of  security  that  the 
books  should  not  be  injured — and  that,  in  1834  or  1835,  or,  perhaps, 
both  yean,  there  were  some  very  acrimonious  and  unseemly  disputes 
concerning  it  between  the  Town  Council  and  tho  Kirk-session,  which 
the  destructive  fire  of  1841  for  ever  silenced,  there  being  not  twenty 
volumes  saved. 

Ancient  Monument*, — Near  the  north-east  corner  of  the  wall  that 
encircles  the  churches,  and  immediately  behind  the  East  Church,  there 
are  two  huge  ancient  monuments  built  in  the  wall,  which,  about  the 
year  1821,  were  dug  up  beside  or  from  under  the  old  Session-house. 
One  of  them  apparently  has  been  the  lid  or  cover  of  a  stone  coffin,  the 
other  is  flat,  and  had  an  inscription  in  Saxo-Roman  characters,  thus : — 

Mf  me:  LICIT:  VLELMVS:  DJCTVS:  UMTOVS:  cvrvs:  AXIXVM:  BK^VIOCAT.  a: 

ti.cn: f-" 

It  would  be  idlo  as  well  as  useless  to  inquire  who  this  "  William," 
called  the  "  Long,"  was,  though  it  has  been  said  that  an  age  of  about 
a  thousand  years  may  be  ascribed  to  the  monument,  but  this  is  out  of 
the  question ;  and,  as  we  are  precluded  from  entering  into  a  disquisi- 
tion on  the  point,  we  shall  only  call  attention  to  the  other  relies  at 
antiquity  that  the  preparations  for  building  the  new  church  brought 
to  notice,  coupled  with  some  previous  matters. 

The  first  of  these  to  which  we  refer  is  an  old  monument,  in  the 
form  of  the  cover  of  a  stone  coffin,  hc\rn  into  three  panels,  which  was 
up  while  a  drain  was  ouu^lructin^  a;  the  north  aide  oi  the  old 


MONUMENTS  IN  CHURCH  PRECINTS.  207 

East  Church  in  1838.  The  centre  panel  bears  the  standard  of  the 
cross,  the  head  of  which,  at  the  top  of  the  stone,  is  contained  within 
a  circle,  and  is  handsomely  ornamented.  Upon  the  standard,  and  im- 
mediately under  the  circle,  a  large  escutcheon  bearing  three  shields  of 
the  arms  of  the  family  of  Hay  is  placed.  On  the  left  panel  a  sword  is 
represented,  whilst  the  right  is  inscribed  as  follows,  in  old  Saxon  cha- 
racters, slightly  cut  in : — 

"HIC.  IACET.  IOHAJWES.  FILIVS.  PHILIPPI.   CISSOBIS." 
[Here  lies  John  the  son  of  Philip  Cissoris.] 

This  last  name,  as  well  as  its  connection  with  that  of  Hay,  is  un- 
known, but  it  is  undoubtedly  a  proper,  though  now,  perhaps,  an 
extinct  family  name.  The  Hays  of  Errol  can  be  traced  to  the 
Anglo-Norman  barons  who  came  to  England  with  the  CoDqueror  ; 
and  a  branch  of  the  family  possessed  the  lands  of  Dronley  from 
the  15th  century  downwards.  To  one  or  other  of  these  branches 
the  individual  here  referred  to  may  have  been  connected,  by  mar- 
riage. Along  with  the  monument  bearing  the  above  inscription,  a 
few  silver  pennies,  a  coffin  breastplate,  about  sixteen  inches  by  twelve, 
a  short  sword,  the  blade  of  which  was  twenty  inches  and  a  half  long, 
and  two  inches  broad  at  the  broadest  part  near  the  point,  the  hilt  five 
inches  and  a  half,  and  the  cross  four  inches  long  and  one  thick,  Avere 
also  found,  with  various  fragments  of  arms,  among  them  a  two-handed 
sword,  very  much  decayed.  All  these  relics  were  picked  up  and 
carried  away  by  parties  who  attended  the  operation  of  making  the 
drain,  in  expectation  of  something  curious  being  discovered. 

In  excavating  the  foundation  for  the  new  East  Church  in  1 842, 
a  number  of  other  monuments,  variously  sculptured,  and  a  very  large 
freestone  coffin,  formed  of  one  block,  and  hollowed  out  to  the  size  and 
figure  of  the  body  which  it  had  contained,  were  dug  up.  Some  of 
these  monuments  were  small,  but  they  bore  crosses  tastefully  executed, 
and  some  of  the  large  ones  had  the  same  emblem  elaborately  finished. 
One  bore  a  pair  of  woolcomber's  sheers  ;  and  another,  which  still 
remains  and  is  in  good  preservation,  has  a  kind  of  ship,  with  a  beauti- 
ful cross  for  a  mast ;  on  the  left  side  of  which  there  is  a  bear  attempt- 
ing to  ascend  the  rigging,  and  on  the  other  side  there  is  a  figure 
somewhat  resembling  a  hand,  but  very  much  decayed.  Above  the 
bear  there  is  a  hand  in  the  act  of  drawing  a  sword,  a  small  part  of  the 
blade  of  which  is  seen ;  and  close  to  this,  but  on  the  very  verge  of 
the  monument,  an  old-fasliioned  hatchet  is  represented. 


C  "  •<  BISTORT  Or  DDHUBB. 

A  very  few  of  these  monument*  bore  inscriptions.    On  one  there 

"no  uon  BAWLravs  cms  01  DTJTDI  OBATB  no  MB  ntT.M> 
Another  had 

"HlCUCirWLLODCmi  DI IWAATIIt.* 

A  third  had,  in  Saxon  character*, 

"  OBA  rao  AVHL  MATILO  rau  THOMA." 

There  was  a  large  flat  blue  stone  with  an  inscription,  in  italic  charac- 
ters, but  so  faintly  cut  in  that  only  an  occasional  word  could  be  distin- 
guished. This  monument  would  seem  to  be,  from  the  character  of  the 
inscription,  not  much  older  than  the  Reformation  in  1560. 

THE  TRANSEPT 

Or  cross  part  of  the  original  building  was  1 74  feet  in  length,  44  in 
breadth,  and  of  uniform  height  with  the  other  parts,  namely,  54  feet. 
It  had  no  aisles,  and,  in  the  ancient  edifice,  it  would  contain  the  baptis- 
try, confessional,  <tc.  In  many  contemporaneous  buildings,  a  low  tower 
marked  the  intersection  of  the  transept  with  the  nave  and  choir  ;  but 
whether  St  Mary's  ever  possessed  such  a  feature  is  doubtful  When 
separate  places  of  worship  came  to  be  formed,  the  arches  leading  to 
the  nave  and  choir  were  built  up,  and  the  transept  itself  was  again 
divided  to  form  two  churches,  the  northern  arm  being  distinguished 
as  the  Cross,  and  the  other  as  the  South  Church.  At  the  Reforma- 
tion, however,  it  would  appear  that  the  transept  was,  as  it  now  is, 
used  as  one  place  of  worship,  and  called  the  Cross  Church ;  for  a 
Council  minute  of  1582  orders  collections  "  for  bigging  the  .Crqpe 
Kirk."  It  had  apparently  remained  till  that  time  in  the  ruinous  state 
to  which  it  is  said  to  have  been  reduced  by  Edward  I.  in  1303,  but 
more  probably  by  the  English  in  1547,  when  they  burned  the  town, 
and  gave  Balmerino  Abbey,  and  all  churches  and  religious  houses  they 
could  reach,  to  the  flames.  We  next  find  it  thus  referred  to  in  the 
minutes  of  the  Head  Court : — 

"  17th  Jan.,  1583.  Quhilk  day  the  bailleis  and  counsall  being  con  - 
venit  within  the  counsal-hous,  hes,  with  advyss  of  the  dekynis  of  craftis, 
concludit  with  commune  consent  that  the  Crooe  Kirk  sail  be  buildit 
and  repaint  with  all  possible  diligence,  and  that  ane  maiater  of  wark 

1  Thi»  WM  probably  the  Sir  Ralph  of  Dundee,  who,  at  the  cloae  of  the  13th 
century,  held  the  lan«U  of  Benvie.  Balrudderjr,  and  other*,  which  the  family 
retained  until  IMS  ;  and  if  so,  majr  be  reganlcd  *•  among  the  oldert  of  our 

1  ir>0im  uta> 


TO  TH£    <?E3T.— 


MINISTERS  OF  SOUTH  CHURCH.  209 

sail  be  nominat  &  electit  thairto — viz.,  Johne  traill,  quha  is  nominat 
be  commune  suffrage  to  that  effect ;  &  for  the  present  it  is  condescend.it 
to  that  ane  taxatioun  of  500  merkis  sail  be  liftit  vniversallie  of  all 
inhabitants  of  this  burgh,  bot  exceptioun  of  persouns,  in  respect  of  the 
necessitie  and  gudeness  of  the  wark,  and  lyikwayis  that  the  haill  vnlawis 
that  sail  happine  to  be  vpliftit  of  ony  nychtbouris  of  this  burgh  being 
convict  in  ony  penalties  contenit  in  the  actis,  sail  be  applyit  to  the 
help  and  reparatioun  of  the  kirk." 

This  effort  was  successful,  to  the  extent  of  rebuilding  the  west  wall 
of  the  north  transept,  and  restoring  the  roof ;  but  the  work,  as  may  be 
surmised  from  the  difficulty  of  raising  funds,  was  of  a  mean  descrip- 
tion, the  walls  being  built  of  common  ruble  work,  and  the  four  win- 
dows inserted  of  various  dimensions.  Two  years  after,  we  find  a 
minister  installed,  and  the  succession  has  since  been  continued,  as 
appears  from  the  following  list  of  incumbents  : — 

Admitted.  SOUTH  CHURCH  or  SECOND  CHARGE. 

1590. ..JAMES  ROBERTSON,  A.M. — first  minister,  stipend  £44  8s.  4d. 

1626... JOHN  DUNCANSONE,  A.M. 

(Church  destroyed  by  fire  1645.J 

1658. ..GEORGE  MARTINS,  A.M. — Principal  Old  College,  St  Andrews. 

19th  Sept.     1661. ..ALEX.  MILNE,  A.M. — ancestor  of  the  Milnes  of  Mylnefield. 
14th  March,  1667. .. JOHN  GUTHRIE,  A.M. 

i  ni.  T  taaa  (ROBERT  NORRIE,  A.M. — deprived  1689,  and  deposed  for  dis- 

14th  June,         J8|         loyalty  1716. 

1690. ..GEORGE  ANDERSON,  A.M. 

6th August,  1691... JOHN  SPALDING,  A.M. 

27th  August,  1700... JOHN  DALGLEISH,  A.M. 

6th  Sept.     1716. ..JOHN  WILLISON,  A.M. — author  of  numerous  works. 

1st  August,  1751 ..  .GERSHAM  CARMICHAEL. 

3d  August,  1763... ALEXANDER  FERRIAR,  A.M. 
20th  June,     1765. ..WILLIAM  BISSET,  A.M. 
10th  Nov.      1774.. .JOHN  SNODGRASS,  A.M. 
18th  July,"    1782...DJLVTD  DAVIDSON— had  D.D.  1810. 
12th  Oct.       1826. ..CHARLES  ADIE— had  D.D.  1833  ;  translated  to  StMary'sl869. 

9th  May,      1850. . .  A.NDREW  TAYLOR,  D.D. 

The  cure  of  the  South  Church  was  subsequently  served  by  a  senior 
and  junior  clergyman,  making  it  a  collegiate  charge — the  former  being 
the  vicar,  as  the  minister  of  the  East  Church  is  the  parson  of  the 
parish.  The  Junior  or  THIRD  CHARGE  was  erected  in  1609,  and 

0 


210  BISTORT  OF  DUXDHL 

appropriated  to  8t  IWs  Church  in  1836.  The  'ollowing  list  of 
incumbent*  is  here  given  : — 

Kll...  WILLIAM  WEDotastrav,  A.M. 

l«20...Couv  CAMrscLL,  A.M. 

1641. ..JoH»  ROBERT*.*,  A.M.— taken  priaoner  at  ««*«,  1051. 

1M2  ..WILLIAM  RAJTT,  A.M. -Principal  King's  College.  Aberdeen. 

1*82     HO.KW  RAIT.  A.M.— deprived  for  dialojaltj  1«8». 

1691.. .WILLIAM  MITCBXLL. 

17 13... Ream  KmocB,  A.M. 

1729.. .JAMU  Mono. 

1745.. .Joan  OKLLATLT. 

1759. ..JAMB*  BALUITOALL,  D.D. 

1808... JOHN  ATOHUON. 

1806... ARCHIBALD  M'LaCHLAir—  translated  to  Fin*  Charge  1808. 

1808...PATRJC*  M»cvicAa— had  O.D.  1807. 

1836... DAVID  ABBOT— had  DJD.  1843  ;  tranaUted  u.  liyh  Church.  Kdicburgh. 

1845. ..Joan  TCLLOCH,  D.D. —afterward*  Principal  of  Hi  Marr'a,  8t  Aodrewa. 

One  of  the  principal  contributors  to  the  re-edification  of  the  South 
Church,  in  1588,  was  Captain  Henry  Lyell  ui  Bkcknew,  on  whose 
monument,  in  the  east  wall,  an  inscription  bore  that  he  had  the  merit 
of  the  whole.  It  is  said  that  the  whole  transept  was  roofed  with 
timbers  removed  from  the  Abbey  Church  of  Baimerino,  and  that  these 
oaken  rafters  did  duty  a  third  time  in  covering  the  old  Parish  Church 
of  Monifieth.1 

A  very  large  extent  of  the  accommodation  here,  as  in  the  East 
Church,  was  corporation  and  private  property — the  pews  of  the  incor- 
porations, with  the  exception  of  those  belonging  to  the  Guildry,  being 
pointed  out  by  their  armorial  ensigns  and  date*.  Under  the  north 
gallery,  and  along  the  east  wall,  there  was  a  long  aeriee  of  pews  th« 
property  of  the  Corporation  of  the  Shoemakers,  marked  on  one  of  the 
seats  in  low  relieved  characters — "  HIB  SITS  THB  CUIIOXAKS."  These 
seats  were  fitted  up  before  1650  by  the  mem  ben  of  the  Corporation, 
58  in  number,  who  voluntarily  assessed  themselves  in  numa  varying 
from  £1  10s.  to  £11  Scots,  the  whole  amount  I--;  is.  Scots. 

The  fleshers  and  bakers  also  sat  in  this  church,  the  former  having  painted 
upon  the  front  of  their  loft  the  appropriate  text — "  MAM  SHALL  NOT 
LIVE  BT  BREAD  ALONE  ;"  while  their  neighbours,  the  bakers,  asserted 
their  importance  by  an  equally  apt  quotation — "BREAD  u>  TUB  a  TAW  ur 

>  Mr  Campbell,  in  h»  RtUmenno  »mJ  it*  M*  y.  p.  1C,  rather   ,UMMU  t*M 
which  ••tarihilaei  it  upon 


MONUMENTS  IN  OLD  SOUTH  CHURCH.  211 

LIFE."  On  the  south  side  of  the  pulpit,  and  stretching  along  the  east 
wall  to  the  south  end  of  the  church,  there  was  a  series  of  nineteen  or 
twenty  pews  belonging  to  the  Fraternity  of  Seamen,  marked  with  a 
large  and  beautifully  carved  figure  of  a  ship  under  sail,  well  manned 
and  armed,  all  in  very  bold  relief,  such  as  is  represented  in  sea  paint 
ings  of  sea  pieces  of  the  old  school.  This  was  the  first  property  in  the 
churches  acquired  by  the  Fraternity,  and  the  expense  of  fitting  up  the 
space  with  seats,  which  occurred  soon  after  the  burning  of  the  churches 
in  1645,  was  defrayed  by  a  tax  of  6d.  per  pound  on  the  wages  of  sea- 
men belonging  to  the  port,  and  8d.  per  pound  on  the  wages  of  stranger 
seamen  resorting  to  the  same.  On  the  southern  pillar  of  the  arches  in 
the  western  wall  there  was  inscribed — "  MASTER  JOHN  WEDERBURN  OP 
BLACKNESS,  1667,"  accompanied  with  his  arms ;  and  on  the  northern 

pillar — " PROVEST,  BAILLZIES,  AND  COVNSEL,  1653."    On  the  south 

side  of  the  pillar,  the  ensigns  of  the  Corporation  of  Fleshers  were 
placed,  which  covered  the  beginning  of  the  inscription,  and  which 
most  likely  had  been  the  word  "  FOR."  The  pillar  thus  marked  ap- 
pears to  have  been  erected  for,  and  used  by  the  Magistrates  and 
Council,  during  the  time  Charles  II.  resided  in  the  town,  and  also 
during  the  partial  establishment  of  Episcopacy ;  for,  though  the  date 
1621  was  on  the  front  of  the  gallery  of  the  East  Church  appropriated 
to  them,  it  is  probably  they  had  not  uniformly  used  it  till  the  final 
establishment  of  Presbyterianism,  after  the  Revolution  in  1688,  at 
which  time  the  altar  and  other  Episcopal  appointments  were  removed. 
This  church,  like  the  Cross  Church,  both  before  and  after  being 
roofed  in  1598,  was  used  for  interments  ;  this  appearing  to  have  been 
applied  chiefly  as  a  place  of  sepulture  for  the  ministers,  and  the  more 
respectable  and  wealthy  class  of  citizens.  The  following  are  the  inscrip- 
tions which  possessed  any  general  interest : — 

I. — Captain  Henry  Lyell  of  Blackness. 

"Rez.  ad  opvs.  tompli.  Salomon!  misit.  Hiram  vs. 
Ligna.  Tyro,  triticvm.  pactvs.  mvltvmg.  rogatvs. 
Q'ii.  svb.  rege.  meres,  dux.  ferrvm.  gratis.  &  vlti. 
Transmittis.  templo.  instavranbo.  HenricL  Lyelle. 
Qvina.  qvater.  Tyrio.  Salomo.  dedit.  oppida.  regi. 
Qvam.  qvinis.  qvaterine.  fvit.  tr.  plvris.  es.  vnis." 
[To  Sol'mon's  Temple  King  Hiram  sent  from  Tyre 
Fine  Cedar-wood,  but  upon  great  desire  ; 
This  Church,  thou  HENRY  LYELL,  to  repair 


212  HISTORY  or 

Did  fwly  (fire  all  that  waa  DitiiaMf  ; 

Tbo'  the  Tynan  Kiaf  gvn  SoI'mon  towns  twioe  tea,— 

Thou  greater  than  tbeee  both !  sod  beat  of  men.]  • 

The  armorial  bearings  that  adjoined  this  inscription  were,  a  eroei 
cantoned  with  four  crosses  pate4 ;  the  crest  of  a  unicorn1*  head  cooped, 
with  the  device,  AT.  AL.  TIMS*.  OOD.  MB.  DETKXD.  On  a  label  between 

the  helmet  and  shield  there  was  inscribed— a  HENORI  LTEL. 


II. — Provott  James  Hallyburton. 

The  place  where  thu  gentleman  was  interred  was  unknown  till  the 
time  the  church  was  repaired  in  1827,  when  hi*  grave,  with  a  cheat 
formed  monument,  richly  ornamented  with  coals  of  arms  and  other 
devices,  was  discovered  on  the  17th  October  in  that  year,  under  the 
floor  of  the  lateran,  immediately  before  the  window  on  the  north  side 
of  the  pulpit  Before  the  new  floor  was  laid  down,  the  monument 
was  placed  close  to  the  wall  under  the  window,  but  the  whole  was 
destroyed  by  the  fire  of  1841.  The  following  inscription  was  on  the 
cover : — 

••  "Hie.  aitrt.  act.  laoobra.  Halybrrtonra.  patrria,  nobilia.  viri  QeorgiL  Halybrr- 
ton.  da.  Petcrr.  Militia,  qri.  Praafectrram.  DoidonL  rrbaorm.  fareiiar.  anooa.  St. 
gotait  obiit.  anno.  Dom.  1583.  aetatia.  rraa.  70. 

"Alacti  Praefect.  Patriae.  Vindez.  PrpilL  Trtor.  Eoclaaia*.  lear.  Airmnra. 
fnt." 

[Hara  liaa  Jama*  Hallyburton,  uncle  of  a  noble  man,  O«orge  Rally  barton  of 
Pitcur,  Knt ,  who  for  thirty-  Um«  yean  happily  administered  the  office  of  ProTuei 
within  the  town  of  Dundee.  He  died  in  the  year  of  the  Lord  1588,  and  of  hia 

»*    "  ' 

Proroat  of  Dundee,  Defender  of  hia  Country,  Protector  of  the  Orphan,  and  a 
Son  of  the  Church  of  Jeaua.  ] 

IIL— Andrew  Fktcher. 

This  gentleman's  monument,  a  flat  slab,  lay  in  the  area  of  the  church, 
and  was  inscribed  thus: — 

"Memoriae.   Andrea*.   Fleteheri    mercatoria,  4.   aria,    primario.   Trbia.  Dei. 
in.  teatimonirm.  vm  pietatu     Robertra.  Magiater.  Darid. 


1  "  Theater  of  Mortality-— a  euriooa  ooUecttoo  of  epitapha  from  the  principal 
burying  grounds  in  Scotland,  by  Mr  Robert  Monteata,  Kdinbnrgh,  S  rola..  1704 
and  1713 ;  republiahcd  in  1  voL,  UU«(uw,  18M. 


MONUMENTS.  213 

Tonnes,  filii.  hoc.   monvment.  caedendvm.   cvrabant.    obiit.   nonis.   IvniL    anno, 
aerae.  Christianas.  1637.  aetatis.  svae.  71. 

"Hie.  ossa.  &.  cineres.  iacent.  marmore.  quasqve. 
exwias.  mortis,  vir.  trvcvlenta.  rapit. 
Fama.  decvs.  virtus,  non.  depopvlando.  sepulchria. 
Haec.  reliqva.  in.  terris.  sunt.  mouvmenta.  tvL" 

[To  the  memory  of  Andrew  Fletcher,  merchant  and  worthy  citizen  of  the  city 
of  Dundee,  in  testimony  of  their  affection,  Robert,  Mr  David,  and  Mr  John,  his 
sons,  caused  this  monument  to  be  erected.  He  died  9th  June,  in  the  year  of  the 
Chiistian  era  1637,  and  of  his  age  71. 

Thy  bones  and  ashes  lie  beneath  this  stone, 
And  all  the  spoils  death  could  triumph  upon  ; 
Thy  fame  and  praise,  thy  virtue  cannot  die, 
These  upon  earth  stand  monuments  of  thee.] 


TV. — Rev.  Thomas  Davidson. 

The  following  inscription  was  on  an  elngant  tablet  of  white  marble, 
surrounded  with  a  broad  border  of  veined  black  marble,  with  a  neat 
globular  urn  surmounting  the  circular  head  of  the  tablet.  The  whole 
was  inserted  in  the  wall,  high  above  the  middle  of  the  line  of  pews 
belonging  to  the  Seamen  Fraternity,  on  the  south  side  of  the  pulpit ; 
and  all  shared  the  common  fate  in  1841. 

"  Near  this  place  is  deposited  the  mortal  part  of  Mr  Thomas  Davidson,  a  faith- 
ful minister  of  Jesus  Christ,  first  at  Stirling  Castle,  then  at  Whitekirk  in  East 
Lothian,  and  afterwards  nearly  thirty  years  in  this  city.  His  manners  were  easy 
and  gentle,  hie  temper  serene  and  benevolent,  his  piety  fervent  and  sincere,  his 
labours  in  the  service  of  his  Great  Master  unwearied  He  exchanged  this  mortal 
life  for  immortality  November  xxviith,  M.D.CCLX.  ,  aged  LXXXII.  His  eldest  son, 
William  Davidson  of  Rotterdam,  to  perpetuate  his  memory,  caused  this  monu- 
ment to  be  erected. 


In  clearing  out  the  ruins,  preparatory  to  commencing  the  building 
of  the  new  church  in  autumn  1845,  a  large  flat  stone  was  found  in 
the  area,  immediately  in  front  of  the  monument  in  the  wall.  This 
stone  was  wholly  covered  with  the  following  obituary  notices  : — 

"  Here  lieth  the  Revd.  Samuel  Johnston,  late  minister  of  the  Gospel  in  Dun- 
dee, who  died  the  24th  of  February,  1731,  in  the  77th  year  of  his  age. 

"  Here  also  interred  is  the  Revd.  Mr  John  Willison,  minister  of  the  Gospel  in 
Dundee,  who  died  on  the  3d  day  of  May,  1750,  in  the  70th  year  of  his  age,  having 
been  13  years  minister  in  Brechin,  and  34  in  Dundee. 

"  In  the  same  place  lieth  the  Revd.  Mr  Thomas  Davidson,  who,  having  been  19 
years  minister  of  the  Gospel  at  Whitekirk,  and  28  at  Dundee,  died  there  on  the 
17th  of  November,  1760,  aged  84  years. 

"  Likewise   under  this  stone  are  deposited  the  remains  of  the  Revd.  Mr  A  lex- 


214  BWTOHT  OF  DC5DKR. 


Arvfcr.  «at»  WM  bora  at  L~yo  NorswUr  19th.  17SS,  oH«!n^  ratebfer  of 
tb«  G«pel  in  UM  Di^otinf  Congregation  at  A  In  wick,  Sorr.  6th,  1755.  tnuttkU* 
to  Oxnam  Seplr.  21*.  1758,  and  from  thcae*  to  Dundee  Augnrt  4th,  17«S,  and 
who  died  October  29th,  1704,  aged  35  yean." 

V.  —  Rev.  Jama  Roberto*. 

After  the  rubhuh  caused  by  the  burning  wu  partially  cleared  awmy, 
a  few  fragment*  of  flat  monument*  were  found.  On  one  the  aims  of 
Robertson,  three  boars'  heads  erased,  and  those  of  Scryroseonre,  a  lion 
rampant,  holding  a  scymeter  in  his  dexter  paw,  were  reprinted  on 
two  separate  shields.  The  dexter  shield  was  accompanied  with  tha 
initials,  M.  i.  R.,  being  those  of  Mr  James  Robertson,  the  first  minister 
of  the  South  Church,  and  who  died  about  1623.  The  left  shield  bore 
the  arms  of  his  wife.  All  that  remained  of  the  inscription 


no 
UX  anno  Dom.  16.,  aptatin  vraa  M. 


VL— Rev.  Colin  CampkU. 

On  another  fragment  there  were  also  two  shields,  the  dexter  one 
containing  the  gyron,  lymphad,  and  checque  escutcheons  of  the  armo- 
rial bearings  of  Campbell,  with  the  initials  M.  a  c.,  and  the  same 
interlaced  in  cypher,  being  those  of  Mr  Colin  Campbell,  the  second 
incumbent  of  the  Third  Charge.  The  other  shield  bore  the  three  escut- 
cheons of  Hay,  the  name  of  Mrs  Campbell,  the  shield  being  flanked 
with  an  ox-yoke  on  each  side.  All  that  remained  of  the  inscription 


ra,  et  annoa.  8 
lo  Ptftori.  rio 


VIL — A  third  fragment,  of  Bfdyny  ft  on*,  ban. 


AJexWi 

ct 

Jaoobi  Watson  ejod 
Cantata  riot 

Ducc  ex  ricina  lu 


THE  CROSS  CHUnCH.  215 

The  extremely  shattered  condition  of  this  stone  prevented  the  know- 
ledge who  Alexander  Watson  was ;  but,  from  the  fact  of  it  being  within 
the  church,  we  consider  him  to  have  been  the  Provost  after  the  middle 
of  the  17th  century,  who  purchased  the  lands  of  Wallace  Craigie  in 
1672. 


CROSS  CHURCH,  or  FOURTH  CHARGE,  now  ST.  JOHN'S. 

Of  this  division  of  the  old  church  there  is  little  to  record.  In  1645, 
it  was  destroyed  by  fire,  and,  while  in  a  ruinous  state,  was  occupied 
in  1651  as  a  stable  by  the  cavalry  under  General  Monk,  and  again,  in 
1745,  by  those  of  the  Pretender.  It  was  repaired  and  fitted  up  for 
divine  service  in  1759,  and  erected  into  a  Fourth  Charge  by  the  Court 
of  Teinds  23d  July,  1788.  In  1830,  its  internal  arrangements  were 
altered,  and  the  capacity  of  the  church  enlarged  by  the  erection  of  an 
aisle  on  the  west  side.  Like  the  East  Church,  this  one  had  a  second- 
ary gallery  in  the  south  end  until  1823 — a  lofty,  dark,  and  unfre- 
quented region,  accessible  only  by  the  same  steep  and  gloomy  staircase 
that  communicated  with  its  neighbour  "  cock-loft"  in  the  East  Church. 
The  ministers  of  this  charge  have  been  the  following  : — 

1759. ..ROBERT  SMALL — translated  to  East  Church  1761. 

1761... JAMES  THOMSON — resigned  1785.1 

1789 — WILLIAM  REID. 

1795. ..PATRICK  MACVICAR — translated  to  East  Church  1808. 

1809... ALEXANDER  PETERS,  D.D. 

1834. ..JOHN  ROXBURGH,  D.D. —joined  F.C.  1843. 

1844... JOHN  ANDERSON — translated  to  Perth. 

18 46... ANDREW  JOHNSTON — translated  to  Paisley. 

1847... JAMES  CAESAR — translated  to  Panbride. 

1851. ..PETER  GRANT,  D.D. 

1  On  his  resignation,  Mr  Thomson  emigrated  to  America,  whence,  after  the 
lapse  of  a  few  years,  he  returned,  and  was  again,  as  is  said,  installed  for  a  short 
time  in  his  former  cure  of  this  church.  This  gentleman  was  rather  eccentric,  if 
not  unsound  in  mind ;  and  latterly,  he  published  a  book  of  a  very  extraordinary 
nature,  under  the  title  of  "  Charles  and  Alectum,"  purporting  to  be  an  account  of 
his  life,  trials,  and  experiences.  In  this  book,  among  other  things,  he  inveighs 
bitterly  against  the  Magistrates,  and  particularly  against  Provost  John  Pitcairn, 
for  their  unchristian  usage  of  him,  severely  reproaching  the  Provost  for  sending 
a  whole  company  of  soldiers  to  annoy  him,  by  exercising  them  in  his  dining- 
room,  in  the  old  hospital,  at  the  foot  of  South  Tay  Street,  where  he  lived.  It  is 
said  the  last  time  this  gentleman  preached  in  this  church,  which  was  the  last  time 
he  ever  preached,  a  black  cat  walked  several  times  before  him  round  the  pulpit. 
This,  of  course,  as  a  man  of  his  temperament  would  judge,  he  considered  to  be 
the  devil  come  to  put  an  end  to  his  usefulness,  as  it  certainly  put  an  unceremoni- 
ous end  to  his  sermon. 


116  BOTORY  OF  DUXDEE. 

Tb*  STEEPLE  or  IT.  CLKMEXTt  CHVECH-flFTH  CHARGE 

Thin  occupies  what  formed  the  nave  or  w«U>rn  di vision  of  the 
ancient  structure,  and  measured  120  feet  in  length,  68  in  width,  of 
which  the  centre  was  40,  and  two  side  ft*ft»»  each  14  feet— and  54 
feet  in  height  from  the  floor  to  apex  of  root  The  present  edifice—* 
comparatively  modern,  and  by  no  means  attract! re  building — was 
erected  in  1789,  the  charge  having  been  erected  into  a  stipendiary  of 
t  K-  Establishment  by  the  Court  of  Teinds,  23d  July,  1 788.  Its  minis- 
ters have  been — 

1789. ..JOHX  ABDKBSON. 

1805. ..ARCHIBALD  MACLACHLAV — tnuulatod  to  Et*t  Church  1808. 

1806. ..JAMB  THOMBOV,  A.M. 

1868... JAMS  DOOM— tnuimUtod  to  St  Stephan'a,  OU^ow. 

1801..  ROBKBT  Surra. 

1804...JAMK  MAOKAT,  Ajuttant ;  and  SUOMHOT,  10th  June,  1868. 


DESTRUCTION  OF  THE  CHURCHES  BT  FIRE. 

The  descriptions  which  we  have  given  apply  to  the  four  churches 
as  they  existed  until  1841.  In  the  early  morning  of  Sunday  the  3d 
January  in  that  year,  the  inhabitants  were  roused  by  the  bells  pealing 
the  alarm  of  fire,  and,  when  they  hurried  by  hundreds  to  the  spot,  it 
became  too  apparent  that  the  time-honoured  structures,  which  had 
become  dear  to  our  citizens  as  the  temples  in  which  their  forefathers 
had  for  centuries  observed  the  ordinances  of  religion,  were  inevitably 
doomed  to  destruction.  By  six  o'clock  of  that  winter  morning,  the 
conflagration,  which  originated  in  the  South  Church,  was  at  its  height, 
tin-  three  churches,  from  base  to  pinnacle,  being  one  huge  mass  of  fin. 
The  luri'l  -kins  of  the  flames,  as  they  enveloped  the  roof*,  and  shot 
up  at  time*  with  ti'-rv  j>ertks  into  the  sky,  rendered  the  sight  one  at 
ir,  such  as  can  never  be  forgotten  by  those  who  witnessed, 
in  sad  and  fearful  expectancy,  the  awful  fury  of  the  devouring  ele- 
meir  .-•  masses  of  roof  fell  crashing  into  the  body  <-f  the  build- 

the  raging  violence  of  the  flames  increased  tenfold,  and  seemed  to 
mock  the  impotence  of  human  effort  to  arrest  the  work  of  devastation. 
From  the  back  of  the  edifice,  the  volume  of  fire,  gathering  still  fiercer 
energy,  moved  towards  the  front,  shrouded  in  dense  clouds  of  smoke, 
thn.n^h  which  the  livid  flames  shone  in  gloomy  but  portentous  splen- 
dour. .\  :i*e,  the  Manic--  hurst  with  irresistible 


THE  GREAT  FIRE  IN  1841.  217 

fury  through  the  beautiful  Gothic  window  facing  the  street,  in  an 
immense  mass  of  inconceivable  brilliancy,  carrying  with  it  every  por- 
tion of  mason  work,  the  glass  having  been  previously  destroyed.  At 
this  moment  the  scene  was  truly  sublime.  The  assembled  populace 
were  driven  back  from  the  fire  by  the  intensity  of  the  heat,  and  looked 
on  with  mingled  feelings  of  awe  and  apprehension.  At  this  fearful 
crisis  every  hope  of  saving  any  portion  of  the  edifice  seemed,  by  com- 
mon consent,  to  be  abandoned.  For  an  instant,  every  exertion  of  the 
firemen  was  paralysed,  and  the  groups,  huddled  together  in  the  streets, 
looked  on  in  silence,  subdued  by  the  grandeur  of  the  scene.  Their 
sympathies  were  .then  painfully  excited  by  observing  fitful  gleams 
shoot  through  the  body  of  the  East  Church,  the  fatal  precursors  of  its 
destruction.  The  Cross  Church  was  already  enveloped  in  flames  when 
this  venerable  relic  of  antiquity  caught  fire.  The  crashing  of  the 
galleries,  as  they  yielded  successively  to  the  flames — the  fall  of  pon- 
derous roofs,  which  shot  volumes  of  fire  into  the  air,  accompanied  by 
dense  clouds  of  embers — the  sharp  reports  from  the  stones,  as  they 
burst  from  the  walls  and  pillars,  resembling  the  discharge  of  artillery 
— and  the  frequent  explosions  which  proceeded  from  the  base  of  the 
buildings,  combined  to  create  impressions  of  the  most  powerful  and 
extraordinary  character. 

While  all  this  was  progressing  below,  the  ancient  Tower,  attached 
to  the  Steeple  Church — the  only  one  not  in  flames — rose  phoenix-like 
above  the  sea  of  fire,  the  peal  of  bells  in  its  interior  imparting  a  mourn- 
ful grandeur  to  the  spectacle.  The  utmost  efforts  were  made  by  the 
firemen  to  prevent  the  fire  spreading  to  the  Steeple  Church,  and  hap- 
pily this  was  effected,  and  both  the  Church  and  Tower  were  fortunately 
preserved.  The  South  and  Cross  Churches  were  entirely  gutted, 
nothing  but  the  bare  exterior  walls  being  left  standing,  and  the  Old 
or  East  Church  was  a  perfect  wreck.  The  only  articles  saved  were  the 
silver  communion  service,  and  the  records  of  the  Presbytery  of  Dundee, 
which  were  got  out  of  the  room  above  the  Session-house.1  Much  regret 
was  felt  at  the  destruction  of  the  library,  composed  of  ancient  works 
in  Greek,  Latin,  &c.,  the  writings  of  the  Fathers  of  the  Church.  The 

1  One  of  the  baptismal  silver  basins  was  melted,  and  only  a  small  part  of  the. 
fused  metal  was  recovered.  Among  the  very  few  articles  that  were  saved  entire 
there  was  one  of  the  old-fashioned,  broad,  shallow  pewter  plates,  in  which  the 
collection  was  made  at  the  church  door.  This  plate  has  an  inscription  round  the 
brim  in  two  lines,  with  a  large  space  between  the  words — "  This  basin  belongeth 
to  the  Church  of  Dundee,  which  was  given  be  John,  Pitcairn,  merchant,  anno  1658." 


918  HIITOKT  or  r>rvr 

ram  of  £1000  WM  insured  on  each  of  the  churches ;  bat  the  damage 
sustained  could  not  hare  been  lees  than  £15,000,  while  otherwise  the 
lot*  WM  irreparable.  The  origin  of  the  fire  was  attributed  to  the 
overheating  of  a  store,  situated  in  *  passage  between  the  South  and 
Steeple  Churches, 

The  East  or  Parish  Church  was  first  rebuilt,  the  foundation-stone  hay- 
ing been  laid  on  Her  Majesty's  birth-day,  the  19th  May,  1842  ;  the  new 
Church  opened  for  worship  on  Sunday,  10th  March,  1844,  by  theBer. 
Dr  M'Lachlan.  The  building,  as  it  now  stands,  is  88  feet  in  length, 
and  66  feet  wide,  externally ;  and  consists  of  a  nave  of  27  feet,  and 
side  aisles  of  12  feet  clear  width.  The  length  is  divided  into  five  bays 
by  clustered  piers  and  arches  internally,  which  carry  the  clere-story 
and  corresponding  buttresses  on  the  external  walls  of  the  aisles.  The 
roof  is  open-timbered,  and  galleries  run  along  the  aisles,  and  across 
the  west  ond,  reached  by  side-doors  and  staircases,  the  main  entrance 
being  at  the  east  end,  behind  the  pulpit,  an  inconvenient  arrangement, 
and  one  quite  at  variance  with  ancient  models.  The  Urge  east  window 
has  three  divisions  filled  with  stained  glass.  The  north  light  contains 
the  arms  of  the  Fraternity  of  Muter  Seamen  (a  ship  full  rigged),  and 
the  "  GVILDB  TAODVNBNSIS  SIOILLYM."  The  centre  contains  the  armo- 
rial bearings  and  other  emblems  of  the  town  of  Dundee ;  and  the  south 
division  the  arms  of  the  Maltmen,  and  of  the  'Chree  Trades,  with  the 
motto — "TaiA  JVNOTA  in  VJCA."  The  re-erection  of  the  transept 
churches  was  delayed,  by  diversity  of  opinion,  as  to  whether  one  or 
two  should  be  undertaken.  It  was  finally  arranged  that  only  one 
place  of  worship,  now  called  the  South  Church,  should  be  located 
then.  It  was  commenced  in  1846,  and  opened  in  the  following  year. 
This  church  measures  109  feet  externally,  from  north  to  south  (being 
much  shorter  than  the  old  transept),  40  feet  in  width  at  the  extre- 
mities, and  72  feet  in  the  centre,  where  it  extends  westward  in  line 
with  the  Steeple  Church,  the  recess  thus  formed  containing  a  gallery. 

The  South  and  East  Churches  were  designed  by  the  late  Mr  Burn  of 
Edinburgh.  The  style  is  Decorated  Gothic,  and  though  the  design 
may  not,  either  in  composition  or  detail,  satisfy  the  exacting  criticism 
now  applied  to  modern  Gothic,  it  must  be  regarded  as  a  dignified 
and  church-like  structure.  Now  that  the  western  Tower  has  been 
restored,  the  ugly  and  inappropriate  Steeple  Church  only  remains  to 
be  assimilated  to  its  style,  in  order  tn  produce  a  group  which  might 
worthily  recal  the  effect  of  ancient  St  Mary's  in  its  pristine  grandeur. 


TIIE  OLD  STEEPLE  AND  ITS  DESIGNER.  219 

THE    TOWER. 

Having  already  adverted,  in  the  body  of  the  work,  to  the  incidents 
associated  with  the  Tower,  and  discussed  its  age  and  general  features, 
we  shall  now  submit  such  other  details  regarding  it  as  appear  to  be 
worthy  recording.  It  would  be  interesting  to  know  who  designed  it , 
but  that  question,  though  often  asked,  is  not  so  easily  answered,  being 
involved  in  the  dubiety  which  exists  as  to  the  precise  date  of  its  erec- 
tion. In  the  course  of  a  somewhat  extensive  investigation  on  this 
point,  however,  we  have  fallen  upon  what  appears  to  us  a  probable 
solution  of  the  question ;  but  it  may  be  as  well  first  to  clear  the  ground 
of  the  hypothesis  set  up  by  tradition.  According  to  that  accommo- 
dating, but  unreliable  authority,  the  architect  or  builder  was  Alan  the 
Dorward,  Hostiarius  or  door-keeper  to  the  king,  and  an  ancestor  of 
whom  held  the  lands  of  Lundie.  The  story  goes  that,  on  the  comple- 
tion of  the  fabric  in  1198,  King  William  was  so  pleased  with  it  that 
he  presented  Dorward  with  a  gold  ring  ;  and  that,  being  afterwards 
engaged  in  boar-hunting  on  the  Sparrow-muir,  now  the  Hawkhill  of 
Dundee,  he  there  lost  the  ring,  and  offered,  without  success,  a  hand- 
some reward  for  its  recovery.  "  That  a  gold  antique  ring  was  found, 
about  the  year  1790,  while  digging  the  foundations  of  Heathfield 
House,  on  the  Hawkhill,  is  matter  of  certainty.  It  is  of  pure  gold, 
weighs  eight  pennyweights  and  seven  grains,  and  is  now  in  the  posses- 
sion of  Mr  Neish  of  Laws,  who  obtained  it  from  Mr  Webster  of  Heath- 
field.  It  is  ornamented  by  a  beautifully  engraved  head,  representing 
that  of  an  old  man  with  a  crown ;  and  on  the  breast  is  a  mullet  or 
star  of  five  points.  It  is  impossible  to  say  at  what  time,  or  by  whom, 
the  ring  was  worn  or  dropt ;  but,  in  addition  to  the  story  of  its  having 
belonged  to  an  architect  of  William  the  Lion's  reign,  another  version 
says  it  was  that  of  the  master-mason  of  David  II.,  and  that  he  received 
it  from  that  prince,  and  lost  it  in  the  manner  related."1 

We  have  already  given  the  chronological  refutation  of  the  story, 
eo  far  as  it  associates  William  the  Lion's  reign  with  the  erection 
of  St  Mary's;  but  the  other  suggestion,  of  David  the  Second's 
reign,  is  more  plausible.  The  latter  part  of  his  reign  coincides 
with  the  style  of  the  Church  and  Tower ;  and,  on  looking  into  the 
records  of  that  period,  we  light  upon  a  master-mason  who  had  then 
acquired  a  considerable  fame  in  church-building.  This  was  Sir 

1  Jervise's  Memorials,  p.  179. 


S20  IH9TOBY  OF  DUKDER. 

William  Disehington,  a  surname  familiarly  contract/*!  into  Putin,  and 
well  known  in  the  east  of  Fife.1  We  know  that  Diachingtou  was 
architect  or  master-mason  of  the  beautiful  church  at  St  Monans,1 
which  agrees  completely  in  style  with  our  Tower,  and  with  the  church 
and  steeple  at  Brechin.  Again,  it  is  found  that  Diachington  received, 
in  1366,  from  David  II.,  a  grant  of  the  mill  of  Aberloinno,  and  the 
adjoining  lands  of  Tilly  whandland  and  flalglsssie,  together  with  an 
annuity  from  those  of  Flemington,  all  lying  a  few  miles  ^westward  of 
Brechin.*  Is  it  straining  probabilities  to  conclude,  that  the  services 
for  which  the  king  bestowed  these  substantial  rewards  were  of  the 
architectural  kind  in  which  the  Fifeshire  knight  was  known  to  be 
proficient  1 

The  Tower,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  illustrations  we  give  of  it,  is 
square  throughout,  and  is  in  two  great  stages,  each  finished  by  an 
open  quatrefoil  parapet,  with  pinnacles  at  the  angles,  and  at  intervals 
on  each  side ;  the  upper  parapet  having  a  bold  cusped  cresting 
the  coping.     The  lower  stage  is  96  feet  in  height  from  the  floor  ! 
to  the  top  of  its  parapet ;  from  which,  to  the  top  of  upper  era: 
tli<-  height  is  50  feet    The  base  measures  40  feet  on  the  side  externally  ; 
the  internal  dimension  being  26}  feet,  diminishing  to  25  feet  square  in 
the  upper  or  belfry  stage.    The  walls,  for  some  reason  or  other,  dill 
thickness,  the  west  being  eight  feet,  while  the  east  is  but  6  feet.    Th- 
lower  stage  has  buttresses  at  the  corners,  terminating  in  dimin 
pinnacles,  which  rise  to  the  height  of  57  feet.     The  buttresses  have 
small  canopied  niches  in  the  lower  stage,  which  doubtless  contained 
figures ;  but,  being  easily  reached  by  the  iconoclastic  hands  of  the 
Reformers,  these  niches  have  long  been  empty.    The  centre  pinnacle  of 
the  first  parapet  contained  a  figure  of  the  virgin  and  child,  which,  being 
more  difficult  to  reach,  has  come  down  to  our  day,  though  much  de- 
cayed by  the  corroding  tooth  of  time,  and  has  been  duly  replaced  in 
the  recent  restoration.     Another  figure,  that  of  St  David,  has  been 
placed  in  a  recess  on  the  south  front ;  but  why  that  saint  should  be 
pitched  upon  does  not  appear,  as  the  probabilities  are  altogether  against 

1  The  family  held  the  estate  of  Ardrutt,  near  Elie,  in  the  15th  and  16tb  oen 
turiea,     In  1517,  Thomas  Diahington  was  captain  of  the  Palace  of  8t  Andrew*. 
A  couplet  from  an  old  ballad  relative  to  Crail  run*  thui : 
M  Wa*  yo«  •*!•  In  OmU  town  T 

8mw  jr«  them  Ctok  DtKBiactoa  r 
— Anderwo'a  Scott.  Nation,  IL,  page  38. 

•  Chamberlain  Bella,  L  4M,  634.          •  ReguUr  Ma*  %..  M.  44,  121 


ARCHITECTURAL  FEATURES  OF  THE  TOWER.  221 

his  association  with  the  edifice,  and  in  favour  of  St  Andrew,  the 
patron  Saint  of  Scotland.  On  the  east  side,  a  few  feet  above  the 
ridge  of  the  nave,  another  recess  has  been  filled  with  an  effigy  of  the 
Saviour,  with  still  less  justification,  as  the  mouldering  original,  so  far 
as  it  could  be  made  out,  appeared  to  be  rather  a  coat-of-arms,  perhaps 
the  triple-flowered  lily  of  the  Virgin,  which  is  known  to  have  been 
the  seal  of  the  Chantry,  and  eventually  became,  in  the  shape  of  "  the 
pot  and  lily,"  the  ensign  armorial  of  the  town  of  Dundee. 

The  grand  entrance  to  the  Tower  was  by  the  double  doorway  in  the 
west  front,  each  opening  having  a  round  arch,  and  both  embraced  in 
an  elliptic  arch,  enclosed  by  a  square  hood — a  peculiarly  provincial 
feature.  Over  the  doorway  is  a  noble  six-light  window,  the  head  of 
which  is  filled  with  simple  but  effective  tracery.  This  lights  the  fine 
entrance  hall,  which  is  ceiled  by  a  lofty  groined  vault,  46  feet  above 
the  floor,  having  a  circular  opening  five  feet  diameter  in  the  centre, 
while  a  corresponding  arch  on  the  east  side,  now  built  up,  formed  the 
entrance  to  the  nave  of  the  Church.  Over  the  large  west  window 
there  is  a  rose  or  wheel  window,  13  feet  in  diameter,  filled  with  quatre- 
foil  tracery  hexagonally  disposed ;  and  over  this  again  a  simple  two- 
light  window,  remarkable  for  its  dissimilarity  from  the  others  as  regards 
mouldings,  it  having  indeed  no  mouldings  on  the  jambs  but  simple  splays. 

The  upper  stage  of  Tower  is  subdivided  by  a  string  moulding  into 
two  stories,  the  lower  one  having  grouped  windows,  three  on  each  side, 
except  the  north,  where  the  stair-turret  leaves  space  only  for  a  pair  ; 
and  similarly,  the  upper  story  has  a  pair  of  the  same  style  of  windows 
on  each  of  three  sides,  and  one  on  the  northern  side.  A  circular  stair, 
polygonal  externally,  is  placed  at  the  north-east  angle  of  the  Tower, 
entered  by  a  doorway  in  the  corner  of  the  large  hall,  and  to  which 
also  access  is  got  from  the  outside  by  a  door  which  was  broken  out 
at  the  time  the  prisoners  were  transferred  from  the  Town  House  to 
the  Steeple,  before  the  new  Gaol  Buildings  were  erected. 

The  cape-house,  which  occupies  the  summit,  has  been  the  object  of 
considerable  discussion,  and  its  preservation  has  even  been  advocated, 
as  a  genuine  and  app  ropriate  finish  to  the  Tower.  That  it  has  no 
claim  to  be  considered  of  the  same  age  as  the  Tower,  or  part  of  the 
original  design,  is  obvious  on  the  most  cursory  examination.  The 
masonry  is  of  a  much  later  kind,  and  portions  of  moulded  work  are  to 
be  seen  built  into  it  which  were  evidently  prepared  for  quite  a  different 
purpose,  and  for  which  also  proj  .u.-itions  have  been  made,  near  the  top  of 


'-  .'  -  BIUORY  Of  DOVDBB, 

the  Tower  walk,  by  building  over  the  angles,  an  will  be  0een  OB  the  Mo- 
tion here  given.  This  strengthening  of  the  angles,  technically  called 
a  nqninrh,  was  provided  for  carrying  a  flying  buttress  on  each  corner, 
or  some  form  of  lantern  or  spire,  and  would  never  be  thought  of  for 
a  cape-house.  Such  a  house  was,  without  doubt,  an  after  thought, 
hurriedly  put  up,  as  the  disposition  of  the  loopholes  indicates,  for  a 
place  of  observation  ;  and  to  be  regarded  therefore  as  an  excrescence 
which  must  be  removed,  if  justice  is  to  be  done  to  the  Tower. 

The  primary  purpose  of  the  Tower  had  doubtless  been  to  serve  as  a 
belfry,  and  accordingly  we  find  early  and  continuous  reference  to  the 
bulls  contained  in  it.  The  oldest  are  the  two  commonly  called  the 
great  and  the  little  bell.  In  the  time  of  the  rebellion,  in  1 745,  a  large 
part  wu  broken  out  of  the  edge  of  the  former,  and  a  considerable  rent 
made,  by  a  violent  ringing  to  celebrate  the  arrival  of  some  succours 
sent  from  France.  It  remained  in  this  state  till  1819,  when  it  WM 
taken  down,  sent  to  London,  and  re-cast,  but  of  a  considerably  less  size. 
The  names  of  the  Magistrates  at  the  time  are  round  the  crown,  in 
Human  capitals,  thus : — 

"DCSDRE,  1819.  PATRICK  AJTDDMOS,  PROVOST;  DAVID  BROWK,  DAVID  BAXKKL, 
JAMB  GRAY,  ARCHIBALD  OGILVIR,  BAILIBB  ;  DAVID  aiAia,  JCJTB-,  DRAW  or  GUILD  ; 

T.  HEARS  Or  LOVDOH,  FECIT." 

The  little  bell  was  also  inscribed  thus  : — 

"  VKRBUM    DOUIVI  MAJOR   HI    ETEB.Xf  M.      MI  FBCtT  J.  OVDBBROGOE,  ROTXRODAMI, 

IMS." 

It  is  probable  that  the  same  founders  had  also  originally  cast  the  largo 

bell  at  the  same  time. 

In  1872,  a  movement  was  set  on  foot  to  provide,  as  a  sequel  to  the 
restoration  of  the  Tower  then  in  progress,  a  peal  of  bells  worthy  ol 
the  noble  belfry;  and,  under  the  energetic  superintendence  of  Mr 
John  Leng,  six  new  bells  were  provided,  through  the  liberality  ol 
individual  donors,  while  a  general  subscription  furnished  the  means 
for  mounting  these  in  a  suitable  style.  The  "  old  bell,"  mentioned 
above,  forms  the  tenor  or  eighth  of  the  series,  its  weight  being  20  cwt., 
diameter  49  inches,  note  £ ;  but  the  "  little  belt,"  having  been  found 
unsuitable,  was  re-cast  to  form  the  seventh.  It  now  weighs  14  cwt. 
1  qr.,  is  43  inches  diameter,  and  gives  the  note  ¥  sharp.  It  cost 
£121  Is.  6d,  and  bears  this  inscription  :— 

DtKDEX,    1872.      JAMB    YKAMA*,   ROTOST;   W.   BBOWXUB,   AUKS.    MAXWELL,   A.    B, 
MOjrCCR,  O.   T.    ORAHAM,   W.  CHALMERS,  D.    rBTRIR,   RAIUX*;   R.  MACSUOOBTAB, 

IMUB  or  utiu>;  n.  MACDUVALU,  oovv.  or  rmur«arr  ouMturrsm, 


THE  PEAL  OF  BELLS.  223 

Gth. — Weight,  11  cwt.  1  qr.  ;  40  ins.  diameter  ;  note  Q  sharp.     The  gift  of  Job  a 

Leng,  Esq. — cost  £105. 
Inscription. — DEUM  LABIIS  EXSULTATIONIS  LAUDABIT  os  MEUM.     DEDICATPM  A 

JOHANNE  ET  EMILIA  LENG,  MDCCCLXXII. 

5th. — Weight,  9  cwt.  3  qrs. ;  38  inches  diameter  ;  note  A.     The  gift  of  Thomas 
Thornton,  Esq. — cost  £90. 

Inscription. — HOCCB  DONATUM  EST  A  THOMA  THOBNTON  ET  HELENA  HEAN  EJUS 

UXOBE  MORTUA  :   A.D.  MDCCCLXXn. 

itk. — Weight,  8  cwt. ;  34  inches  diameter;  note  B.     The  gift  of  J.  W.  Thomson, 

Esq. — cost  £75. 

Inscription. — 1872  :  DEDICATED  BY  j.  w.  THOMSON  TO  THE  MEMORY  OF  HIS  BKLOVI  D 

FATHER,  THE  BEV.  JAMES  THOMSON,  MINISTER  OF  THE   STEEPLE  CHURCH  Fi/R   L1I. 
YEARS.      QUIS  DESIDEBIO  SIT  PUDOB  AUT  MODUS  TAM  CABI  CAPITIS I 

Sd. — Weight,  7  cwt. ;  32  inches  diameter ;  note  C  sharp.    The  gift  of  Frank 

Henderson,  Esq. — cost  £65. 
Inscription. — IN  MEMOBIAM  HENRICI  HENDERSON,  IN  PACE  MDCCCLXXI.     EX  DONO 

FRANK  HENDERSON,  MDCCCLXXII. 

2d. — Weight,  6  cwt.  1  qr. ;  30  inches  diameter  ;  note  D  sharp.     The  gift  of 

James  Cox,  Esq. — cost  £60. 
Inscription. — PRESENTED  BY  JAMES  cox  OP  CLEMENT  PARK,  FIRST  BAILIE  OF  DUNDKK, 

AND    SENIOR    PARTNER    OF   THE    FIRM   OF    COX    BBOTHEBS,    CAMPERDOWN     LINK:* 
WORKS,  1871. 

1st. — Weight,  6  cwt.  J  29  inches  diameter;  note  E.    The  gift  of  William  Harris, 

Esq. — cost  £56. 
Inscription. — QULIELMUS  HARRIS,  EX-MERCATORIBUS  TAODUNENSIBUS  UNUS  ET  UNUS 

QUONDAM  EX   MAQISTHATIBUS   HUIC  OPPIDO  QUO  ORIUNDUS  HOCCE   DONUM  DEDIT, 
MDCCCLXXII. 

The  bells  were  cast  by  Messrs  Mears  &  Stainbank  of  Whitechapel, 
London,  and  are  considered  worthy  of  their  reputation.  They  have 
been  rendered  more  complete  and  serviceable  by  the  hand  chimes,  the 
cost  of  which  was  defrayed  by  Messrs  W.  Myles  and  P.  Anderson, 
which  now  give  the  citizens  frequent  gratification,  and  form  an  effec- 
tive feature  when  their  harmonies  are  pealed  forth  on  public  occasions. 
The  bells  were  inaugurated  and  formally  handed  over  to  the  municipal 
authorities  on  the  Queen's  birth-day,  21st  May,  1872  ;  on  which 
occasion  there  was  also  placed,  under  the  base  of  the  centre  shaft  of 
the  doorway,  a  memorial  stone,  in  the  cavity  of  which,  besides  the 
usual  coins  and  official  lists,  the  following  document  was  deposited : — 

"On  Wednesday,  the  twenty-first  day  of  May,  1873,  in  the  thirty-sixth  year  of 
the  reign  of  Her  Most  Gracious  Majesty  Queen  Victoria,  being  the  day  fixed  by 
the  Magistrates  of  Dundee  for  the  celebration  of  the  fifty-fourth  anniversary  of 
Her  Majes;y'a  birth,  in  presence  of  the  Magistrates  and  Town  Council  and  othera 
assembled,  the  contents  of  this  glass  bottle  were  deposited  under  the  middle  base 


~  -  t  HDTOET  OF  DUITDHL 

of  the  doorway  of  the  Tower  of  8t  Mary,  known  u  UM  Old  fltMpU  of  Dundee, 
by  JamecCox,  Require,  *enior  partner  of  the  firm  of  Cox  Brother*,  manufacturer*, 
Camperdown  Linen  Work*.  Locbee  and  Dundee,  and  Prurort  and  Chief  Ma^i*- 
trate  of  UM  Royal  Burgh  of  Dundee. 

"A  peal  of  bell*,  given  by  ••iWrij.U.«»  of  individual  inhabiUnU,  w«f»  this 
day  handed  or«r  to  UM  Town  Council  on  behalf  of  the  community. 

M  According  to  Boethtua,  lib.  ziiL  275,  27*.  tola  Tower  wa«  founded  by  Darid, 
Earl  of  Huntingdon,  brother  to  William  First  of  Scotland,  in  eommemoration  of 
hi*  Wing  Mved  from  ahipwreck  in  aight  of  Dundee,  when  returning  from  the 
Holy  Land,  where  he  had  been  in  the  Third  Cnuade  with  Richard  First  of  Bnf> 
land  in  1189. 

44  Having  fallen  into  durepair,  it«  reetoration  was  undertaken.  In  1870,  under 
the  •uperintendenoe  of  Sir  George  Gilbert  Scott,  architect ;  and  UM  tfpenea, 
estimated  to  be  about  £8000,  wu  defrayed,  partly  by  aubecriptiona  from  UM 
inhabitant*,  and  partly  from  the  funda  of  the  Common  Good  of  the  burgh." 


CHURCH  OF  ST.  MART. 

Refcrenfei  to  Plan  of  original  ftrvcture,  as  supposed  to  hat*  «aeitttd 
in  15th  century. 

A ,  Weatern  Tower  (the  only  portion  now  entire). 
/?,         Nare. 

C,C,    Aialea. 
I),        Tranaept. 

B,  Choir. 

P,  Cheret,  or  A  pee. 

0,  Chapter  Houae. 

B,  High  Altar. 

/,  8t  Andrew'*  Aiale,  or  Chapel,  and  Altar. 

JT,  George  Spalding't  Tomb. 

L,  Altar  of  All-Saint*. 

If,  „    of  the  Rood  or  Holy  Croat, 

ft,  H    of  the  Holy  Blood. 

0,  Sacruty  (f),  afterward*  the  Library. 

P,  Pulpit.  &     Font  R.     Roud*cte«i. 


HISTORY    OF  DUNDEE. 


J  ?  T  y  y  p 


gtttion 

ANCIENT  OHUBCHES — ST  PAUL — ST  CLEMENT — 8T  JOHN — BT  MICHAEL — OUB  LADY — ST 
8ALVADOB — ST  THOMAS — ST  NICHOLAS,  ETC.  MONASTEBIES — OBEY,  BLACK,  AND  BED 
FBIABS. 

BESIDES  the  altarages  and  chaplainries  which  have  been  already 
described  as  founded  within  the  great  church  of  St  Mary,  there  were 
many  others,  and  a  number  of  chapels  throughout  the  town,  which 
were  endowed  for  secular  cleigy,  either  by  fixed  annual  rents  or  the 
proceeds  of  lands  leased  orvfeued.  One  of  these  altars,  dedicated  to 
St  Margaret,  the  Queen  of*  Malcolm  Canmore,  appears  to  have  been 
of  some  note  ;  but  it  is  impossible  to  say  whether  it  was  located  within 
the  parish  church  or  in  a  separate  chapel  in  the  town.  The  advow- 
son  of  this  altar  belonged  to  the  Scrymgeours  of  Dudhope.  After 
the  Eeformation,  the  revenues  of  it  were  applied  to  the  education 
of  poor  and  meritorious  youths  aspiring  to  the  ministry  of  the  Re- 
formed  Church — a  laudable  purpose,  to  which  other  revenues  of  the 
Romish  foundations  were  frequently  applied  down  to  the  time  of  the 
Revolution.  We  find  a  curious  notice  of  one  presentation  made  by 
Scrymgeour  [1562-89]  to  Erskine  of  Dun,  as  "bischop  and  superin- 
tendent" of  the  district,  in  favour  of  Robert  Gray,  son  of  Patrick 
Gray  of  Baledgarno,  in  which  the  youth  is  quaintly  described  as  a 
"  scolar  of  gud  injine,  liable  to  encress  in  literature  and  sciences, 
cuivile  and  diuine."  The  deed  then  enumerates  the  houses  and  gar- 
dens situated  in  Dundee,  with  their  extent  and  value,  the  revenues  of 
which  Gray  was  to  receive  during  his  lifetime,  "  to  support  his  burd- 
ing  and  expenss  at  grammar  scolis,  and  scolis  of  vniversities  in  his 
minority,  and  to  by  his  buiks  to  help  his  stude ;  to  the  fine,  that  he 
may  cum  to  perfectioun  of  knawledge,  and  be  plantit  in  the  kirk  of 
God,  to  maintenn  the  religioun,  and  set  forth  the  gospel  of  Jesus  Christ."1 
Of  the  other  chapels  and  religious  houses  scattered  throughout  the 
town,  it  is  difficult  to  give  any  precise  account ;  the  sites  of  most  of 
them  are  matter  of  conjecture,  based  upon  the  names  of  lanes  and 
streets  which  exist  to  the  present  day,  and  probably  indicate  the 
locality  of  ancient  chapels  dedicated  to  those  saints.  The  following 
particulars  embrace  all  that  is  known  concerning  these  minor  ecclesias- 
tical antiquities. 

i  "  Crawford's  Officers  of  State,"  p.  450-2. 
t 


L  .  n  laroBT  OF 


Church  o 

The  first  church  known  in  Dundee  in  believed  to  be  that  of  81 
Paul,  which  was  situated  between  the  Murraygate  and  Seagate,  nearly 
oppoaite  the  Dog  Well,  where  a  small  court,  opening  from  the  former 
street,  still  bears  the  name  of  the  Aposttft.  At  what  time  it  waa 
erected,  in  what  manner  it  was  endowed,  and  by  whom,  an  all  alike 
unknown.  The  place  where  it  stood,  and  also  it*  burying-grouiid, 
have  been  for  many  ages  occupied  with  other  buildings,  in  the  walla 
of  the  oldest  of  some  of  which  are  to  be  seen  niches,  fragments  of 
sculptured  stones,  and  pieces  of  moulding,1  relics,  no  doubt,  of  the 
desecrated  church.  This  district  of  the  town  is  the  cure  of  die  vicar, 
or  senior  minister  of  the  South  Church,  and  hence  takes  the  name  of 
the  parish  or  district  of  St  Paul 


Church  of  £t  CUmntt 

This  church,  which  contained  one  super-foundation,  the  altar  or 
chapelry  of  St  Mary,  of  which  nothing  is  known,  stood  on  the  site 
of  the  present  Town-house.  At  what  time  and  by  whom  it  was 
erected  are  unknown,  as  are  also  the  erector  and  date  of  erection  of  th» 
included  chapelry.*  The  burying-ground  connected  with  the  church, 

1  Within  a  Luge  timber  yard,  on  the  couth  aide  of  the  Seagate,  now  in  part 
occupied  by  GeUatly  Street,  opiate  the  aite  of  St  Paul,  there  WM  a  Luge  atoue 
which  formed  the  Lintel  of  a  lime  «hed  Beaidee  other  aculpturae  thta  •ton*  was 
hi/m^hmA  thus,  in  Roman  character!  in  low  relief. 

1.  Thor.  nal.  half,  no  vther.  Ooddie.  hot.  me.  2.  Thov. 
ami.  rorachip.  no.  grarine.  image,  t.  Thov.  mL  not. 
•weir.  4  Remember,  to.  keip.  holy.  the.  Saboithe.  day. 
16  6.  Honvr.  thy.  father,  and.  mother.  Thor.  aal.  not. 
alaye.  7.  Thor.  aal.  not.  oomit  adultere.  8.  ThoT.  aaL 
not  ateaL  9.  Thor.  aaL  bear.  no.  fala.  vitnea.  10.  Thov. 
•ml.  oowit.  no.  thing,  yt,  i*.  yai.  niohbovria. 

Thia  cannot  be  taken  M  a  relic  of  the  demolished  church,  but  rather  aa  an  in- 
door fireaide  monitor  to  some  staid  ciauen  of  the  Utter  end  of  the  aizteenth 
oontury. 

1  The  demolition,  in  1872,  of  the  buildings  behind  the  Town-houae  revealed 
many  fiagiaeute  which  might  have  prored  of  intereet,  but  no  paine  were  taken 
to  preserve  them.  We  are  indebted  to  Mr  Chaiiee  S.  Lawaon  for  notec  of  aeveral 
!•>•  eating,  remains  diainterred  oa  thu  ooeatton.  A  capital  of  a  pfllar,  bearing 
amoaw  «he  oarvuig  two  •shiiia,  one  charged  with  the  Bojal  Anna  of 


ECCLESIASTICAL  ANTIQUITIES.  227 

which  extended  downwards  by  St  Clement's  Lane  to  the  sea-shore, 
and  thence  westward  to  Crichton  Street,  was  the  common  place  of 
interment  before  the  Greyfriars  property  was  granted  for  that  pur- 
pose. In  1827,  while  excavations  for  buildings  on  the  east  side  of 
Crichton  Street  were  being  made,  several  graves  were  found,  and 
quantities  of  bones  brought  to  view.  In  one  of  Slezers'  views  of  the 
town,  published  in  1696,  the  church  is  seen  towering  above  the  sur- 
rounding buildings,  and  appears  to  have  been  at  that  time  a  huge  ob- 
long structure,  with  a  high  steep  roof,  and  a  small  circular  turret, 
capped  with  a  cone  at  eaph  of  the  four  corners.  When  the  old  Tol- 
booth  or  Town-house,  in  the  Seagate,  was  disused,  the  Council  meet- 
ings were  held  in  the  vestry  of  St  Clement's  Church. 

Of  the  endowments  of  this  church  there  is  no  record  extant,  be- 
yond what  is  contained  in  the  oldest  existing  rent-roll  of  the  town's 
property,  which  contains  only  an  amount  of  ,£21  11s.,  of  which  sum 
£]  5  and  sixteen  bolls  of  victual,  partly  wheat  and  partly  meal,  were 
drawn  from  the  middle  third  part  of  the  lands  of  Craigie,  the  remainder 
of  the  money  being  small  annuals  drawn  from  seven  owners  of  house 
property  in  different  parts  of  the  town.  Besides  these  sums  there  was 
one  of  five  merks,  or  £3  6s.  8d.,  which  had  fallen  into  arrear,  which, 
-added  to  the  above  sum,  makes  the  whole  money  revenue  amount  to 
£24  17s.  8d. 


Church  ot  <St  Jshn  th*  Sbangelisi,  at  tht  <SIate 

This  church  was  situated  upon  a  rock  a  short  distance  east  of  Caro- 
lina Port,  at  about  a  mile  and  a  quarter  nearly  from  the  High  Street. 
Immediately  on  the  north  side  of  its  site  there  is  a  quarry  which  seems 
to  have  furnished  a  kind  of  course  flag-slates  from  a  remote  period ; 
and  hence  the  designation  of  the  church,  "  Saint  John  of  the  Sklethe- 
wchis,"  or  slate  quarries,  to  distinguish  it  from  chnrches  dedicated  to 
the  honour  and  memory  of  the  Evangelist  at  other  places.  The  time 
of  its  erection  and  the  name  of  its  founder  are  both  unknown,  neither 
is  there  anything  certainly  known,  in  so  far  as  we  are  aware,  of  its 

and  the  other  with  those  of  Joan  Beaufort,  queen  of  James  I.,  is  of  importance 
as  indicating  the  date  of  erection  to  have  been  in  the  reign  of  that  monarch 
(1421-1437).  The  basis  of  the  main  pillars  of  the  church  were  likewise  laid  bare, 
showing  circular  clustered  shafts  to  have  surrounded  the  centre  pier,  indicating  a 
style  of  architecture  which  bears  out  the  era  of  its  erection  suggested  by  the  royal 
shieH .  ED. 


'.'  '_'  •>  introRT  OF 


fixed  endowments,  beyond  what  is  contained  in  the  ancient  rent-roll* 
of  the  town's  property.  These  endowments,  amounting  to  the  trifling 
sum  of  £&  3s.  1  Id.,  were  derived  from  seven  owners  of  house  pro- 
perty in  various  parts  of  the  town  ;  but,  as  the  church  was  a  pnri«h 
church,  and  as  the  parish  had  most  likely  comprehended  the  estates  of 
Craigie  and  Wallace  Craigie,  the  pnedial  and  other  ecclesiastical  bur- 
dens affecting  the  land  would,  of  course,  contribute  to  make  the  living 
at  least  respectable. 

In  the  course  of  last  century,  and  perhaps  earlier,  the  churchyard, 
open  and  neglected,  was  used  as  a  place  of  interment  for  seafaring 
people  not  belonging  to  the  town,  for  strangers,  and  for  those  whom 
accident  or  violence  brought  to  a  premature  end.  It  was  also  the 
family  burial  place  of  the  Kyds,  formerly  designed  of  Craigie,  who 
acquired  that  estate  about  or  before  1  660  ;  and  as  a  place  of  interment 
it  i«  still  used,  particularly  by  the  present  family  of  Craigie  (who 
erected  a  vault  in  1829,  at  nearly  the  centre  of  the  ground),  and  by 
several  other  families  possessing  a  right  of  sepulchre  within  its  pre- 
cincts, either  as  feuars  of  parcels  of  the  lands  of  Craigie,  or  by  purchase. 
The  area  is  limited,  a  huge  part  of  the  south  side  having  been  quarried 
away  many  yean  ago  ;  but  what  remains  is  substantially  enclosed,  and 
tastefully  planted  with  ornamental  trees  and  shrubs.  The  church 
would  seem  to  have  stood  a  few  feet  to  the  north-east  of  Craigie's 
vault  In  digging  two  graves,  in  May  and  June  1  844,  at  that  spot, 
several  courses  of  strong  mason-work  were  dug  up,  and  in  no  other 
quarter  of  the  ground  was  any  obstruction  of  the  kind  ever  met  with. 


Cliaptl  of  Onr  l>bp  in  the 

This  chapel  is  understood  to  have  been  situated  at  the  top  of  Our 
Lady's  Wynd,  afterwards  called  Fintry's  Wyud,  and  now  the  Sugar- 
house  Wynd,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Cowgate.  From  having  been 
on  part  of  the  sites  of  the  building  erected  many  years  ago  by  Mr 
"William  Kirkaldy,  the  chapel  would  seem  to  have  been  on  the  east- 
ward of  the  inner  wall  erected  by  the  French  when  they  fortified  the 
town,  the  wall  being  understood  to  have  been  carried  along  the  west 
side  of  the  wynd,  as  the  wynd  itself  is  supposed  to  have  been  the  bed 
of  the  ditch.  All  that  is  further  known  concerning  this  chapel  is  a 
littlo  rcla'.ivo  to  its  revenues,  the  recorded  amount  of  which  is  onh 


ECCLESIASTICAL  ANTIQUITIES.  '229 

3s.  4d.,  accruing  from  fifteen  separate  tenements  in  different  parts  of 
the  town,  the  largest  payment  being  "fourtie  twa  ss.,"  and  the  small- 
est "  twelff  d."  This  paltry  sum  shows  that,  if  the  ordinary  at  tenders 
at  the  chapel  had  been  deficient  in  Christian  feeling  and  generosity,  it 
is  very  clear  this  amount  of  endowment  would  not  have  kept  the 
chaplain  long  from  starving. 


Chapel  of  <St  ^ftichael  thx  Jlrehattjtl. 

This  chapel  was  situated  within  the  town  residence  of  the  old 
Earls  of  Crawford,  called  the  "  Earl's  Lodging,"  and  consequently  was 
a  private  family  oratory.  As  the  house  continued  the  property  of  that 
family  from  the  time  of  its  erection  till  the  forfeiture  of  Earl  Ludo- 
wick  in  1555,  and  of  Lord  Lindsay  of  the  Byres  from  that  date  till 
1608,  when  it  reverted  to  the  then  Lord  Crawford,  it  is  therefore 
manifest  that  it  could  not  be  included  in  Queen  Mary's  grant  of  the 
religious  properties  to  the  town.  Though  nothing  is  known  of  the 
emoluments  of  this  chapel,  nor  of  the  provision  for  the  maintenance 
of  the  chaplain,  there  can  be  little  doubt  but  that  the  situation  would 
be  desirable,  as,  before  the  Eeformation,  the  officiating  clergyman 
may  be  supposed  to  have  been  the  Earl's,  if  not  the  family-confessor. 
The  "  Earl's  Lodging"  was  demolished  to  make  way  for  Union  Street. 


Of  this  chapel  there  is  nothing  known  further  than  that  it  stood  at 
the  foot  of  the  Hilltown,  near  the  Lady  Well ;  and  being  dedicated  to 
the  honour  of  the  Virgin  Mother,  the  name  had  been  extended  to  the 
fountain,  as  well  as  to  an  adjacent  yard,  within  which  the  chapel  had 
probably  been  erected.  There  is  some  reason  to  suppose  that  a  small 
nunnery  existed  here,  which  was  dedicated  to  Our  Lady,  from  which 
the  Lady  Well  was  derived,  as,  from  their  detestation  of  the  ancient 
Church  and  every  thing  connected  with  it,  the  early  reformers  were 
not  very  particular  in  their  designation  of  things. 


of  ,-St 
This  chapel  stood  without  the  Cowgate  Port,  beside  the  Bitterburn, 


'-  •"  BISTORT  OF  DUXDUL 

between  the  Den  Bridge  and  the  East  Port,  where  a  steep  lane  con- 
necting King  Street,  the  Cowgate,  and  Seagate,  ha*  from  it  the  name 
of  8t  Roque'a  Lane,  vulgarised  into  Semiroolrie.  It  is  nndeatood  to 
hare  been  on  the  east  side  of  the  burn,  and  consequently  on  the  land* 
of  Wallace  Craigie,  which,  at  and  before  the  Reformation,  were  the 
property  of  Brace  of  Earl's  Hull,  in  the  paruh  of  Leuchan ;  and  thus, 
from  being  private  property,  had  escaped  being  conveyed  to  the  town, 
a*  its  name  does  not  occur  in  the  ancient  rent-roll. 

There  was  a  burying-ground  in  the  vicinity  of  the  cite  ;  but  as  the 
place  was  not  far  distant  (at  the  Foundry  and  Whale  Lane*,  when 
th<-  t<i\m  h'-l'l  two  acres  of  ground  in  connection  with  a  salmon-fish- 
ing), from  where  the  booths  were  erected  for  the  accommodation  of 
those  who  were  infected  with  the  plague  in  the  sixteenth  century,  it 
is  probable  that  many,  if  not  all,  of  such  as  died  of  that  distemper 
were  buried  here.  It  is  also  probable  that  these  interments  were  the 
cause  of  a  cemetery  being  here,  from  the  circumstance  of  the  neigh- 
bourhood being,  in  some  degree,  esteemed  consecrated  ground  by  the 
ion  of  the  chapel ;  and  it  is  very  likely  that  these  were  the  only 
interments  that  had  taken  place  at  this  spot.1  The  aite  of  the  bury- 
ing-ground is  now  occupied  by  Wisliart  Church  and  other  buildings. 


Ch*?el  of  £t  £*U»bor. 

This  chapel  is  mentioned  as  existing  in  the  reign  of  Robert  IL 
(who  died  in  1390),  but  how  long  before  that  age  is  unknown,  nor 
by  whom  erected.  It  was  situated  on  the  rocky  eminence  on  the 

1  8t  Rocfaiu  or  Roque,  to  whom  the  chapel  WM  dedicated,  ia,  according  to 
Hagiology,  not  very  ancient,  and.  according  to  the  Breviary  of  Aberdeen,  he  WM 
•  native  of  Narbonne.  and  flourished  in  the  fourteenth  century.  Hi*  feethral  WM 
oaUUatod  on  the  3d  of  Auguat.  Si  Boqoe  WM  held  in  great  veneration  while  a 
life,  M  well  M  after  bia  death,  for  the  influence  he  wae  auppoeed  to  azetBJei  orer 
the  ravage*  of  the  plague,  having  completely  annihilated  that  dreadful  anoorge  in 
many  ptaeea,  M  wall  after  hi*  death  M  when  alive.  Probably  it  WM  from  aorne 
lingering  ideM  of  ihia  influence  being  effioaoious  that  the  pest-etnick  inhabitanta 
of  Dundee  were  accommodated  near  his  chapel  in  1544,  and,  at  their  deaths,  fetter- 
red  tioeido  it,  or  within  ita  precinct*  Hie  Breviary  of  Aberdeen  notice*  that,  at 
hi*  birth.  Us  hreaat  WM  marked  with  a  croam,  and  that  while  an  infant  herefnaed 
to  sack  hit  mother's  milk  while  ehe  WM  obeerving  the  faate  of  the  Church — thia 
infaatile  diacrinii nation,  of  OOUTM,  betokening  the  austere  and  reUgioua  life  he  WM 
altorwanU  to  lead. 


ECCLESIASTICAL  ANTIQUITIES.  231 

north  side  of  the  High  Street  and  Overgate,  where  a  close  or  court 
leading  to  where  it  stood  bears  his  name,  though  the  site  has  been 
quarried  away  since  1830.  From  its  proximity  to  the  situation  of  the 
palace,  which  was  in  the  neighbouring  court  of  St  Margaret,  now  the 
Mint  Close,  it  is  not  impossible  but  that  it  had  been  an  appendage  of  the 
regium  donum  ;  or  it  may  have  been  erected  by  some  one  of  the  barons 
of  Dundee  after  the  barony  came  to  be  divided  among  different 
families. 

In  the  reign  of  Eobert  II.,  his  nephew,  Patrick  de  Inverpeffer, 
acquired  the  lands  of  the  middle  third  part,  or  Milltown  of  Craigie,  on 
the  resignation  of  Alexander  Scrymseoure,  third  constable  of  Dundee, 
who  immediately  conveyed  them  to  this  chapel,  the  grant  being  con- 
firmed by  his  cousin,  Eobert  III.,  in  1309.  The  grant  also  contained 
a  gift  of  the  third  part  (four  acres)  of  the  lands  of  Westfield. 

The  money  revenues,  so  far  as  they  can  be  ascertained,  amounted  to 
£23  19s.  8d.,  which  were  derived  from  various  tenements  in  the  town, 
but  chiefly  from  nine  or  ten  houses  situated  on  both  sides  of  St  Sal- 
vador's Close,  which  are  now  occupied  by  the  extensive  printing,  litho- 
graphing, and  bookbinding  establishment  of  Messrs  John  Durham  & 
Son.  This  sum,  added  to  the  rents  of  the  land-endowments  and 
donations  from  pious  individuals,  would  make  a  living  far  from  des- 
picable in  those  days,  though  at  the  present  time  the  same  nominal 
income  would  be  a  very  trifle.  In  ancient  times,  if  some  provision 
was  not  made  by  the  founder  of  a  chapel,  or  some  other  pious  indivi- 
duals, for  procuring  necessaries,  such  as  lights,  wine,  &c.,  for  the  pur- 
poses of  the  chapel,  the  incumbent  for  the  time  had  to  defray  the 
expense  of  procuring  them  himself,  which,  in  the  case  of  poor  livings, 
which  were  numerous,  would  seriously  affect  their  incomes ;  and  al- 
though the  income  of  the  chaplain  of  St  Salvador  appears  respectable, 
it  is  not  unlikely  that  it  has  been  little  more  than  sufficient  for  his 
support. 


Chaptl  of  <St  ^hcmss 

All  that  is  known  regarding  this  chapel  is  very  little,  and  that  little, 
along  with  what  is  known  concerning  the  four  immediately  following, 
is  contained  in  the  MSS.  of  Mr  David  Wedderburn,  who  flourished 
in  the  reign  of  James  VI. ,  and  at  one  time  was  a  member  of  Town 
Council.  These  chapels,  as  they  were  the  property  of  the  constable, 


232  BISTORT 

Sir  Junes  Scrymseoure  of  Dndhope,  may  lure  been  founded  by 
of  hi*  ancestors,  though  they  are  rery  few,  if  any,  instances  recorded 
of  their  liberality  to  the  Church  ;  and  rach  being  the  case  of  the  pco- 
prietory  of  them,  theee  chapel*  eaeaped  being  oonreyed  to  the  town  at 
the  general  spoliation  of  ecclesiastical  property. 

This  chapel  atood  to  the  cast  of  St  Salvador's,  on  the  summit  of 
that  part  of  the  rock  which  was  quarried  to  make  way  for  Reform 
Street 

The  revenues  of  this  chapel,  according  to  Mr  Wedderburn's  book, 
which  is  extant,  amounted  to  £39  10s,  6d.,  arising  oat  of  various  tene- 
ments at  different  places  in  the  town. 


fchaprl  of  4jt  Srrf .  or 

The  site  of  this  chapel  is  unknown.  Its  recorded  revenue  amounted 
to  only  £4  15s.,  out  of  a  tenement  at  the  east  end  of  the  Tolbooth,  in 
the  Seagate, 


Chapel  of  St  Jtanrs  th* 

The  situation  of  this  chapel  is  also  unknown,  but  the  record  of  its 
income  shows  an  amount  of  £13  13s.  6d.,  exclusive  of  two  pounds 
of  wax,  all  derived  from  a  number  of  houses  in  various  parts  of  the 
town. 


Chaprl  of  <$t  £icol*». 

This  chapel  was  situated  on  the  large  rock  at  the  Ferry  Harbour, 
which,  from  the  saint,  had  the  name  of  St  Nicolas'  Craig,  and  which 
was,  until  some  forty  yean  ago,  the  site  of  the  public  Slaughter-house. 
[This  little  rocky  island  has  had  a  changeful  ownership :  in  1490,  ft 
was  conveyed  to  Alexander,  master  of  Crawford,  son  of  the  fourth 
Earl,  who  held  it  till  the  forfeiture  of  the  family,  in  the  middle  of  the 
pixteenth  century,  when  it  went  to  Lord  Lindsay  of  the  Byres.  In 
1 608,  it  again  reverted  to  the  Crawford  family,  but  soon  after  passed 
to  Lord  Dudhope.  At  the  death  of  his  «on,  the  first  and  only  Earl  of 
Dundee,  it  wax  acquired  by  M  xitlnnd  of  Hntt.m  ;  then  passed  to 


ECCLESIASTICAL  ANTIQUITIES.  233 

Graham  of  Claverhouse,  on  whose  forfeiture  in  1689  it  reverted  to 
the  king,  who  bestowed  it  on  the  Douglas  family.]  All  that  is 
recorded  concerning  the  revenues  of  the  chapel  is  an  entry  in  Mr  Wed- 
derburn's  MSS.,  dated  31st  January,  1594,  to  the  effect  that  he  had 
summoned  William  Allardice  to  the  Burgh  Court  on  that  day,  for  pay- 
ment due  to  him  of  twenty  shillings,  as  chaplain  of  "  St  Nic's  Cha- 
plenry,"  of  which  Wedderburn  held  a  lease  for  seven  years. 


Chapel  of  <St  .Stephat. 

The  situation  of  this  chapel  is  unknown,  and  all  that  remains  on 
record  concerning  its  revenues  is  a  memorandum  in  Mr  Wedderburn's 
MSS.,  dated  llth  November,  1630,  that  he  was  to  prosecute  William 
Hill,  maltman,  in  the  Commissary  Court  at  Brechin,  for  a  debt  of  £84, 
besides  an  annual  rent  of  <£4  6s.  8d.,  due  to  Mr  Wedderburn,  as  chap- 
lain of  St  Stephen's  Chaplainry,  out  of  his  house  in  the  Kirk  Wynd, 
which  had  not  been  paid  for  twenty  years,  amounting  to  £86  13s.  4d. 


$hUlftn. 

The  situation  and  date  of  erection  of  this  chapel  are  both  unknown. 
That  it  stood  somewhere  in  the  town,  and  possessed  some  lands  at 
Seafield,  between  the  Perth  Road  and  the  Magdalen  Green,  is  all  that 
can  be  said  relating  to  it. 


Chapel  of  <St  Jfames  the  (ireatet. 

If  this  had  not  been  a  foundation  within  the  Church  of  the  Blessed 
Virgin  (as  there  is  only  one  recorded  to  have  been  within  St  Clement's 
Church),  its  site  is  unknown ;  but  its  founder,  whoever  he  was,  en- 
dowed it  with  four  acres  of  land  on  the  south  of  the  orchard  of  Dud- 
hope,  adjoining  the  Scouringburn. 


Chapel  of 

This  chapel  stood  on  the  west  side  of  the  Thorter  Row,  at  the  south 
part  of  the  Insurance  Buildings,  and  not,  as  has  been  erroneously  sup- 


244  niaroRT  or  DUKDU, 

posed,  at  the  corner  of  the  Overgaie  and  Tally  Street  The  erector 
and  erection  are  both  unknown,  neither  is  there  any  record  of  its  en- 
dowmenU  extant  beyond  the  mention  of  two  inilmg  sunn,  which  do 
not  amount  to  twenty 


Chapd  of  £t 

This  was  situated  about  the  middle,  and  on  the  east  ride  of  Couttie's 
Wynd.  About  a  century  ago,  a  portion  of  a  wall  won  visible,  contain- 
ing pointed  arches  in  a  tolerable  state  of  preservation ;  but  all  the  me- 
morials of  it  are  now  lost.1 


MONASTERIES. 


Of  this,  as  well  as  of  the  other  religious  fraternities  that  existed 
here  before  and  at  the  epoch  of  the  Reformation,  little,  beyond  the 
situations  which  they  occupied,  remains.  The  Houff,  or  Old  Burying- 
ground,  was  the  site  of  a  convent  of  Grey  Franciscan  Friars,  of  that 
division  of  the  Order  called  Friars  Conventual,  or  Friars  Minor,  and 
of  the  orchard  and  garden  belonging  to  it  This  house,  one  of  the 
earliest  of  such  foundations,  was  erected  in  or  about  the  year  1260,  by 
the  Lady  Devorgilla,  daughter  of  Alan,  Lord  of  Galloway,  and  grand- 
daughter of  David,  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  who  erected  the  parish  church. 
She  was  also  mother  of  John  Baliol,  who  successfully  competed  for  the 
crown  with  the  elder  Bruce. 

1  Beeidei  all  theee  churches  and  chapel*,  it  may  be  presumed,  from  the  name  of 
a  considerable  suburb  of  the  town,  at  the  went  end  of  the  Scouringburn,  that 
there  had  been  a  chapel  there,  dedicated  to  our  Lady  of  Placeotta.  PltatamU  or 
Pltunmot,  the  name  of  the  place,  it  only  a  corruption  «.f  Placentae,  or  rather  the 
French  reading  of  the  name  Plaitance.  Plaoantia  u  a  town  of  coneiderable  not* 
in  lulj,  in  the  Duchf  <*  Parma,  ui  JWiM,  M  the  French  call  it. 


MONASTIC  BUILDINGS.  235 

The  chief,  perhaps  the  only  historical  event  for  which  this  convent 
is  renowned,  is  the  grand  national  ecclesiastical  Council  which  was 
held  in  the  Friary-church  in  the  year  1309,  at  which  a  Declaration  of 
the  national  attachment  to  Bruce  was  adopted.1 

Towards  the  end  of  the  15th  century,  a  grievous  famine  afflicted  the 
kingdom ;  which  pressed  heavily  on  all  classes,  and  reduced  every  one, 
especially  the  poorer  of  the  religious  orders,  to  great  straits.  The 
brethren  of  this  convent  suffered  so  much,  and  were  reduced  to  so 
deplorable  a  condition,  that  their  situation  attracted  the  attention  and 
aroused  the  sympathy  of  Lady  Beatrice  Douglas,  Countess-Dowager  of 
Errol,  at  that  time  residing  in  the  town.  Her  Ladyship  generously 
presented  XI 00  to  the  Friars  in  aid  of  their  common  funds,  and  for 
the  necessary  repairs  of  the  convent,  as,  on  account  of  the  general 
poverty  caused  by  the  severity  of  the  famine,  the  brethren  were 
scarcely  able  to  maintain  themselves,  though  they  sold  and  pledged 
their  most  valuable  effects,  even  their  books  and  church  utensils.  The 
convent  buildings  had  fallen  into  decay,  and  had  become  greatly  dila- 
pidated. For  this  handsome  and  timely  donation  from  Lady  Errol, 
the  Friars  bound  themselves  and  their  successors  "  till  saye  or  synge  a 
dayly  mass  perpetually  and  for  evir"  for  the  welfare  of  the  souls  of  the 
Countess,  her  husband,  and  son.  It  was  also  provided  that,  if  the 
Countess  should,  as  she  designed,  erect  an  altar  to  the  "  Three  Kings 
of  Golan"2  within  the  Friary  Church,  the  said  mass  should  be  daily 
celebrated  at  that  altar,  as  the  indenture  between  her  Ladyship  and 
James  Lindsay,  Warden  or  Superior  of  the  convent  and  General  of  the 
Order  in  Scotland,  bears.  The  capitular  deed,  signed  by  all  the  bre- 
thren, fourteen  in  number,  was  dated  at  Dundee,  25th  November, 
1482,  and  was  confirmed  in  a  general  council  of  the  whole  Order  of 
the  Grey  Friars  in  the  kingdom,  held  in  the  Franciscan  Convent  at 
Lanark,  on  the  llth  July,  1490. 

"  It  is  uncertain,"  says  Mr  Jervise,  "  whether  this  altar  was  ever 
raised  by  the  Countess  of  Errol ;  but,  from  the  grateful  record  of  the 

1  Given  in  Appendix,  Note  B. 

2  Those  are  the  three  Wise  Men  who  visited  the  infant  Saviour  at  Bethlehem, 
and  who,  by  the  early  traditions  of  the  ancient  Church,  which  has  fitted  them 
with  good  European  instead  of  Asiatic  names,  are  accounted  kings,  and  are  called 
Gaspar,  Melchior,  and  Balthazar.     In  many  places  altars  were  dedicated  to  their 
honour,  particularly  at  Cullen,  whence  they  were  styled  the  "  three  kings  of  Cul_ 
len ;"  but,  instead  of  Cullen  in   Scotland,  read  Cologne   in  Germany,  of  which 
cathedral  they  were  patrons,  and  where  their  tombs  are  shown. 


?.V.  HJBTOBT  OF  DCICDKB. 

poor  Irian,  the  more  generally  intending  fact*  are  disclosed,  that  the 
Coontea*  made  this  gift  in  1481,  which  is  significantly  characterised 
aaa"  deir  yoir,"  and  that  the  convent  then  consist**!  of  at  loact  four- 
teen Friars  and  a  V,'  he  names  of  whom  are  also  given.  To  the 

dearth  and  famine  is  perhaps  to  be  attributed  the  cause  of  the  destitu- 
tion which  prevailed  in  the  convent,  for  it  appears  that  then  provisions 
were  uncommonly  high-priced  —  it  being  shown  by  the  deed  already 
quoted  that  "  meill  gives  24s.  ;  mawt,  30s.  ;  beir,  11  morks  ;  qwhyete, 
32s.  ;  a  lytill  haddok,  7d.  ;  a  kellin  (large  codfish),  30d.  ;  a  gallun  of 
hayll,  32d."' 

These  are  the  only  historical  events  relating  to  the  monastery,  so 
so  far  as  we  are  aware,  that  are  token  notice  of,  except  the  grand  one 
of  its  total  destruction  in  1560.  That  the  destruction  was  complete 
need  excite  no  surprise,  as  in  Dundee  the  reform  was  out  and  out 
r-i'lical,  and  so  perfect  that  it  has  thrown  insuperable  difficulties  in 
the  way  of  knowing  much  concerning  the  state  of  this  house,  and  how 
it  was  supported.  The  amount  of  its  revenues  must  remain  unknown, 
as  well  as  the  whole  of  the  points  from  whence  they  were  derived,  —  a 
number  of  annuals,  none  of  them  large,  and  some  parcels  of  hind,  being 
all  that  are  known  at  the  present  time  as  having  belonged  to  it  of  en- 
dowments. At  the  Reformation,  as  appears  by  the  only  record  extant, 
the  Friary  had  a  gross  revenue  accruing  to  it,  from  lauds  and  tene- 
ni'-nts,  of  £82  12s.  7d.,  exclusive  of  the  Meadows  and  some  lesser 
patches  of  ground.  Of  this  sum  £29  10s.  were  drawn  from  hinds  in 
the  country,  including  £1  13s.  4d,  paid  by  the  proprietor  out  of  the 
rents  of  the  hinds  of  Drumcairn  and  Finnock,  or  Fymock,  in  Glenesk, 
the  gift  of  the  first  Earl  of  Crawford,  whose  family  burying-place  was 
within  the  Friary  Church.  It  may  have  been  that  the  example  of  this 
noble  family  would  be  imitated  by  wealthy  families  in  the  town  ;  it  is 
possible  that  many  would  select  the  Friary  Church-yard  as  a  place  of 
interment,  and  thus  the  income  of  the  brethren  would  from  time  to 
time  receive  occasional  augmentations,  irrutfular,  indeed,  but  not  to  be 


Of  this  convent,  which  was  perhaps  one  of  the  latest  foundations  of 
the  kind  in  Dundee,  nothing  remains  but  the  name.     It  stood  on  the 

•  From  UM  Piiuuuiv  M  8  ,  »v,  p.  13*. 


MONASTIC  BUILDINGS.  '237 

west  side  of  the  Franciscan  Monastery,  from  which  it  was  separated  by 
tho  street  or  "  gaitt"  Fratrum  Venalium,  Friars'  Vennel,  afterwards 
the  Burial  Wynd,  and  now  Barrack  Street.  Its  site  has  been  long 
occupied  with  other  buildings,  and  at  present  Willison  Church  occu- 
pies part  of  the  ground  which  its  precinct  enclosed.  It  need  scarcely 
be  stated  that  the  brethren  of  the  Order  of  St  Dominic  were  called 
Black  Friars,  from  the  colour  of  their  habit,  and  also  Fratres  Predica- 
tores,  Preaching  Friars,  from  their  custom  of  preaching  sermons.  The 
erection  of  the  convent  is  attributed  to  Andrew  Abercromby,1  a  native 
citizen,  and  progenitor  of  the  Abercrombys  of  Pitalpin,  but  without 
any  allusion  to  time,  though  the  date  of  the  foundation  is  supposed  to 
have  fallen  between  the  alpha  and  omega  of  the  fourteenth  century. 
Of  the  endowments  and  properties  which  the  Friars  possessed  very 
little  is  known ;  yet,  it  may  be  supposed,  that  the  field  immediately 
on  the  north  side  of  the  site,  called  the  "  Laigh  Ward,"  or  "  Low 
Hospital  Ward,"  and  perhaps  the  ground  beyond  that,  or  part  of  it, 
which  is  chiefly  occupied  with  the  New  Cemetery,  had  belonged  to  it. 
Of  the  money  part  of  its  revenues  nothing  is  known  beyond  the  pay- 
ment of  a  few  trifling  annuals,  aggregating  £8  15s.,  as  noted  in  the 
Hospitalmaster's  charge  in  the  town's  ancient  rent  roll.  The  convent, 
with  its  precincts,  including  garden  and  orchard  grounds,  extended 
downwards  along  the  west  side  of  the  vennel  to  the  town  wall,  which 
separated  it  from  Argyllgait,  or  the  Overgate,  and  thence  westwards  in 
the  direction  of  the  western  Tentshill,  or  Windmill  Hill,  which  was 
quarried  away  to  make  room  for  Lindsay  Street.  Some  old  sasines 
yet  extant,  which  we  have  seen,  mention  the  convent  as  a  boundary  to 
several  properties  situated  in  both  the  vennel  and  Argyllgait.  The 
conventual  gardens  were  let  in  1565  at  the  yearly  rent  of  £7,  and  an 
acre  of  land  lying  between  South  Tay  Street  and  Park  Place,  was  let 
in  the  same  year  at  £3  13s.  4d.  ;  but  these  sums  were  paid  to  the 
factor  of  the  hospital  for  its  behoof,  as  part  of  its  revenue. 

The  number  of  brethren  belonging  to  this  Friary  is  unknown, 
though  they  have  been  guessed  to  be  seven — none  of  the  records  con- 
nected with  it  being  in  existence. 

There  was  a  gate  in  the  town-wall  betwixt  this  convent  and  that  of 
of  the  Grey  Friars,  which  was  called  the  Friars'  Port  or  Gate. 

1  Probably  the  burgess  to  whose  widow  Abbot  Beaton,  of  Arbroath,  leased  the 
teinds  of  the  kirk  of  Monifieth,  and  the  fishings  of  the  Craig,  for  a  period  of  eleven 
years. — Reg.  Nig.  de  Aberb..  p.  450. — ED. 


238'  HWTOET  OF  DUIVDEB. 


A  Convent  of  Mathurine,  Robert  ine,  Red,  or  Trinity  Friars,  founded 
•bout  the  year  1390,  by  Sir  James  Lindsay,  Knt,  acadet  of  the  ances- 
tral  house  of  the  noble  family  of  Crawford,  stood  upon  or  near  to  the 
site  of  the  Town's  Hospital,  at  the  foot  of  South  Tay  Street,  whan 
the  Catholic  Chapel  stands  —  if,  indeed,  the  hospital  was  not  in  reality 
the  monastery  itself.  From  some  old  papers  which  were  obligingly 
communicated  to  us  many  yean  ago,  we  are  inclined  to  consider  this 
establishment  as  having  been  at  its  erection  a  dependent  of  the  Minis- 
try of  the  Holy  Trinity  and  Captivity  at  Berwick-upon-Tweed,  the 
minister  or  superior  of  which  was  General  of  the  whole  Order  within 
Scotland,  —  at  least  the  minister  at  Berwick,  in  1296,  was  General  ;  fur 
in  that  year  he  swore  fealty  as  General  of  the  Order  to  Edward  L  of 
England,  as  Lord  Paramount  of  Scotland,  for  the  possessions  of  his 
own  convent  in  particular,  and,  generally,  for  those  of  the  whole 
brethren  in  the  kingdom.  It  is  probable  that,  like  as  in  other  Orders, 
the  office  and  dignity  of  General  was  not  unalterably  annexed  to  one 
convent  ;  however,  this  is  certain,  that  whatever  individual  held  the 
office  of  General,  all  the  houses  of  the  Order,  wheresoever  they  were 
situated  within  his  province,  were  dependent  on  and  subject  to  bis 
authority,  during  the  time  of  his  generalship. 

The  first  donation  to  this  house  was  a  tenement  within  the  town, 
which  was  granted  by  the  founder  in  the  foundation  charter,  but  the 
position  is  not  specified.  Robert  III.,  who  is  the  only  other  bene- 
factor whose  name  has  escaped  the  ravages  of  time,  by  his  charter 
under  the  Great  Seal,  dated  about  1391,  confirming  the  foundation, 
dissolved  the  Parish  Church  of  Rettins  from  the  Mathurine  Convent 
at  Berwick-upon-Tweed,  and  annexed  it  to  this  house.  The  clause  in 
the  charter  containing  the  grant  is,  "  Et  not  in  honor*  dei  omnipotent. 
et  tancU  trinit-itis  in  auymentaeon  ampliori*  ebmorine  p.  talute  ai« 
-  Anabdli  tpontc  nri  Rtgine  tcocie  damtu  etp.  pntet  eoneedim  deo 
hotpitali  et  domui  dei  ediam  de  Ketne*  antiquiteu  annexam  domui  dei 
de  Berwyk"  which  may  be  read,  "  And  we,  for  the  honour  of  God 
omnipotent  and  the  Holy  Trinity,  in  augmenting  and  enlarging  the 
alms  for  the  health  of  the  soul  of  Annabella,  Queen  of  Scotland,  our 
wife,  give,  and  by  these  presents  grant  to  the  said  Hospital  and  the 
House  cf  God  the  church  of  Kettins,  of  old  annexed  to  the  Maisondieu 
of  Iferwick."  Of  the  money  revenues  of  the  convent  nothing  is  known, 


MONASTIC  BUILDINGS. 


239 


unless  the  various  annuals  in  the  town's  ancient  rent-roll,  marked  as 
payable  to  the  Hospital,  be  considered  as  having,  previous  to  the  Ee- 
formation,  belonged  to  the  Friars.  These  annuals  amount  to  £91  8s. 
5d.,  and  show,  in  connection  with  other  sources  of  revenue,  that, 
whatever  was  the  number  of  the  brethren,  their  total  income  was  con- 
siderable, but,  perhaps,  not  more  than  what  would  be  necessary  for 
the  purposes  of  the  institution  of  the  Order ;  for  at  least  one-fourth 
part  of  the  revenues  of  every  house  of  the  Order  over  all  the  Church, 
was  laid  aside  for  the  laudable  purpose  of  redeeming  Christians  from 
Mahometan  slavery,  and  ffhis  independent  of  donations  and  collections, 
which  were  wholly  applied  to  the  same  noble  and  generous  purpose. 

Of  the  landed  property  that  belonged  to  the  ministry,  only  a  part 
is  known  to  us,  and  that  part  consists  chiefly  of  some  of  the  fields 
called  Wards  or  Meadows,  which  indeed  is  the  name  of  a  large  extent 
of  ground  at  the  north  side  of  the  ancient  royalty,  extending  from 
Meadowside  on  the  east  to  nearly  the  Horse  Water  Wynd  on  the 
west,  which  were  conveyed,  along  with  other  possessions  of  the  Church, 
to  the  Hospital,  and   placed  under  the   management  of  the  Town 
Council  for  the  common   good, — the  payments  of  the  stipends  of  the 
clergy,  and  the  maintenance  of  the  poor,  for  which  latter  purpose  pay- 
ments were  being  made  in  1855  to  the  extent  of  £1 164  per  annum 
to  decayed  burgesses  and  the  relatives  of  such,  though  the  charters 
mention  "  the  poor  "only  without  qualification.    The  ground  on  the 
south  side  of  the  Nethergate,  extending  from  the  Catholic  Chapel  east- 
ward to  the  Sea  Wynd  and  partly  occupied  by  Miln's  Buildings,  is 
said  to  have  belonged  to  the  Friars  ;  but  this,  to  a  certain  extent,  is 
erroneous,  for,  at  the  eastern  end  of  this  ground,  at  the  Sea  Wynd,  the 
town  house  and  gardens  of  the  Abbot  of  Scone  were  placed.     This 
tract  of  ground  lay  low,  and  it  is  probable  its  ancient  name  of  Monks- 
hohn  was  derived  from  the  monks  of  Scone,  and  not  from  the  breth- 
ren of  the  Trinity  Friars.     The  friars  also  possessed  a  large  field  called 
Greenfield,  afterwards  Strachan's  Park,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Hawk- 
hill,  bounded  on  the  east  side  by  the  ancient  Mill  Vennel,  now  Small's 
Wynd,  which  field  was  held  in  feu  at  one  time  by  the  late  George 
Dempster,  Esq.  of  Dunnichen.     [The  ground  about  Park  Place,  west- 
ward to  midway  between  the  twentieth  and  twenty-first  milestone 
from  Perth,  and  from  the  river  northward  to  the  old  orchard  of  Dud- 
hope,  also  belonged  at  one  time  to  this  monastery.     Lord  Gray  was 
amongst  the  first  feuars  of  these  lands,  and  held  a  large  portion  about 


240  fnsTOKY  OF  otnrnija, 

the  Scouringburn,  which  afterwards  came  to  be  subdivided.]  The 
southern  division  of  "  Greenfield*  WM  purchased  in  1810  by  the  Ma- 
gistrates, and  a  quarry  wai  opened  in  it  for  the  purpose  of  construct- 
ing a  new  harbour ;  but  the  design  was  afterwards  abandoned,  baring 
proved  that  the  Town  Council  were  no  **g*""M"  In  derision  of  the 
design,  the  quarry  was  called  the  "  Howkerie,"  a  name  by  which  it 
was  long  known. 

Of  any  donations  by  private  persons  to  this  convent  or  hospital 
since  the  Reformation,  we  have  met  with  only  one,  which  was  granted 
by  William  Duncan  of  Templeton  of  Auchterhonse,  out  of  the  rents 
of  a  tenement  belonging  to  him,  which  was  situated  in  the  Fleuker- 
gaitt,  or  Nethergate,  opposite  the  Church  of  the  Blessed  Virgin.  This 
donation  was  an  amount  of  twenty-eight  shillings  vritat*  moneta  rayni 
Scvtif  (usual  money  of  the  kingdom  of  Scotland),  payable  to  the  Master 
of  the  Kleemoeinarie,  or  Hospitalmaster,  by  equal  portions  at  Pente- 
cost and  Martinmas.  The  deed  of  gift  is  dated  at  Dundee,  2d  May, 
1587,  and  is  respectably  witnessed,  David  Ouchtcrlony  dom,  de  Kelly, 
being  ranked  first.  Mr  Duncan  was  a  member  of  that  family  from 
which  the  noble  house  of  Camperdown  is  descended ;  and  it  may  be 
remarked  as  an  instance  of  the  scholastic  attainments  of  the  laird  that 
he  attested  his  donation  thus, — "  Villiamc  Duncans,  with  my  hand 
twitching  ye  pen,  led  be  ye  notar,  because  I  can  nocht  vryte  myself 
[Long  prior  to  the  date  of  this  grant,  the  regular  religious  Orders  in 
Scotland  were  suppressed,  and  their  buildings  destroyed  or  converted 
to  other  uses,  the  revenues,  where  not  seized  by  the  feudal  magnates, 
being  devoted  to  the  relief  of  the  poor.  As  we  have  already  seen, 
Queen  Mary  made  a  special  grant  of  certain  of  these  revenues1  to  the 
Magistrates  of  Dundee,  for  this  charitable  object] 

'  Bw  p.  «7. 


MONASTIC  BUILDINGS. 


241 


This  congregation  of 
Grey-sisters,  otherwise 
Claresses,  Nuns  of  St 
Clare,  or  Franciscan  Mo- 
nachae,  occupied  a  large 
building  at  the  top  of 
Methodist  Close,  which 
was  pulled  down  in  1869, 
on  the  opening  of  Bank 
Street,  to  make  way  for 
the  new  buildings  then 
erected  by  Mr  Buchan. 
The  old  building  was 
lofty,  and  formed  three 
sides  of  a  square,  en- 
closing a  very  small 
court,  the  eastern  side 
being  only  two  flats  in 
height.  The  ground- 
floor  of  the  west  and 
north  sides  was  vaulted, 
the  east  side  occupied  with  three  arches,  in  the  nature  of  a  cloister 
or  covered  walk,  in  which  the  sisters  had  taken  the  exercise  of  walk- 
ing during  inclement  weather.  Above  the  vaults  on  the  north  side 
there  was  a  large  hall,  which,  before  the  Reformation,  might  have 
been  the  chapel  of  the  nunnery.  Towards  the  end  of  last  century,  it 
was  used  by  the  Society  of  Methodists  as  a  place  of  worship  (from 
which  circumstance  the  name  of  the  Close  is  derived) ;  afterwards  as 
a  coach-builder's  workshop,  and  a  schoolroom.  Latterly,  it  was  ac- 
quired by  the  Hammerman  Incorporation,  and  occasionally  used  by  the 
unbeneficed  preacher,  the  itinerant  salesman,  the  philosophical  lecturer, 
and  not  unfrequently  it  has  been  the  scene  of  the  stage-struck  follies 
of  would-be  Edmund  Keans  and  Fanny  Kembles.  Another  apartment 
above  this  was  long  used  as  a  place  of  devotional  meeting  by  a  small 
society  of  Christians  who  called  themselves  Bereans,  or  were  so  called 
by  others ;  and  formerly,  when  the  hall  below  was  a  school-room,  it  was 


Ill 

used  by  a  small  body,  chiefly  people  well  advanced  in  yean,  as  a  plaos 
of  religious  cxerciso,  and  who,  from  wearing  broad  blue  bonnets,  wen 
familiarly  called  the  "  Bonnet  Meeting." 

Some  Latin  and  Greek  Scriptural  quotations  were  to  be  teen  on  a 
large  atone  in  the  north  wall  of  the  chapel ;  and  within  a  reoeat  in 
the  south  wall,  ornamented  with  columns,  the  Holy  Water  Laver 
was  placed,  with  a  gutter  through  the  wall  for  draining  off  the  water 
after  its  purpose  was  answered.  Above  the  circular  top  of  the  recess, 
and  within  an  elliptical  wreath  of  flowers  and  foliage,  there  was  in* 
scribed  in  Roman  capitals,  of  good  formation,  the  following  devout 
ejaculation,  LORD  VASH  ova  SOVLB  IK  run  BLOOD  or  CHRIST.  Besides 
the  apartments  on  the  same  floor  with  the  chapel,  there  were  a  num- 
ber of  others  on  the  upper  floors,  supposed  to  be  the  dormitories,  re- 
fectory, &c.,  of  the  establishment ;  but  of  how  many  individuals  the 
sisterhood  consisted  is  unknown ;  neither  can  it  be  stated  at  what 
time  or  by  whom  it  was  erected,  nor  how  endowed,  beyond  a  single 
acre  of  land  at  the  West  Port,  and  a  small  bit  beside  it,  called  the 
M  Grey-slaters'  Acre,"1  In  the  year  1573,  this  acre  was  let  by  the 
Hoepitalmastor  for  the  rent  of  twenty-eight  shillings  Soots,  and  at 
present  it  produces  about  £100  sterling  of  feu  duties  annually  to  the 
trustees  of  Guthrie's  Mortification,  who  are  the  superior  proprietors 
for  the  benefit  of  the  Mortification — Mr  Guthrie  having  assigned  it 
for  educational  purposes  so  long  ago  as  1671.  On  the  putt  stones  of 
the  back  gables  of  the  house  the  date  1621  occurred ;  but  this  merely 
shows  that  it  had  been  repaired  in  that  year  by  a  secular  proprietor, 
and  probably  by  one  of  the  Forresters  of  Millhill,  it  having  long  been 
the  town-house  of  that  ancient  ami  now  extinct  family,  and  from  them 
denominated  "  MillhilTs  Lodging."  On  several  of  the  attic  windows 
there  were  considerable  remains  of  sculpture,  including  some  traces 
of  heraldic  figures.  As  there  are  no  records  existing  of  the  revenues 
of  this  house,  we  think  we  are  justified  in  concluding  that,  at  the 
Reformation,  it  paased  to  a  descendant  of  the  founder,  or  had  been 
given  to  some  other  private  person  before  the  general  grant  in  favour 

<  The  Orey  Bitten*  A«re,  with  the  other  bit,  U«  between  the  foot  of  the  Hawk- 
hill  md  the  Soouringburn.     It  ha*  long  been  all  buflt  upon,  and  part  of  it  waa 

familiarly  ae  well  aa  infamoualy  known  M  the  "  Blue  MounUina." Mr  Innea 

(Report  Stipend  Case)  gives  the  locality  of  thia  "acre"  M  extending  between 
Weat  Port  and  Lyon'a  Close,  and  bounded  on  north  and  •oath  by  the  Scouring- 
burn  and  Hawkhill  mepectiveJj.  but  that  area  aoBBSBM  between  two  aad  three 


MONASTIC  BUILDINGS. 

of  the  town.  The  entry  to  the  nunnery,  from  the  Overgate  by  the 
Methodist  Close,  at  the  top  of  which  there  was  a  small  gateway,  very 
simple  and  wholly  unadorned,  surmounted  with  a  platform  of  stone. 

Besides  this,  Aberdour  in  Fife,  and,  according  to  some,  the  city 
of  Aberdeen,  contained  the  only  other  establishment  of  Claresses  in 
Scotland. 


A  cloister  of  Magdalenes  stood  near  the  river  at  the  south-west  side 
of  the  town,  where  a  large  irregular  field  in  the  vicinity  of  its  site, 
which  cannot  now  be  accurately  pointed  out,  has  from  them  the  name 
of  Magdalene  Yard  or  Green,  and  this  affords  some  ground  to  suppose 
that  it  had  belonged  in  property  to  the  nuns.  Many  years  ago,  when 
the  foundations  were  excavating  for  the  house  erected  by  Bailie  Andrew 
Peddie,  on  the  north  verge  of  the  Green,  at  the  foot  of  the  lane  called 
the  Step  Eow,  the  labourers  dug  up  several  fragments  of  statues, 
among  which  there  was  a  finely  executed  head,  almost  the  size  of  life. 
This  head  was  long  in  our  possession ;  and,  from  the  fact  of  these 
relics  being  found  at  that  place,  we  are  tempted  to  conclude  that  the 
site  of  the  nunnery  was  on  the  spot  where  this  house  stands.  The  use 
and  superiority  of  the  Magdalene  Green  is  vested  in  the  Town  Council 
for  the  common  use,  and  in  the  University  of  St  Andrews,  which  is 
said  to  derive  an  annual  of  £5 — whether  Scots  or  English  is  not 
stated,  but  most  probably  the  former — for  the  grazing  it  affords.  A 
row  of  march-stones,  but  now  greatly  curtailed  in  number  from, 
what  formerly  existed,  runs  along  the  side  of  the  road  that  bounds  the 
northern  side  of  the  Green,  on  which  the  armorial  saltier  of  St  An- 
drews, and  the  date  1619,  were  rudely  scratched.  There  is  one  which 
bears  the  lilies  of  Dundee,  and  the  date  1749,  in  a  tolerable  style  of 
sculpture,  as  also  another  with  the  same  bearing,  and  the  former  date, 
but  very  little  better  than  those  of  St  Andrews.  Nothing  more  is 
known,  concerning  this  establishment. 


Of  TH1  BTTBOB — MKBOBAJTr  WILD— «»»  «tfU>BJ'U 
RATED  TBAfiM — TBBJDI  CJUTID  TKAOM— nXDJOJI  TILUMM,  BO. 


MUNICIPAL    CONSTITUTION. 

As  the  earliest  of  oar  municipal  record*  now  extant  date*  no  farther 
back  than  1550,  any  account  of  the  governing  bodies  existing  before 
that  date  must  be  drawn  indirectly  from  other  sources,  and  is  neeossa 
rily  vague  and  indefinite.  Glancing  at  the  state  of  society,  say  in  the 
twelfth  century,  we  find,  under  the  prevailing  feudalism,  the  bulk  of 
the  people  in  a  state  of  vassalage  to  the  lords  and  barons.  When,  by 
royal  favour,  a  gift  of  territory  was  made— each  as  was  largely  done 
by  David  L  to  the  Norman  knights,  whom  Henry  II.  banished  out 
of  England — the  nativi  or  serfs  upon  the  land  went  with  it,  merely 
transferring  their  services  to  the  new  lord.  If  a  bondman  lived  peace- 
ably for  seven  years  on  any  man's  land,  he  could  not  be  reclaimed  ; 
and,  if  he  contrived  to  live  for  a  year  and  a  day  in  a  free  burgh,  he 
became  a  freeman.  We  thus  see  with  what  favour  the  infant  burghs 
came  to  be  regarded  by  the  common  people  as  well  as  by  the  sove- 
reign. To  the  former  they  were  attractive,  as  conferring  exemption 
from  feudal  services  and  exactions — the  burgesses  being  in  fact  the 
counterpart  of  the  civit  or  citizen  of  the  Roman  municipality,  and  as 
such  independent  of  feudal  jurisdiction.  The  kings,  on  the  other 
hand,  found  in  these  trading,  peaceable,  yet  sturdy  burghers,  a  check 
to  the  overbearing  power  of  the  nobles;  and,  at  the  same  time,  in  their 
comparative  opulence,  a  source  of  pecuniary  aid  when  the  Royal  Ex- 
chequer needed  replenishing.  Hence  we  find  the  earliest  notices  regard- 
ing our  municipalities,  in  the  form  of  privileges  and  immunities  granted 
for  trading  purposes,  so  that  the  Trades  and  Merchant  Guilds,  are  found 
organised  institutions  before  any  notice  appears  of  Municipal  organisa- 
tions. The  earliest  burghs  known  in  Scotland  are  traced  to  the  reign 
of  Alexander  L  (1107—1124)  when  the  Court  of  the  Four  Burghs- 
Edinburgh,  Berwick,  Stirling,  and  Roxburgh — appears  in  history. 
The  meetings  were  held  at  Roxburgh,  and  assumed  the  functu 
a  Board  of  Trade,  much  in  the  style  of  the  Hanse  Towns  on  the  Con- 


ORIGIN  OF  BURGHS.  245 

tinent,  where,  from  very  early  times,  the  presiding  member  took  the 
title  of  "  Provost  of  the  Merchants."  In  the  reign  of  Malcolm  the 
Maiden  (1153-1165),  we  find  the  first  authentic  allusion  to  Dundee, 
from  which  we  may  infer  that  it  was  then  a  place  of  some  importance, 
that  prince  having  made  a  grant  from  its  revenues  to  the  Priory  of 
Eestennet.  What  these  revenues  were,  or  how  collected,  cannot  be 
ascertained ;  but,  in  all  probability,  the  small  rents  paid  by  craftsmen 
and  other  freemen  for  leave  to  build  their  booths  and  habitations  near 
the  Castle  walls,  or  by  the  sea-shore,  or  for  exclusive  privileges  in 
the  exercise  of  their  callings,  formed  the  beginning  alike  of  the  popu- 
lation, trade,  and  revenues  of  the  town.  About  the  year  1200,  we 
find  the- town  and  barony  ceasing  for  the  time  to  be  a  royal  appan- 
age, and  passing,  by  gift  of  King  "William,  to  his  brother,  the  Earl  of 
Huntingdon.  It  has  been  usually  stated  that  the  town  was  on  this 
occasion  created  a  royal  burgh,  but  this  is  erroneous.  The  Eegister  of 
Arbroath  Abbey  mentions  a  gift  from  the  Earl  of  a  toft  of  land  situated. 
in  meo  burgi  de  Dunde,  an  expression  which  could  hardly  be  used  with 
reference  to  a  king's  or  royal  burgh.  According  to  Lord  Kames,  by  "  a 
Royal  Borough  is,  in  Scotland,  understood  an  incorporation  that  hold 
their  lands  of  the  Crown,  and  are  governed  by  magistrates  of  their  own 
naming,  to  whom  the  administration  of  the  annual  revenues,  termed 
the  common  good,  is  entrusted."  That  certain  privileges  had  been 
enjoyed  by  Dundee,  or  its  merchants  and  craftsmen,  before  King 
William's  time,  is  more  than  probable,  since  reference  is  made  to  such 
in  subsequent  charters,  as  privileges  that  had  been  somewhat  eclipsed  by 
the  alienation  of  the  territory  from  the  Crown.  It  is  next  to  certain, 
indeed,  that  it  was  a  Free  burgh,  though  not  a  Royal  one. 

After  the  death  of  the  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  without  legitimate  male 
issue,  the  barony  was  divided  among  his  daughters  ;  but  subsequently, 
in  the  reign  of  Alexander  III.  (1249-1285),  a  portion,  if  not  the 
whole,. appears  to  have  reverted  to  the  Crown.1  References  in  the 
later  charters  to  privileges  obtained  in  this  reign  seem  to  point  to  some 
municipal  arrangements, — probably  the  appointment  of  office-bearers 
entrusted  with  some  form  of  magisterial  authority.  The  importance 
of  the  burgh  communities  was  now  becoming  apparent,  and  a  few 

1  Alexander  III.  frequently  resided  at  Porfar,  enjoying  the  pleasures  of  the 
chase.  While  there  in  1264,  he  had  sixteen  pipes  of  wine  conveyed  to  him  from 
Dundee,  at  a  cost  for  carriage  of  £4  8s.  (Chamberlain  Rolls,  I.,  p.  15.)  This  cir- 
cumstance shows  that  Dundee  had  then  a  port  or  harbour,  and  some  trade  with 
the  Continent. 


240  BHTOHT  OF 


years  later  they  were  even  consulted  in  the  fin*  Parliament,  properly 
•o  called,  which  was  jMnnoiiftd  by  John  BallioL1  It  was  reserved 
for  King  Kobert  Bruce,  however,  in  the  Parliament  of.  1326,  to  give 
the  burgh*  a  recognised  standing  as  the  Third  Estate ;  and  to  the 
tame  «nKflht»nad  monarch  we  owe  the  first  express  charter  of  the 
liberties  of  the  town,  dated  in  the  following  year.*  In  this  charter 
the  burgesses  are  recognised,  but  no  mention  ocean  of  cine  ruler*, 
We  know  that,  in  the  case  of  the  Four  Burghs  above  referred  to,  their 
chief  magistrate  was  called  Alderman.  In  the  13th  and  14th  cen- 
turies, the  style  and  constitution  of  the  magistracy  in  England  and 
Scotland  were  more  similar  than  in  later  times,  when  the  two  coun- 
tries may  be  said  to  haro  exchanged  their  civic  titles.  In  the  Parlia- 
ment of  1357,  under  David  II.,  seventeen  royal  burghs  were  repre- 
sented, Dundee  sending  two  deputies.  In  1358,  David  IL  granted 
another  charter,  enlarging  and  confirming  the  privileges  of  the  town, 
and  erecting  it  into  a  kind  of  Sheriffdom,  independent  of  that  of 
Angus,  and  amenable  only  to  the  Lord  Chamberlain  of  the  kingdom. 
The  title  of  Provost  now  first  came  into  use,  he  being  Sheriff-Principal, 
and  the  Aldermen  or  Bailies  his  deputes.  The  title  of  "  Provost"  was 
derived  from  the  French,  and  was  equivalent  to  the  Latin  prtej  <*&•'. 
The  term  was  long  synonymous  with  Bailies  or  fa/iris,  as  Glasgow  at 
one  time  had  three  co-ordinate  "  provosts."  The  growing  intelligence 
of  the  civilian  class,  as  compared  with  the  indifference  to  learning  of 
the  feudal  magnates,  may  be  inferred  from  the  fact  that,  from  the 
accession  of  Alexander  ILL  in  1249,  to  the  death  of  David  IL  in 
1370,  no  instance  is  known  of  a  Scottish  baron  who  could  sign  his 
own  name. 

From  the  reign  of  David  II. ,  the  burghs  and  their  citizens  had 
acquired  a  degree  of  importance,  as  an  instrument  capable  of  being 
employed  to  check  the  power  of  the  imperious  barons.  Some  Acts, 
passed  in  or  about  the  time  of  James  IL,  who  died  in  1460,  enabled 
the  burghs  greatly  to  influence  the  proceedings  of  the  Legislature,  and 
abo  confirmed  to  them  the  free  and  uncontrolled  appointment  of  their 
own  magistrates.  This  state  of  things  continued  till  the  year  1469, 

1  It  U  one  of  the  surprint  of  history  that  we  owe  the  adniisslon  of  the  Commons 
to  Parliament  to  our  bitter  enemy,  Bdward  L,  who  had  the  sagadty  to  perceive 
the  ruing  influence  of  the  trading  cUua,  and  sought  to  secure  them,  while  invad- 
ing flsnHsniJ,  by  making  every  royal  burgh  take  the  oath  of  aOegianoe.  (l>tkr, 
tt,  p.  897.) 

*  A  translation  will  be  found  in  the  Appendix,  Mots  C. 


ST7BVEBSION  OF  BURGH  PRIVILEGES.  247 

when  innovations  crept  in  during  the  reign  of'  James  Hi.,  in  the 
very  teeth  of  a  confirmation  of  these  rights,  and  an  express  prohibi- 
tion that  no  castellan  or  constable  of  any  of  the  King's  Castles,  or 
other  officer  of  the  Crown,  should  in  any  manner  or  way  interfere 
with  the  matter  of  the  election  of  burgh  magistrates,  under  certain 
penalties,  but  that  the  burgesses  should  be  left  to  the  free  and  uncon- 
trolled exercise  of  their  rights  and  privileges.  Instead  of  this,  a  regu- 
lation came  into  use,  by  which  the  constitution  of  the  burghs  was 
completely  changed  :  the  retiring  councillors  appointed  their  successors, 
and  both  appointed  the  office-bearers  or  magistrates,  castellans,  mili- 
tary officers, — in  short,  every  one  who  could  forward  the  views  or  designs 
of  the  Court,  which  interfered  in  elections  at  pleasure,  and  thus  was 
formed  the  "  Close  System,"  which  flourished  through  so  many  hundred 
years,  but  which  was  exploded  in  1834,  to  make  way  for  another  sys- 
tem, not  very  much  superior  perhaps,  but  controlled  by  a  greater 
number  of  electors. 

From  a  period  dating  to  1550,  when  the  records  still  preserved 
commence,  and  probably  from  an  earlier  date,  down  to  1705,  a  govern- 
ing body,  called  the  "  Head  Court,"  existed  in  Dundee,  distinct  in 
some  degree  from  the  Magistrates  and  Council.  Its  precise  functions 
cannot  be  defined,  but  the  whole  Deacons  of  Trades  were  constituent 
members  of  it.  These  deputies  from  the  craftsmen  had  a  voice  in 
electing  the  Provost,  Bailies,  Dean  of  Guild,  Town  Clerk,  and  Trea- 
surer ;  and  they  had  to  be  consulted  in  all  questions  of  property,  in 
granting  charters  and  tacks,  and  borrowing  or  paying  off  money.  To  the 
Common  Council,  again,  the  Trades  collectively  elected  two  members. 

At  various  periods,  the  unconstitutional  interference  of  the  Crown, 
either  directly  or  indirectly,  in  elections,  was  productive  of  serious 
disadvantages  to  the  peace  of  the  town.  Some  instances  have  been 
alluded  to,  such  as  the  mission  of  the  Archbishop  of  St  Andrews  in 
1598,  the  order  from  James  VI.,  to  elect  Sir  James  Scrymseoure  Pro- 
vost in  1604,  and  that  of  Grahame  of  Claverhouse  in  1688.  The 
oldest  sett  of  the  burgh  extant  is  that  which  is  recorded  in  the  books 
of  the  Convention  of  Eoyal  Burghs,  which  was  forwarded  to  Edin- 
burgh, in  consequence  of  an  order  of  the  Convention,  dated  15th  July, 
1705.  This  sett  shows  that  the  government  of  the  town,  instead  of 
being  representative,  was  purely  an  oligarchy,  arising  from  the  change 
of  the  constitution  under  James  III.  This  recorded  document  is  in 
substance  as  follows ; — 


348  ma-Tom  or  Dtnrno. 

"The  Tow»  Oovnofl  ia  oonpoaed  ol  twenty  paraona,1 
eoiiaietiiig  of  a  provoat  and  four  bailiaa.  The  aiuiuaJ  election  of  thae*  magietraiea, 
and  aleo  of  the  Den  of  OtrfJd  and  Treasurer,  ia  on  the  Thuraday  immediately 
Dreriou*  to  Miohaalmaa.  Bat  the  Council  for  OM  enauing  year  ia  chiefly  ehuaam 
oo  tba  praoadiog  Tuaaday,  and  all  tha  measures  fixed,  which  are  generally  dee*** 
in  the  election  of  the  offloera  now  mentioned,  Tba  whole  twenty  counaellan 
assemble  an  that  Tnaaday,  and  chooae  eight  new  rniinaallnni ;  of  whom  five  moat 
be  taken  from  the  Otiildry,  or  body  of  free  merchant*,  and  three  from  any  eepa- 
rate  three  of  the  incorporated  trades.  No  more  new  counsellors  than  eight  are 
necessary,  becauae  the  four  Bailiea  muat  ba^memberaof  the  new  Council  ex-offii*. 
With  the  addition  of  theae  eight  new  memuers,  they  proceed  to  make  up  UrU  for 
the  office*  of  Provost,  Bailiea,  Dean  of  Guild,  and  Treasurer.  The  tort  for  toe 
Proroat  ia  limited  to  people  who  at  any  time  formerly  hare  bean  Bailiea  the  laa) 
for  Bailiea  to  former  counsellors,  that  for  the  Dean  of  Guild  to  preaent  Bailiea,  and 
the  Ittt  for  the  Treasurer  ia  alone  unlimited.  When  two  peraona  bare  thua  bean 
luted  for  erery  one  of  theae  aeren  office*,  the  power*  of  two  particular  old  coun- 
aellora,  aa  to  any  farther  ahare  in  the  election,  expire,  and  the  number*  of  old  and 
caw  counaellora  ia  reduced  to  twenty -ux.  The  IttU,  or  lists,  are  then  traaamitted 
to  the  ConTanar  of  the  Nine  Incorporated  Trades  to  be  by  him  laid  before  hia 
Deacon*  and  their  ooiwtituenta.  On  the  Thursdaya,  theae  nine  Deaoona  aaaemble 
in  the  Town-hall,  along  with  the  twenty-six  old  and  new  counaellora,  and  pro* 
oaad  to  elect  from  the  leeU,  by  a  majority  of  vote*,  the  fire  magiatrates,  the  Dean 
of  Guild,  and  the  Treaaurer.  Thua,  including  the  three  remaining  Bailie*  who 
continue  in  the  Council  without  election,  a  body  of  eighteen  new  counaellur*  ia 
formed  for  the  enaning  year,  and  all  the  former  office*  expire  ;  and  on  the  Tuea- 
day  following,  theae  eighteen  chooae  the  remaining  two." 

The  Deacons  of  the  Nine  Incorporated  Trades,  as  we  hare  seen, 
possessed  a  vote  in  the  election  of  the  Magistrates,  Dean  of  Guild, 
and  Treasurer,  and  were  entitled  to  be  consulted,  and  to  vote  in  ques- 
tions connected  with  the  disposal  of  the  public  property.  Of  this 
privilege  they  were  deprived  by  Act  of  Parliament,  which  was  again 
restored  by  James  VI.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  above  sett  makes  no 
provision  for  the  form  of  electing  the  Councillor  to  the  Guild  and 
Shoremaster,  nor  is  there  any  applicable  to  the  case  of  the  old  Bailies. 
The  two  former  offices  were  filled  up  by  the  Magistrates  appointing 
individuals  to  them,  on  the  Tuesday  following  their  own  election  ;  and 
the  three  Bailies  of  the  previous  year  remained  in  Council  during 
another  year  in  the  character  of  Counsellors. 

This  sett  continued  to  be  the  rule  of  government  till  the  year  1816, 

1  One  of  these,  the  CounaaUor  to  the  Guild,  waa  firat  appointed  by  the  authority 
of  the  Magfctratea  and  Council  in  1648,  from  which  time  thia  officer  continued  a 
member  of  the  Town  Council  till  the  abolition  of  the  cloaa  ayatem  by  the  Burgh 
Reform  Act. 


MUNICIPAL  CONSTITUTION.  249 

when  Montrose  procured  an  alteration  in  its  sett,  which  roused  the 
people  of  Dundee  to  make  application  to  the  Convention  of  Eoyal 
Burghs  for  an  alteration  in  the  terms  of  theirs.  In  1817,  a  petition 
was  presented  to  the  Convention,  signed  by  a  large  proportion  of  the 
burgesses,  sanctioned  by  the  Town  Council,  and  approved  of  by  the 
other  public  bodies,  praying  for  an  amelioration  of  the  sett,  which 
was  granted — the  principal  alterations  being  the  recognition  of  the 
Convener  of  the  Nine  Trades  as  a  constituent  member  of  Council  in 
place  of  one  of  the  three  members  previously  elected  by  the  Trades, 
and  the  re-admission  of  the  nine  Deacons  to  vote  in  the  election  of  the 
Provost,  four  Bailies,  and  Treasurer. 

These  .modifications,  however,  led  to  little  or  no  improvement  in 
the  municipal  constitution,  and  the  public  discontent  showed  itself  in 
a  petition,  got  up  in  1819,  to  the  House  of  Commons.  The  following 
extracts  from  this  vigorous  document  furnish  a  picture  of  the  local 
government  of  that  period  : — 

"  The  Council  are  in  theory  the  representatives  of  the  burgesses  or  freemen  of 
the  town  ;  and  as  such,  they  are  vested  with  very  considerable  powers.  They 
can  contract  debts  without  consulting  the  inhabitants,  whose  property  is  liable 
for  payment  of  the  debt  so  contracted  ;  and  they  also  vote  in  name  of  the  bur- 
gesses in  the  election  of  a  representative  for  the  burgh  in  Parliament.  .  .  .  The 
same  men  continue  to  exercise  the  same  influence  in  the  Council — only,  for  the 
sake  of  appearances,  nominally  changing  places.  Thus,  the  Bailies  of  the  former 
year  are  generally  made  old  Bailies  and  Counsellors  of  the  succeeding  year  ;  the 
Treasurer  becomes  a  Bailie  ;  the  Shoremaster,  Treasurer ;  and  so  forth.  And 
this  is  the  reason  why  the  present  system  of  election  in  Scotland  is  properly 
styled  self-election.  .  .  .  The  system  of  self-election  has  long  been  complained  of 
by  the  burgesses  of  Scotland  ;  who  have  been  compelled  to  witness,  without  hope 
of  redress,  their  revenues  squandered  away  by  mismanagement  and  peculation, 
till  the  ample  property  of  most  of  them  has  been  reduced  to  a  fraction  of  what  it 
formerly  was.  .  .  .  Dundee,  at  one  period  of  its  history,  possessed,  as  its  '  com- 
mon gude,'  the  principal  land  estates  which  surround  the  town  ;  but  these  have 
gradually  been  alienated  ;  and  the  value  of  the  disposable  property  is  now  less  by 
one  half  than  the  amount  of  debts  contracted  by  the  irresponsible  Town  Council. 
The  government  of  the  town  for  the  last  century  has  passed  from  the  hands  of 
one  absolute  dictator  to  those  of  another  ;  and  at  this  moment  the  uncontrolled 
power  is  vested  in  the  person  of  a  Leader  [Provost  Riddoch],  who  has  held  the 
situation  for  a  period  of  nearly  forty  years — generally  excluding  from  the  Council 
the  more  wealthy,  independent,  and  intelligent  burgesses  of  the  town,  and  select- 
ing such  men  only  as  he  could  influence  in  support  of  his  political  ascendancy. 
His  counsellors  have  been  so  judiciously  selected  and  trained,  that  they  never 
ventured  to  give  their  opinions  on  any  public  measures  ;  and  they  were  assem- 
bled merely  to  render  legal,  by  their  votes,  what  had  been  previously  done  or 


2*0  BISTORT  Or  DtnTDU. 

contemplated  by  their  Chief.  Hfa  Councils  bar*  always  Urn 
when,  >.y  an  uueucmeasful  experiment,  a  new  member  ha*  bMo  admitted  who 
dared  to  disturb  thai  unanimity  by  aa  sanrtion  of  his  independence,  be  WM  uni- 
formly disrniassrt  at  next  •lection.  Holding  the  uncontrolled  power  for  ao  long 
a  period,  and  not  being  responsible  for  bit  acta,  it  was  not  probable  that  the 
revenues  of  the  town  ahould  have  been  so  advantageoualy  admhiiatered  by  the 
Leader,  aslfhehad  been  under  the  control  of  ao  independent  Council.  Award 
ingly,  the  petitioner*  bare  to  complain  of  public  money  waited  on  fooliah  and 
unprofitable  •peculation*  ;  of  public  property  l«t,  in  a  eland satins  manner,  to  the 
Leader  himself,  and  other  member*  of  the  Town  Council,  at  a  moiety  of  ita  value ; 
of  Act*  of  Parliament  obtained  to  levy  taxes  on  the  inhabitant*  for  (pedal  pur- 
pose*, and  the  rerenue  thence  arising  misapplied  ;  of  setninario*  of  education  left 
to  languish  fur  want  of  the  necessary  support ;  of  streets  ill-pared  and  worse 
lighted ;  and  of  the  tjtal  absence  of  every  thing  in  the  shape  of  a  police  establish- 
ment for  the  protection  of  the  peace."1  And  so  on. 

A  Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons  having  been  appointed  to 
consider  these  and  similar  representations  from  other  Scotch  burghs, 
Provost  Riddoch  was  cited  to  appear  before  it.  Three  other  public- 
spirited  citizens — William  Small,  Town-Clerk  ;  Robert  Jobson,  and 
James  Ivory,  also  tendered  evidence,  and  lodged  a  curious  document  en- 
titled "  Dissection  of  the  Town  Council  of  Dundee  from  1800  to  1819," 
showing  the  systematic  interchange  of  offices  by  the  ruling  party  dur- 
ing that  period,  with  a  running  commentary  upon  the  members,  from 
which  we  may  give  a  quotation  : — 

"  Alexander  Riddoch,  nineteen  yean,  still  in  office  [six  others  in  same  position.  ] 

fUtn»«J  Matters,  eighteen  yean,  waits  his  turn. Patrick  Anderson,  fif 

teen  years,  now  loom  tenau  in  the  civic  chair.  Andrew  Peddie,  eighteen  yean, 
Utely  resigned  in  deference  to  public  opinion,  being  disgusted  with  the  system. 
Thomas  Webster,  da,  do.  William  Small,  now  Town-Clerk,  thirteen  yean,  re- 
signed for  the  same  reason.  Archibald  Crichton,  one  year,  suspected  of  inde- 
pendence. Alexander  Kay,  two  yean,  refused  to  serve,  because  though  treasurer, 
he  was  not  allowed  to  see  the  account*.  George  Mfln,  one  year,  suspected  of 
indTpriH*™*  George  HOI,  left  out  for  speaking  In  Council.  Isaac  Watt,  one 
year,  not  recalled  in  consequence  of  a  misunderstanding  with  the  Leader's  friend. 
Colin  Symen,  thirteen  yean,  resigned  in  deference  to  public  opinion.  John 

*  In  the  long  list  of  signatures  to  this  document  we  find  many  names  subse- 
quently prominent  in  the  public  measures  and  prosperity  of  the  town— such  as 
John  Baxter  of  Idviea,  Edward  Baxter,  David  Baxter,  David  Cobb,  Archibald 
Crirbton,  George  Duncan,  Alexander  Edward,  James  Qflroy,  William  Hackney, 
John  Jobaon  of  Riiseraount,  Alexander  Lawson,  John  Luke,  Alexander  Low, 
David  Martin.  K..»*rt  Mudie,  teacher  (probably  the  writer  of  the  petition)  ;  Wil 
lUm  Moyea,  David  Hiln,  Thoe.  Neiah,  Patrick  Niumio,  Geurge  Stephen,  John 
Watt  of  Denmill,  Isaac  Watt  of  Logic,  *  ..  *c. 


THE  PROVOSTS  OP  DUNDEE.  251 

Allison,  two  years  ;  lie  was  nominated  a  bailie  contrary  to  his  inclination,  and 
refused  to  accept,  being  ashamed  of  the  office.  Thomas  Bell,  four  years,  removed 
for  opposing  the  Leader.  Alexander  Balfour,  four  years,  removed  for  same 
reason.  Patrick  Ritchie,  twelve  years,  died  ;  had  been  in  office  for  forty  years 
previous  to  1800.  .  .  .  John  Symers  and  John  Thain,  two  young  lads  advanced 
to  office  in  Michaelmas  last ;  they  vote  with  the  leader,  and  may  remain  so  loug 
as  their  services  are  of  any  consequence  to  him,"  &c.  &c. 

The  Parliamentary  Committee,  in  reporting  to  the  House,  animad- 
verted in  strong  terms  on  the  abuses  which  prevailed  in  the  municipal 
affairs  of  the  town,  remarking  that,  "  of  all  the  persons  admitted  into 
Council  under  the  present  influence,  only  four  have  been  natives  of 
Dundee.  .  .  .  That  one  member  of  Council  [the  Provost]  had  seven- 
teen different  transactions  with  the  Town  Council  in  the  purchase 
and  sale  of  property  ;  and  most  of  these  transactions  were  for  property 
in  the  line  of  new  streets,  planned  under  the  direction  of  the  Council, 
of  which  he  was  a  member  and  the  leader.  On  one  of  these  occa- 
sions, when  the  Council  had  not  provided  beforehand  for  making  the 
street  of  sufficient  breadth,  the  same  individual  received  £200  for  the 
surrender  of  a  few  feet  of  ground  for  this  purpose,  though  it  is  stated 
that  this  additional  breadth  was  calculated  to  improve  his  own  pro- 
perty as  much  as  to  accommodate  the  public." 

No  immediate  result  followed  this  enquiry ;  but  a  few  years  be- 
fore the  passing  of  the  Burgh  Reform  Act,  a  Parliamentary  altera- 
tion of  the  sett  took  place,  along  with  an  extension  of  the  royalty, 
co-extensive,  we  believe,  with  the  bounds  of  Police.  The  Act  of 
1834  did  away  with  all  the  former  antiquated,  though  modified 
forms,  and  vested  the  election  in  persons  qualified  by  the  possession 
of  XI 0  of  clear  annual  rent,  or  paying  the  same  sum  annually  to  a 
landlord — since  extended  to  £5  householders.  The  members  were 
elected  to  serve  for  three  years,  and  the  Council,  consisting  of  twenty- 
one  persons,  appointed  the  Magistrates  and  other  office-bearers  from 
among  themselves.  By  the  local  Act  of  1871,  the  Council,  as  already 
mentioned,  was  enlarged  to  thirty  members. 

THE  PROVOSTS  OF  DUNDEE. 

The  following  list  of  the  Chief  Magistrates  has  been  compiled  from 
a  great  variety  of  sources,  ranging  from  incidental  references  in  deeds 
to  the  tombstones  of  the  "  Howff."  There  are  necessarily  many  blanks 
in  the  list ;  but  it  is  hoped  the  attempt  may  suggest  contributions 


BISTORT  OF  DUWD1 


from  thorn  who  hare  other  means  of  information,  so  that  a  consecu- 
tive record  may  hereafter  he  obtained. 


186449  William  de  Hud**. 

14«0      William    <U    Strathauchtyns 

(Stra'chan). 
1 470      John  Hay —brother  of  Sir  James 

Hay  of  Naughton. ' 
JameeScrymgi 


1407 
1509 
1514 
1510 
1535 
1551 


BM  oorymgsonr. 
Alexander  Ogilvie. 
David,  Earl  of  Crawford. 
Alexander  Ogilvie. 
James  Serymgeoor. 
James  Halyburton— killed  at  the 

aiAge  of  Ixrith. 

1554-88  Jamea  Halyburton— son  of  the 
above,  and  provost  for  33  yean 
(sse  p.  112). 
1591-92  Jamea   Forrester,  wss  a  bailie 

aider  Halyburton  in  1557. 
1598      James  Auchinleck. 

1598      Wedderburn. 

1602-06  Sir  Jamea  Scrymgeonr  of  Dud- 
hope,  10th  constable  of  Dun- 
dee, and  several  tunes  provost 
1610      Andrew  Fletcher. 
1619      William  Auchinleck  of  Woodhill. 
1645-46  Jamea  Pieraon. 
1647      Wm.  Kinnear. 
1651      Sir  Thomaa  Mudie— laird  of  Oflc- 
horn,  anceator  of  the  Mudiss  of 
Pitmuiea. 

Sir  Thomaa  Mudie. 
Jamea  Fletcher. 
165546  Sir  Thomas  Mudie. 

1667  John  Scrymgeoor. 

1 66245  Alex.  Wedderburn. 

1668  George  Brown  of  Weethorn. 

1670  Alex.  Wedderburn. 

1 671  72  Alexander  Watson— bought  Wal- 

lace Craigie    from   Bruce  of 


1658 
1654 


1678      George  Brown  of  Weathome. 

168184  Alex.  Duncan. 

1688^99  Jamea  Fletcher. 

1711  ISGeorge  Teaman,  also  M.P. 

1715      Outhria. 

1716-80  John  Buiymgeuur— inataUed  bj 

order  of  Duke  of  Argyll. 
1728-29  Junes  Fab-weather. 
178041  Alexander  Bobertaoa, 
178188  James  Fairweathsr. 
173  4  ^6  Patrick  Maxwell. 
1738      Andrew  Wardropsr. 

1740      Donaldaon. 

1742-43  Patrick  Teaman. 

1744-46  Alexander  Duncan  of  Londits  an 

oeator  of  Camperdown  family. 
1750      Andrew  Wardropsr. 
1761      Alexander  Duncan, 
1778      Henry  Geekia. 
1780      Alexander  Thorns, 
1782      John  Pitcairn. 
1786-87  John  Pitcairn. 
1788-89  Alexander  Riddoch. 
1791- 92  James  Pitcairn. 
1793-94  Alexander  Riddook 
1705-96  Alexander  Thorns. 
1797-98  Alexander  Riddocb. 
1800-01  Alexander  Riddook 
1802-03  John  Guild. 
1804-05  Alexander  Riddook 
1806-07  John  Guild. 
180849  Alexander  Riddook 
ISlf-ll  John  Guild. 
1812-13  Alexander  Riddock 
181 4-15  John  Guild. 
1816-17  Alexander  Riddock 
1818-19  Patrick  Anderson. 
1820-21  Dand  Brown. 
1822-23  Patrick  Anderson. 


derived  from  Martin  of  Clsr- 
The  atory  of  a  run- 


1  The  svidenee  hers  is  nomewhat  alendsr, 

motif*  Genealogical  collect iona  in  the  Advocates' 

away  marriage  u  jn'vn.  in  which  a  Bethuoe  carried  off  Janet,  daughter  of  the 
Prornet  of  Dundee— "John  Hay,  a  brother  of  the  Laird  of  Naughton,  a  rich  man, 
8es"WoodaKartNeukof  Fils,"  p.  47. 


1824-25  David  Brown. 
1826-27  Alexander  Balfour. 
1828-29  Thomas  Bell. 

1830  Alexander  BaKour. 

1831  Eobert  Jobson. 
1831-32  William  Lindsay. 
1833-38  Alexander  Kay. 
1839-40  William  Hackney. 
1841      William  Johnston. 
1841-43  Alexander  Lawson. 


THE  TOWN'S  ARMS.  253 


1844-46  James  Brown. 
1847-52  Patrick  Hunter  Thorns. 
1853-55  George  Rough. 
1856-57  John  Ewan. 
1858      David  RoUo. 
1858-60  David  Jobson. 
1861  66  Charles  Parker. 
1867-68  William  Hay. 
J869-71  James  Teaman. 
1872-73  James  Cox. 


The  armorial  bearings  of  the  town  were  put  into  heraldic  form  on 
application  to  the  Lyon  Herald  in  the  reign  of  Charles  II.  Accord- 
ing to  Sir  George  Mackenzie,  the  crest  adopted  was  that  of  the  pot 
and  lily,  the  emblem  of  the  Virgin,  which  formed  the  device  on  the 
seal  of  the  Church  dedicated  to  her  name.  In  the  terms  of  heraldry, 
the  arms  of  the  town  are  thus  described  :  azure  ;  a  pot  of  growing 
lilies,  argent;  for  the  crest,  lilies  of  the  same  ;  supporters,  two  dragons, 
vert,  with  their  tails  rolled  below.  Mottoes :  Dei  donum,  above  the 
crest ;  Prudentia  et  Oandore,  below,  referring  to  the  supporters  and 
the  white  lily.  The  vulgar  interpretation  of  "  Prudence  and  Candour" 
is  of  course  inapplicable — Wisdom  and  Purity  being  the  ideas  sought 
to  be  expressed.  In  a  quaint  book  on  heraldry  the  supporters  are 
thus  alluded  to  :  "  The  poets  doe  feigne  that  Dragons  doe  keepe,  or 
(according  to  our  English  phrase)  sit  abrood  upon  Riches  and  Trea- 
sures, which  are  therefore  committed  to  their  charge,  because  of  their 
admirable  sharpenesse  of  sight,  and  for  that  they  are  supposed  (of  all 
other  living  things)  to  be  the  most  valiant."1 

THE    GUILDEY    INCORPOKATION. 

THE  uncertainty  which  exists  as  to  the  origin  of  our  municipal  insti- 
tutions extends  also  to  the  Gilds  or  Guildries,  which,  according  to 
some  writers,  date  back  to  the  times  of  the  Anglo-Saxons.  In  the 
twelfth  century,  however,  such  associations  of  merchants  were  well 
established  throughout  Europe,  and  there  is  good  reason  to  believe, 
were  in  many  cases  coeval  with  the  rise  of  free  burghs.  In  Flanders, 
such  confederations  became  so  numerous  and  influential  that  the  city 
of  Ghent  possessed  at  one  time  fifty-two  guilds  of  merchants,  and 
thirty-two  fraternities  of  weavers,  each  body  electing  its  own  presid- 
ing dean  or  deacon.  The  motives  for  encouraging  such  associations 

1  A  Display  of  Heraldry,  by  John  Quillim,  p.  263.    London,  1638. 


254  Riaroar  or  DCXPME. 

on  the  part  of  the  Sovereign  has  already  been  noticed,  and  the  exclu- 
sive privilege*  and  immunities  which  they  enjoyed,  amounting  to 
monopoly  of  the  strictest  kind,  Conned  a  bond  of  onion  among  them- 
selves, based  upon  self-interest,  which  gave  unity  and  influence  to  the 
corporation.  Deriving  their  privileges  sometimes  from  the  municipal 
rulers,  and  at  others  directly  from  the  Crown,  the  Quildriat  were 
able  to  enforce  their  roles,  not  only  on  their  own  members,  but  on 
those  outside  the  body.  In  all  mercantile  questions,  they  were  su- 
preme; while  in  the  general  affaire  of  the  burghs  where  they  flourished, 
they  were  so  well  represented,  and  held  such  a  position  as  burgesses, 
as  practically  to  direct  the  town's  affairs. 

It  is  not  until  after  the  War  of  Independence  that  we  find  a  dis- 
tinct charter,  that  of  Robert  L,  recognising  and  confirming  certain 
rights  of  the  burgesses.1  This  charter  proceeded  upon  the  narrative 
that  the  burgesses  of  Dundee  had  formerly  enjoyed  the  liberty  of  bay- 
ing and  selling,  by  land  or  water,  icith  a  merchant  gUd;  bot  the  right  of 
erecting  a  Goildry  does  not  appear  to  have  been  exercised  until  1515, 
when  that  corporation  was  regularly  formed.  A  deed  was  then  ob 
tained,  entitled  the  "  Merchandis  Letter,"  which  took  the  form  of  a 
contract  between  the  whole  merchants  of  Dundee  and  the  Magistrates 
and  Council,  by  which  the  former  body  became  bound,  by  a  tax  on 
merchandise,  to  raise  money  for  the  support  of  the  "  halie  bluid  altar, 
situate  in  the  south  ile  of  the  paroche  Kirk ;"  the  latter  consenting 
that  the  merchants  or  Guild ry  should  be  formed  into  a  corporation — 
that  the  Dean  should  be  elected  by  the  majority  of  the  merchants — 
that  he  should  be  collector  of  the  "  halie  bluid  siluer,"  and  should 
exercise  the  powers  and  privileges  pertaining  to  a  Dean  of  Guild, 
according  to  the  Guildry  Statutes  and  Burgh  Laws.  This,  then,  was 
the  proper  origin  of  the  Guildry  in  Dundee. 

In  the  infancy  of  the  institution,  the  whole  body  of  the  Guildry 
was  called  together  to  assist  the  Dean,  whenever  a  general  law  was  to 
be  enacted,  a  private  civil  question  between  two  merchants  of  the 

1  The  qualification  of  a  burgess  in  early  time*  U  uncertain,  but  probably  oon- 
•utod  in  tbe  holding  of  a  to/*  of  land  within  the  burgh.  It  may  alao  be  noted 
that  the  bishopric* and  abbeys  held  such  "  tofU"  in  almost  every  burgh :  Glas- 
gow, for  iiutanoe,  had  one  in  Porfar  and  Montroee;  and  Arbroath  held  one  in 
Dundee,  as  a  gift  from  the  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  in  "  my  burgh  of  Dtiode." 
These  enabled  the  Church  —*g— +—  to  accompany  the  Sovereign  to  hi*  frequent 
residences  in  the  town*,  and  gare  them  alsoa  voice  in  burghal  afiura,— See  Innes 

^  takti,  j,  .v,. 


255  THE  QUILDRT. 

Guildry  to  be  decided,  or  the  privileges  of  the  Incorporation  were 
to  be  protected  from  the  encroachments  of  strangers.  The  inconveni- 
ence of  assembling  such  a  numerous  body  on  all  occasions  soon  called 
for  a  remedy  ;  and  the  Guildry  delegated  its  powers,  for  ordinary  pur- 
poses, to  a  certain  number  of  its  members,  as  "  assessors"  to  the  Dean. 
A  collector  of  the  dues,  and  an  office:  to  put  the  decrees  of  the  court  in 
execution,  made  the  machine  of  Guildry  government  complete.  The 
Dean,  Assessors,  Collector,  and  Officer,  were  elected  by  the  universal 
suffrages  of  the  brethren.  Such  was  the  original  constitution  of  the 
Guildry  Incorporation  of  Dundee,  the  powers  and  privileges  of  which 
were  recapitulated  and  confirmed  by  Eoyal  Charter,  from  James  V., 
in  the  year  1526.1 

"  For  some  time  prior  to  the  erection  of  the  Guildry  into  a  confede- 
ration or  Guild,  the  Bakers,  Shoemakers,  and  other  trades  had  been 
constituted  corporate  bodies.  The  exercise  of  the  new  powers  conferred 
on  the  Guildry,  jarred  with  what  the  Trades  had  been  accustomed  to 
consider  their  rights  and  privileges,  and  a  dispute  arose  between  the 
Guildry  and  the  Trades  on  the  vexed  questions."  After  much  dis- 
cussion and  ill-feeling  between  them,  a  settlement  was  effected  by 
arbitrators  mutually  chosen.2 

The  powers  and  privileges  of  the  Guildry  were  very  extensive.  By 
ancient  usage  the  Incorporation  possessed  a  faculty,  subordinate  only 
to  the  King  and  Parliament,  of  making  laws  to  regulate  the  commerce 
of  the  burgh,  foreign  as  well  as  domestic,  and  of  rescinding  or  amend- 
ing these  laws  at  will.  It  decided  in  all  mercantile  disputes  among 
its  members.  It  had  a  right  to  regulate  the  weights  and  measures  of 
the  town.  At  one  period,  no  merchant  was  permitted  to  freight  a 
ship  without  the  approbation  and  presence  of  the  Dean,  under  cer- 
tain penalties  ;  and  no  stranger  could  import  a  cargo  of  goods  without 
making  the  first  offer  of  it  to  the  Guildry.  When  the  price  was  such 
as  to  afford  a  hope  of  gain,  the  offer  was  generally  accepted,  and  the 
profit  paid  into  the  Corporation  funds ;  but  when  the  price  demanded 
was  so  "high  as  to  preclude  this  hope,  the  stranger,  on  paying  a  per- 
centage to  the  Collector,  obtained  permission  to  sell  his  goods  to  any 
three  or  four  members  of  the  Guildry,  but  not  at  a  price  lower  than 

1  This  charter  and  the  "  Merchandis  Letter,"  will  be  found  in  the  Appendix. 
—Note  G. 

'  For  details  of  these  transactions,  and  copious  excerpts  from  the  records  of 
the  Guildry  and  Trades,  see  Mr  Warden's  interesting  work,  "  Burgh  Laws,"  p.  97, 
et  teq. 


IN  BISTORT  Of  DtmDKX. 

what  he  had  Bought  from  the  Incorporation.  When  the  representA- 
live  of  the  town  proceeded  to  attend  hi*  duty  in  Parliament,  the 
(iuildry  waa  assembled  to  give  him  instructions.1  When  the  Com- 
missioners from  the  Town  Conncil  attended  the  annual  Convention 
of  the  Royal  Burgha,  the  Guildry  was  requested  to  give  instruction* 
and  slate  grievances.1  When  Seal*  of  Cause  were  granted  to  "  pendicle 
trade*,"  the  permission  of  the  (Juildry  was  solicited ;  and  when  taxes 
were  to  be  imposed,  the  Magistrate*  consulted  the  Guildry,  and  fol- 
lowed its  advice.  In  fine,  it  would  be  difficult  to  name  a  transaction 
of  any  importance  on  which  the  Incorporation  did  not  exercise  an 
influence — and  this  was  natural ;  for,  as  we  hare  already  observed, 
the  Guildry  included  in  its  body  a  large  share  of  the  talent  and  wealth 
which  commonly  confer  authority  and  power.  A  commercial  town 
from  a  remote  period,  a  large  share  of  the  capital  stock  of  Dundee 
must  always  have  been  vested  in  the  merchants ;  and,  consequently, 
they  must  have  had  a  deeper  interest  in  the  welfare  of  the  burgh  than 
any  other  public  body.  Impressed  with  this  conviction,  each  succes- 
sive Magistracy  continued  to  consult  the  Guildry,  till  the  last  relic  of 
its  former  greatness  and  importance  disappeared,  and  the  Incorpora- 
tion was  reduced  to  a  mere  name  within  a  not  very  distant  period. 

The  subversion  of  the  constitution  of  the  Guildry  may  be  traced 
as  far  back  as  within  seventy-five  yean  after  its  positive  institution  as 
a  public  body.  Previous  to  the  year  1590,  the  major  part  of  the 
assessors  were  members  of  Town  Council,  appointed  by  that  body ; 
and  at  Michaelmas  in  that  year,  the  Magistrates  in  order  to  avoid, 
as  they  phrased  it,  the  confusion  that  might  occur  in  the  election  of 
tli.-  Dean  by  the  suffrages  of  the  whole  body,  enacted,  with  consent 
of  the  merchants,  that  the  Dean  should  be  selected  from  a  /«•/  of 
three  members  of  Town  Council,  "  most  wyse,  and  of  greatest  gra- 
vitio;  and  sic  as  hes  beine  and  borne  office  of  ane  Bail  lie;"  and  in 
consequence  Bailie  William  Duncan  was  elected.  From  this  period 
the  dignity  and  importance  of  the  Incorporation  declined,  the  elec- 
tion of  the  office-bearers  was  seized  by  the  Magistrates,  the  manage^ 

1  The  first  <n«**»wv>  Of  this  which  we  have  met  with,  though,  perhaps,  not  the 
earliest,  occurred  on  the  32d  June,  1702.  The  Provost  at  the  time  was  the  P*r- 
liamenUry  Commissioner,  as  the  Bepreeentatire  wu  then  celled. 

*  An  instance  of  this  occurs  under  date June,  1711,  and  tht«  at  a  time 

when  many  of  the  powers  of  the  Incorporation  were  usurped,  or  render  «i  inope- 
rative  by  the  Magistrate*,  The  Provost  in  this  ease  also  was  Commissioner  or 


tHE  GUILDRY.  257 

ment  of  the  Corporation  funds  came  into  their  hands ;  and  in  the  year 
1606,  they  quietly  assumed  the  power  of  appointing  the  Dean,  with- 
out consulting  the  Guildry  at  all.  This  continued  to  be  the  rule 
until  the  year  1818,  when  the  power  so  unjustly  usurped  by  their  pre- 
decessors, was,  after  a  sharp  conflict,  wrested  from  the  Magistrates  of 
that  period. 

The  repeated  farce  of  the  election  of  the  Dean,  Assessors,  &c.,  by 
the  Magistrates,  was  varied  by  the  addition  of  anew  Act  in  1642 — a 
kind  of  interlude  at  first,  but  afterwards  engrafted  on  the  piece  as  a 
permanent  addition.  This  was  the  addition  of  a  new  member  by  the 
Magistrates  and  Council,  under  the  name  of  Councillor  for  the  Guild ; 
but  for  what  purpose  he  was  created  does  not  appear,  nor  was  there 
ever  cause  assigned,  but  probably  it  was  to  answer  some  political  pur- 
pose of  the  time.  The  minutes  of  the  Guildry,  after  the  period  at 
which  its  subversion  was  effected,  cannot  be  supposed  to  have  been 
kept  with  the  most  scrupulous  attention,  which  in  reality  was  the 
case;  but  on  the  llth  February,  1815,  the  records  bear  a  minute  of 
a  full  meeting  of  the  members  for  electing  their  Commissioners  for 
the  Harbour  Bill.  The  keen  discussions  which  this  Bill  originated 
aroused  the  Guildry  to  a  sense  of  the  degraded  position  in  which  the 
duplicity  and  want  of  principle  in  former  times  had  placed  them ; 
but,  once  aroused,  the  spirit  that  animated  them  could  not  be  again 
put  down;  and,  after  an  arduous  struggle,  which  continued  several 
years,  they  had  the  satisfaction,  in  1818,  of  recovering  their  rights 
and  ancient  independence,  and  of  electing  their  own  President. 

One  of  the  first  acts  of  the  rescuscitated  body  was  to  declare  that 
no  member  of  the  Council  should  be  eligible  as  an  assessor,  clerk,  oi 
collector  to  the  Guildry.  After  the  unanimous  election  of  Eobert 
Jobson  as  Dean  in  1818,  nothing  occurred  to  interrupt  the  independ- 
ent progress  of  the  Corporation  until  1827,  when  two  parties,  Alex- 
ander Kay  and  William  Lindsay,  claimed  to  have  been  elected.  The 
Town  Council  held  that  the  former  was  disqualified,  in  respect  that 
he  was  no  burgess,  and  admitted  Mr  Lindsay  to  the  seat  occupied  by 
the  Dean  of  Guild  at  the  Council  Board.  An  appeal  to  the  Court  oi 
Session  resulted  in  Mr  Kay  being  declared  duly  elected,  as  having 
the  majority  of  votes.  The  Court  farther  found  that  the  whole  pro- 
ceedings of  the  Council,  from  the  time  Mr  Kay  was  refused  his  seat, 
were  illegal,  and  in  consequence  the  burgh  was  disfranchised.  In 
response  to  a  petition  addressed  to  the  King  in  Council,  a  poll-warrant 
& 


MM  HISTORY  OF  DUVDU. 

vras  issued  requiring  the  burgesses  and  heriton  to  meet  on  10th  May, 
1831,  and  elect  twentf-one  fit  and  proper  persona  to  be  magistrate* 
and  councillors.  Under  thia  new  Sett  of  the  burgh,  the  Dean  fell  to 
be  chosen  from  among  the  Councillon ;  and  thia  unsatisfactory  arrange- 
ment was  acquiesced  in  until  the  proper  status  of  i  h-  1  Van  was  restored, 
under  the  Keform  Act  of  1832,  since  which  period  he  has  been  directly 
elected  by  the  suffrages  of  the  Guild-brethren,  expressed  by  ballot 
and  than  takes  hia  seat  aa  an  e&officio  member  of  the  Town  Council 

The  exclusive  trading  privileges  of  all  guilds,  crafts,  and  incorpora- 
tions, which,  in  the  altered  circumstances  of  society,  had  become  in  a 
great  measure  obsolete  or  inimical  to  free  trade,  were,  in  1846,  wholly 
abolished  by  Act  of  Parliament  It  was  still  permitted  to  such  bodies, 
however,  to  retain  their  corporate  character,  titles,  and  property,  and, 
under  certain  limitations,  to  frame  their  own  bye-laws  with  respect  to 
membership,  Arc.  Though  thus  shorn  of  its  ancient  powers  and  privi- 
leges, and  deprived  of  much  of  its  income,  the  Guildry  Incorporation 
survives  in  the  possession  of  considerable  funds,  and  capable  of  useful 
(service  to  the  community.  The  position  of  Dean  is  one  which  any 
citizen  may  aspire  to  occupy,  and  in  which  a  man  of  capacity  and  pub- 
lic spirit  may  find  honour  and  influence  second  only  to  that  of  Provost 
Apart  from  the  Court,  in  which  he  presides,  for  regulating  the  boun- 
daries of  property  within  the  ancient  royalty,  he  finds,  by  virtue  of  his 
office,  a  seat  at  the  six  public  boards  of  the  town,  besides  being  a  direc- 
tor or  trustee  of  more  than  a  dozen  charitable  and  educational  institu- 
tions. In  such  a  sphere  of  usefulness,  he  is  supported  by  a  constituency 
representing  the  intelligent  burghers  or  middle  class  of  the  community, 
which  he  can  at  any  time  convene  for  the  discussion  of  matters  of 
public  interest  There  is  no  reason  therefore  why  the  modern  Dean 
of  Guild  might  not  surpass  the  public  services  of  the  ablest  of  his  pre- 
decessors, by  holding  aloof  from  the  party  feeling  which  occasionally 
shows  itself  at  our  public  boards,  and  by  the  impartial  discharge  of 
his  other  duties,  under  a  sense  of  the  honour  and  responsibility  which 
attaches  to  his  office. 

THE    NINE    TBADEa 

THB  observations  regarding  the  origin  and  early  history  of  our  muni- 
cipal and  guildry  corporations  apply  equally  to  that  of  individual 
trades  or  crafts.  The  latter  being  associations  of  artificers  employed 


THE  NINE  TRADES.  259 

in  the  preparation  of  food,  clothing,  implements,  and  habitations  for 
the  people,  doubtless  preceded  in  point  of  time  the  guilds  or  whole- 
sale merchants,  whose  sphere  of  business  lay  in  the  more  artificial 
requirements  which  arose  after  necessary  wants  were  supplied.  As 
communities  grew,  the  craftsmen  multiplied,  and  associated  together 
for  mutual  protection  and  support.  Such  fraternities  then  obtained 
recognition  from  the  Magistrates  of  their  burgh,  had  powers  vested 
in  them  to  regulate  the  affairs  of  their  particular  trade,  and  to  be- 
stow exclusive  privileges  upon  the  members.  The  importance  of 
these  trade  societies  early  attracted  the  notice  of  the  State ;  and 
accordingly  we  find  James  I.,  in  1424,  enjoining  the  Crafts  to  choose 
each  a  wise  man  of  their  number  as  Deacon,  with  consent  of  the 
Alderman  or  Provost  of  the  town.  The  object  then  aimed  at  was  to 
secure  skilful  work,  and  the  Deacon's  duty  was  defined  to  be  the  over- 
sight of  the  craftsmen  for  this  end.  By  an  easy  process  this  led  to 
protection  from  external  competition,  and  the  creation  of  a  close  mo- 
nopoly in  favour  of  each  trade  society.  These  exclusive  privileges 
were  usually  granted  by  "  Charters,"  "  Letters,"  or  "  Seals  of  Cause," 
detailing  the  immunities  conferred,  and  the  considerations  for  which 
they  were  bestowed.  The  most  common  condition  was  the  support 
of  religious  service,  in  the  form  of  a  chaplainry,  to  be  maintained 
by  the  Trade,  before  the  altar  of  its  patron  saint,  in  the  principal 
church  ;  or  an  annual  payment  towards  some  public  work,  or  the 
"  common  gude"  of  the  town.  Each  Craft,  prior  to  the  Eeformation, 
had  a  patron  saint  and  altar,  with  a  priestly  celebrant,  who  quar- 
tered himself  upon  the  craftsmen  alternately,  when  a  separate  subsist- 
ence was  not  voted  to  him.  The  following  is  a  list  of  these  ancient 
Trades  and  their  patron  saints  : — 

CRAFTS.  PATRON  SAINTS  OR  ALTARS. 

Guildiy, St  Andrew— the  Holy  Blood  Altar. 

Barbers  and  Surgeons, St  Mungo. 

Baxters  or  Bakers, St  Cuthbert. 

Bonnetmakers, St  Mark. 

Coopers, St  John. 

Cordiners  or  Shoemakers, St  Crispin. 

Fleshers, St  Peter. 

Fullers  or  Waulkers St  Mark,  Philip,  and  Jacob. 

Litshers  or  Dyers, St  Mark. 

Skinners  or  Glovers, St  Christopher  and  Martin. 

Tailors, St  Ann. 

Websters,  Brabeners,  or  Weavers,... St  Severanus. 

Wrights  and  Masons, St  John  and  JuLu  the  Baptist. 


'-' r '  >  HI  WORT  OF  D0W  DEI. 

At  they  grew  in  number  and  importance,  the  influence  of  the  crafts- 
men made  iteelf  felt  beyond  the  strictly  technical  attain  of  their 
respective  trades,  so  that  the  jealousy  of  the  Government  was  occa- 
sionally excited.  In  1555,  the  Queen-Regent  brought  the  subject 
before  Parliament,  and  got  an  Act  passed  pronouncing  their  •Associa- 
tions dangerous,  forbidding  the  appointment  of  deacons,  and  directing 
the  burgh  magistrates  to  take  cognisance  of  the  craftsmen,  by  placing 
inspectors  over  them.  It  also  prohibited  all  convenings  and  gather- 
ings  of  the  crafts  under  pain  of  imprisonment,  loss  of  freedom,  and 
forfeiture  of  goods.  This  stringent  enactment  did  not  meet  with 
acquiescence,  and,  in  fact,  does  not  seem  to  have  been  enforced,  since 
minutes  of  the  Bakers  are  extant  recording  their  election  of  deacons. 
The  simultaneous  introduction  among  the  trades  about  this  time  of  a 
44  Lockit  Bulk,"  in  which  their  transactions  were  entered,  had  probably 
some  reference  to  the  Government  interference  with  their  affairs.  That 
interference,  however,  did  not  long  exist  even  in  name ;  for,  in  1581, 
James  VL  granted  a  charter  rescinding  the  former  enactment,  and 
reinstating  the  crafts  in  all  their  privileges  and  immunities,  relieving 
them  of  the  Council  jurisdiction,  confirming  their  right  to  vote  in  the 
election  of  magistrates,  and  to  frame  regulations  for  their  own  internal 
administration. 

Each  Trade  was  originally  a  distinct  body,  complete  in  itself,  and 
this  separate  organisation  has  been  retained  to  the  present  day.  The 
necessity  of  some  federal  union,  however,  for  defence  of  their  common 
interests  became  apparent  at  an  early  period,  and  combined  action  was 
taken,  in  1 526-7,  against  the  Guildry  merchants,  as  already  mentioned  in 
the  account  of  that  body.  It  was  not  till  the  year  1575,  however,  that 
a  formal  union  was  effected  of  the  "  nine  in  one,"  having  for  its  objects 
the  adjustment  of  differences  arising  among  the  individual  Trades, 
and  the  appointment  of  a  Collector  for  the  common  fund,  out  of  which 
provision  was  afterwards  made  for  charitable  aid  to  poor  brethren, 
"  when  it  pleases  God  to  visit  them  with  poverty  and  inability  of 
person."  Thus  organised  as  individual  trades,  and  collectively,  they 
pursued  their  several  ways  in  peace  for  more  than  a  century,  when 
heartburnings  arose  respecting  the  precedency  of  particular  Trades,  to 
allay  which  recourse  was  had  to  the  Head  Court  of  the  burgh.  The 
decision  thus  obtained  was  con  tinned  by  an  Act  of  the  Scottish  Par- 
liament in  1695,  which  fixed  the  order  or  rank  of  the  Craft*  as  fol- 
lows :— 1,  Bakers;  2,  Shoemaker*;  3,  Skinners  or  Glovers ;  4,  Tailocs; 


THE  NINE  TRADES.  261 

5.  Bonnetmakers ;  6,  Fleshers;  7,  Hammermen ;  8,  "Weavers;  9,  Waulk- 
ers  or  Dyers. 

The  Nine  Trades  do  not  possess  any  special  charter  as  a  united 
body,  but  have  been  frequently  recognised  as  such  by  the  Courts  and 
by  Parliament  itself,  and  in  that  capacity  still  return  representatives 
to  the  Harbour  and  other  local  boards  and  institutions.  Since  the 
abolition  of  the  exclusive  privileges  of  Trades  Incorporations  by  the 
Act  of  1846,  their  power  and  influence  has  been  materially  restricted, 
and  some  of  the  Crafts,  by  ceasing  to  admit  new  members,  appear  on 
the  very  verge  of  extinction,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  following  statis- 
tics, showing  the  numerical  strength  of  the  individual  Trades.  Since 
1869,  accessions  have  been  made  to  several,  so  that  the  total  member- 
ship may  now  be  stated  at  about  300. 

1783.  1839.       1859.      1869. 

Bakers, 27  89                59                98 

Shoemakers, 63  29                  9                12 

Glovers 10  643 

Tailors, 43  27                13                  7 

Bonnetmakers, 4  48                39                98 

Fleshers, 16  16                19                10 

Hammermen, 29  60                34                24 

Weavers, 100  41                18                15 

Dyers, 8334 

Total, 300  319  198  269 

The  funds  of  the  united  body  are  managed  by  the  "  General  Fund 
Court,"  consisting  of  twenty  delegates  from  the  various  Trades.  In 
1872,  their  assets  were  valued  at  about  £8,000,  besides  nine  twenty- 
fourth  shares  of  St  Andrew's  Church.  The  annual  income  was  about 
£400,  of  which  about  £300  was  disbursed  to  the  poor.  The  records 
of  the  Nine  Incorporated  Trades  contain  numerous  allusions  to  current 
events  of  local  interest ;  but  the  most  noticeable  transaction  in  which 
the  body  engaged  was  the  erection  of  St  Andrew's  Church.  The  Town 
Council  having  declined  to  become  parties  to  this  undertaking,  the 
Trades,  in  conjunction  with  the  Kirk-Session,  set  about  the  work.  Of 
the  twenty-four'shares  into  which  the  concern  was  divided,  the  Trades 
took  twelve,  whereof  nine  fell  to  the  Incorporated  body,  and  three  to 
the  Three  Trades,  the  Kirk-Session  assuming  the  other  twelve  shares. 
In  1 774,  the  church  was  completed,  and  a  minister  appointed  at  a 
stipend  of  £50  per  annum,  which  was  afterwards  increased  to  £100. 


T  or  Dtnrosm 

Two  of  the  Trade*  having  cold  their  share*  to  the  Kirk- Session,  bfck- 
erings  ATOM  M  to  the  choosing  of  ministers,  which  ultimately  resulted 
in  the  nomination  being  esenueed  by  the  Session  and  Trade*  alter- 
nately. Latterly,  steps  have  been  taken  to  cancel  the  interest  of  the 
Trades,  and  endow  the  church  on  an  independent  footing,  which  will 
doubtless  be  successful  and  beneficial  to  all  parties. 

Proa  the  earliest  times,  the  meeting!  of  the  Trades  were  held  in  the 
Hooffor  banal-place  of  the  town;  and  it  was  not  until  1776  that 
steps  were  taken  to  provide  a  more  suitable  rendezvous.  In  that  year, 
the  Old  Flesh  Market,  at  the  east  end  of  the  High  Street,  was  pur- 
chased from  the  town  for  £30 1 ,  and  a  building  erected  upon  the  site, 
containing  a  common  Hall,  and  rooma  for  the  individual  Trades,  the 
Utter  being  allocated  by  the  primitive  process  of  tickets  drawn  from 
a  bonnet.  On  Thursday,  24th  Sept,  177*,  the  Trades  mustered  for 
the  last  time  among  the  tombs,  and  marched  in  procession  to  their 
new  hall,  where  they  nominated  the  Provost  and  Magistrates  for  the 
year,  and  finished  with  a  supper.  The  building  thus  auspiciously 
opened  continued  the  property  of  the  Trades  until  1864,  when  it  was 
•old  to  the  Clydesdale  Banking  Co.  for  £2,875,  and  a  ground  annual 
of  £250,  which,  after  payment  of  £100  to  each  Trade,  left  a  respect- 
able fund  in  the  hands  of  the  Incorporated  body. 


THE  THREE  UNITED  TRADEa 

Lr  addition  to  the  Nine  Incorporated  Trades  there  were  other  corpo- 
rate Crafts,  possessing  a  certain  status  and  code  of  rules,  derived  from 
the  Guildry  in  concurrence  with  the  Magistrates.  These  were  known 
as  "  pendicles"  of  the  Guildry,  and  were  in  some  degree  subject  to  the 
supervision  of  that  body,  but  at  the  same  time  elected  their  own  dea- 
cons, and  regulated  their  affaire  after  the  manner  of  the  more  independ- 
ent fraternities.  The  most  important  were  the  Masons,  Wrights,  and 
Slaters,  which  formed  the  "Three  Trades;"  and  the  Maltmen.  The 
former  were  incorporated  in  1741,  being  moved  thereto  by  the  facili- 
ties which  union  gave  them  for  purchasing  oatmeal  in  quantity,  dur- 
ing times  of  scarcity,  for  distribution  in  retail  among  the  members. 
The  Masons  enlarged  the  rauge  of  their  society  by  engrafting  Free 
Masonry  upon  their  more  technical  qualifications,  and  thus  brought 
county  gentlemen  and  gentry  into  their  fraternity ;  but  latterly  the 


AN  EXTFNCT  CRAFT.  263 

regular  Lodges  absorbed  such  accessions,  and  left  the  Trade  more 
analagous  in  its  membership  to  other  Trades.  The  Wrights  formed 
the  most  numerous  section  of  the  Three  Trades ;  and  having  naturally 
looked  after  the  undertaking  business,  and  acquired  a  sort  of  monopoly 
in  mortcloths,  their  revenues  nourished  thereby,  until  modern  usages 
superseded  that  source  of  income.  The  Slaters  never  appear  to  have 
taken  so  high  a  position  as  might  be  expected  from  their  occupation. 
The  Maltmen,  though  an  old  calling,  and  one  which  is  still  par- 
tially represented  in  the  Brewing  Trade  of  the  town,  is  now  all  but 
extinct  as  a  corporation  ;  and  unless  some  elements  of  vitality,  in 
accordance  with  the  spirit  of  the  age,  can  be  infused  into  them,  it  is 
not  unlikely  that  dissolution  will  ere  long  overtake  more  than  one  of 
these  ancient  fraternities.1 

The  records  of  the  Guildry  and  Trades  have  been  preserved  with 
more  or  less  completeness  and  care  for  a  long  period ;  the  oldest 
official  deed  extant  being  apparently  one  of  the  Weavers',  dated  in 
1512.  In  these  records  much  curious  information  is  to  be  found ;  but 

1  One  Trade,  the  Bonnetmakers,  has  long  been  extinct,  and  presents  the  ano- 
maly of  a  corporation  which  has  not  had  a  single  operative  craftsman  since  before 
the  commencement  of  the  present  century.  Ever  since  hats  came  into  use,  about 
the  year  1756,  the  manufacture  of  bonnets  began  to  decline,  until  it  became  ex- 
tinct. The  ultimus  Scotorum,  who  plied  the  knitting  wires  here,  a  very  old  man, 
verging  on  the  patriarchal  age  of  a  hundred  years,  was  gathered  to  his  fathers  in 
the  Houff  in  1843.  The  Hilltown  burgh  of  barony,  from  being  originally  occupied 
by  members  of  the  corporation,  acquired  the  name  of  the  "  Bonnet  HilL"  Before, 
and  for  long  after  the  middle  of  last  century,  it  was  thinly  inhabited,  and,  in  1756 
could  boast  of  only  one  house  which  was  roofed  with  slates,  besides  the  barony 
council-house,  that  stood  at  the  bottom  of  the  hill,  adjoining  the  Lady  WelL  The 
scattered  cottages  stood  fronting  to  the  south,  with  their  gables  to  the  public 
road.  They  were  humble  and  miserable  enough,  consisting  of  one  low  storey, 
with  an  earthen  or  clay-trodden  floor,  and  a  straw-thatch  or  divot  root  The 
gardens  and  kail-yards  were  ample  in  extent,  and  grew  what  pot-barley  and  escul- 
ents the  contented  occupants  required,  who  might  be  seen  sitting  on  stone  or  sod 
seats  at  the  ends  or  sunny  sides  of  their  cottages,  in  favourable  weather,  knitting 
their  wares.  A  few  specimens  of  these  miserable  hovels  are  still  to  be  seen,  in 
which  the  people  of  another,  and  not  very  distant  age,  contrived  to  live,  and 
even  to  amass  as  much  money  as  enabled  them  to  become  lairds.  In  these 
times  the  bonnets,  especially  for  the  better  class  of  citizens,  were  black ;  and  a 
Guildry  minute,  dated  29th  September,  1588,  expressly  enjoins  them  to  abstain 
"  frae  wearing  of  plaidis  and  any  bonnatis  except  black  bonnatis,  bearing  of  bar- 
rows, or  ony  ye  like  labour,"  under  a  penalty.  So  famous  were  the  craftsmen  in 
Dundee  for  the  excellence  of  their  manufacture,  that  the  Earl  of  Seaforth  sent 
the  son  of  his  chaplain,  along  with  another  young  man,  to  be  initiated  here  in  the 
mysteries  of  the  craft,  for  the  purpose  of  introducing  it  into  Ross-shire.  Kilmar- 
nock  is  now  as  famous  for  the  art  as  Dundee  was  in  former  times. 


I1ISTOBT  Or  DU5DBB. 

being  no*  rendered  accessible  through  Mr  Warden's  work,  "The 
Burgh  Laws,"  it  is  unnecessary  to  reproduce  extract*  hare.  Of  the 
more  strictly  municipal  record*  we  had  proposed  to  give  quotations  at 
some  length ;  but,  finding  from  a  perusal  of  them  that  these  had 
already  bean  largely  drawn  upon  (the  more  important  charters  will  be 
found  in  the  Appendix),  we  deem  it  sufficient  to  offer  merely  a  brie! 
description,  followed  by  a  few  of  the  earlier  and  more  characteristic 
minutes  of  the  Head  Court  Before  leaving  the  Trades,  however,  we 
may  notice  one  other  point  connected  with  the  ancient  eraftamen. 

The  subject  of  trades-marks  is  not  without  interest  to  the  curious ; 
but  our  space  will  not  permit  us  to  give  more  than  passing  mention  to 
those  current  in  old  Dundee,  of  which  the  tombstones  in  the  "  Howff" 
are  particularly  rich.  With  the  introduction  of  printing,  these  marks 
and  monograms  were  largely  introduced  in  books,  while  tradesmen 
used  them  as  signs  over  their  shops,  be/ore  doors  were  numbered  or 
streets  were  named,  and  they  were  also  stamped  on  goods,  and  im- 
pressed as  private  seals.  These  devices  bear  a  close  resemblance  to 
the  Freemasons'  marks,  and  are  known  to  have  originated  in  remote 
antiquity.  The  following  may  suffice  to  illustrate  the  monograms 
adopted  by  some  of  the  craftsmen  of  Dundee  :* — No.  1  is  the  mark  of 
John  Garden,  burges,  dated  15S1 ;  No.  2,  that  of  Robert  Peblis,  1582 ; 
Thomas  Bower,  skinner  and  burgess  (1603)  is  represented  by  No.  3  ; 
and  Robert  Fairvedder,  Ulster,  or  dyer  (1609),  by  No.  4.  The  odd 
looking  No.  5,  stands  for  the  initials  D.  Z.,  of  David  Zemane  or  Tea- 
man (1ft  10),  whose  descendants  were  influential  burghers,  one  of  them 
representing  Dundee  in  the  last  Scottish,  and  first  two  British  Parlia- 
ments, as  does  a  namesake,  if  not  a  descendant,  in  the  present  Parlia- 
ment From  the  former  the  "  Teaman  Shore"  took  its  name.  In 
No.  6  we  have  the  rather  pretty  monogram  and  mark  of  William 
Davidson,  a  merchant  who  died  in  1617  ;  while  7  and  8  are  those  of 
John  and  James  Goldman  (1607-32),  who  were  opulent  men  in  their 
day,  and  one  a  poet  of  some  merit  No.  9  is  the  monogram  of  Robert 
Kandow,  burgess.  No.  10  is  from  a  stone  raised  by  William  Chaplane, 
in  memory  of  his  wife  (1603),  which  further  reminds  posterity  that 
VILI  AMB  CHBPLAX B  vos  TB  DOUR  or  TIB.  No.  1 1  is  a  monogram  of  the 
Blair  family  ;  No.  12,  of  John  Zoung,  or  Toung,  probably  a  relative 
of  Sir  Peter  Toung,  a  tutor  of  James  VL  ;  No.  IS,  Robert  Hanson 
(1637) ;  No.  14,  John  Piersou,  a  burgess  and  seaman  (1660). 

>  JenrWa  Memorial*,  p.  198. 


EXTRACTS  FROM  THE  BURGH  RECORDS. 


In  the  vicissitudes  of  fortune  which  Dundee  has  experienced,  it  could 
scarcely  be  expected  that  the  earlier  archives  of  the  burgh  should 
escape.  To  the  other  misdeeds  of  Edward  I.  has  been  added  that  of 
carrying  off  all  public  records  in  existence  at  the  time  of  his  inva- 
sions, towards  the  end  of  the  13th  century;  but,  although  he  cer- 
tainly ordered  all  charters  and  writs  of  a  national  character  to  bo 
transmitted  to  England  previous  to  his  adjudication  on  the  rival 
claims  of  Balliol  and  Bruce,  there  is  evidence  that  he  returned  at  least 
a  portion  of  these,  and  no  evidence  that,  of  set  purpose,  he  destroyed 
the  records  of  Scotch  burghs.  It  is  more  probable  that  these  early 
burghal  records  were  neither  compiled  in  regular  and  permanent  form, 
nor  preserved  with  adequate  care  by  those  who  had  the  custody  of 
them ;  for  it  must  be  remembered  that,  prior  to  the  Reformation, 
writing  was  confined  almost  wholly  to  the  religious  orders,  whose 
registers,  it  is  to  be  remarked,  have  come  down  to  our  time  in  com- 
parative safety.  But,  from  whatever  cause,  and  however  much  we 
may  regret  it,  the  fact  remains,  that  the  official  records  of  our  town, 
prior  to  1550,  are  a  blank.  Subsequent  to  that  date  they  have  been 
preserved  with  some  degree  of  continuity,  but  under  circumstances  of 
neglect  and  indifference,  which  makes  the  loss  of  earlier  writings  less 
to  be  wondered  at.  "  The  ancient  records  lay  long  in  utter  confusion 
and  culpable  neglect,  covered  with  the  dust  of  ages,  unheeded,  uncared 
for,  and  all  but  unknown,  even  to  the  members  of  the  Town  Conncil, 
in  whose  custody  they  were.  The  late  Town  Clerk,  Mr  Christopher 
Kerr,  in  the  course  of  his  professional  duties,  had  often  occasion  to 
refer  to  the  old  documents  and  records  in  possession  of  the  Council, 
in  order  to  trace  the  progress  of  titles,  and  for  other  purposes.  No 
inventories  of  the  volumes  or  of  the  mass  of  parchments  and  other 


'_  I  0  H1ST01T  OF  DUJTDBI. 

documents  existed,  and  no  Uble  of  content*  of  any  of  the  boob  or 
packages  had  ever  been  made  out  Ignorant  of  what  was  actually 
there,  and  uncertain  in  what  put  of  the  record-room  any  documenU 
known,  or  supposed  to  exist,  had  been  thrown,  the  March  requisite 
fur  the  information  wanted  waa  often  laborious,  and  sometime!  in  the 
end  fruitless.  To  obviate  such  difficulties  in  the  future,  Mr  Kerr, 
with  a  public  spirit  worthy  of  the  highest  praise,  resolved  to  have  the 
content*  of  the  charter-room  classified  and  systematically  arranged."1 
The  death  of  Mr  Kerr  interrupted  the  work  for  a  time ;  but  the  Council, 
recognising  its  importance,  continued  the  employment  of  the  gentle- 
man engaged  by  Mr  Ken  to  collate  and  transcribe  the  MSS. ;  and, 
under  Mr  Hay,  the  present  Town  Clerk,  the  task  has  been  satisfac- 
torily accomplished.* 

The  earliest  entry  in  these  transcripts  is  one  of  the  Head  Court — 
composed  of  the  Council,  Dean  of  Guild,  and  nine  Deacons  of  Trades 
— under  date  2d  Oct.,  1553,  the  Provost  at  that  time  being  the  elder 
Haliburton,  who  fell  in  command  of  the  Dundee  contingent  at  the 
siege  of  Leith,  six  years  afterwards.  The  minutes  of  the  Head  Court 
are  of  the  most  varied  scope  and  application,  and  throw  much  light 
upon  the  powers  wielded  by  the  Magistrates  in  regulating  the  industry, 
morals,  religious  observances,  and  general  habits  of  the  people.  One 
of  the  earliest,  enacted  in  1550,  has  reference  to  the  shipping,  which 
then,  as  now,  was  an  important  interest  in  Dundee,  and  runs  thus : — 
"  Item,  it  is  statut  &  ordanit  yat  all  strong  shippes  resortand  to  ye 
port  and  peir  of  this  burgh,  with  ony  sorts  of  goods  or  merchandise, 
yat  gif  ony  schippi*  arreawes  efter  no*  me,  to  put  yaire  entres  on  ye 
next  morne  before  ye  prouest  and  bailliee,  in  open  Court,  and  what 
shippis  arrywes  befor  an  awcht  hours  before  noone,  to  put  ye  entres 
yat  day,  in  oppen  Court,  before  ye  prouest  or  baillies,  without  differ- 
ence or  ony  further  delay,  and  yat  na  person  within  yis  burgh  attempt 
to  mak  bargaine  privatlie  with  any  strange  man  befoir  his  entres  be 
written  in  ye  town's  buikw,  nor  zet  efter  ye  entres,  until  license  be 
giwen  be  ye  prouest  and  baillies  and  counsell,  under  ye  paine  of  xx 
lib.  to  ye  common  wark,  to  be  vp taken  of  yu  transgretuor  unfor- 
giwen." 

1  Wanton's  Burgh  Laws,  p.  01 

'  Mr  John  Daridaoo,  who  oamneneed  the  work  under  Mr  Kerr.  compiled  • 
•uimnary  and  extract*  of  several  volume*,  and,  <>u  hie  death,  Mr  J.  M.  Beatte 
continued  the  transcription. 


MINUTES  OF  HEAD  C^URT  1560-3.  '267 

On  14th  Oct.,  1560,  the  Magistrates  met,  and  "a  flesch  house"  was 
"  agreed  to  be  erectit  in  the  causeway,  wast  side  of  castel  burn,  where 
the  myddings  are  [on  site  of  present  Clydesdale  Bank]  ;  and  flescheors 
agreed  to  have  windows  and  doors  to  the  foirgatt  on  every  side." 

From  the  minute  of  5th  Oct.,  1562,  it  may  be  inferred  that  the 
tenure  of  office,  by  members  of  the  Court,  had  previously  been  some- 
what irregular,  and  uniformity  was  felt  to  be  necessary.  It  was  there- 
fore "  statut  and  ordanit  that  all  common  officers  of  yis  burgh,  sic  as 
Provost,  Bailies,  Counsel!,  Dean  of  Gild,  Threserour,  Kirkmaster, 
piermasters,  Hospitall  masters,  visie  masters,  deacon  of  the  workmen, 
and  sergeands  of  this  burgh,  be  vakand  ilk  zeir  at  the  fest  of  Michel- 
mas,  and  of  new  electit  and  chosin  thairintill." 

In  these  days,  the  religious  element  was  not  considered  beyond  the 
scope  of  the  Town  Council.  The  Eeformation  had  just  been  con- 
summated, and  the  minds  of  the  leaders  of  the  people  were  exercised 
for  its  safety.  That  some  resistance  was  shown  to  the  new  order  of 
things  appears  from  such  edicts  as  the  following  being  found  ne- 
cessary : — Under  date  5th  Oct.,  1562,  after  ratifying  former  acts 
anent  disobedience  to  ecclesiastical  superiors,  and  the  discipline  im- 
posed in  the  order  of  religion,  it  was  farther  enacted,  "  That,  if  any 
person  be  warnit  to  compeir  before  the  assembly,  under  discipline 
for  the  first  time,  and  disobeys,  he  shall  be  convict  in  the  panes  maid 
by  said  acts  ;  and  if  he  disobeys  a  second  time,  the  bailies  and  officers 
shall  apprehend,  and  put  him  in  the  Steple  for  xxiiii.  hours,  and  not 
to  be  let  out  till  he  find  caution  to  compeir  before  the  Assembly  the 
next  Wedensday,  under  the  pane  of  x.  lib.,  quhilk  sal  be  taken  of  the 
surety,  without  favor,  and  applyt  to  reparation  of  the  kirk  and  kirk- 
yard." 

In  the  early  years  of  Queen  Mary's  reign,  public  security  had  been 
so  shaken  that  the  citizens  were  reminded  of  the  duty  of  keeping 
watch  and  ward  with  greater  vigilance,  it  being  "  Ordanit  that  ilk 
person,  inhabitant  within  this  burgh,  that  be  warnit  to  the  watch, 
and  compeirs  not,  and  watches  not  all  night,  that  the  officers  poend 
him  of  2s.  of  vnlaw,  to  be  dispont  to  the  persons  repairand  to  the 
watch" — [who,  no  doubt,  would  spend  the  fines  jovially  on  cakes  and 
ale.] 

The  next  entry  shows  the  civic  dignitaries  engaged  in  adjusting  n 
petty  dispute  about  a  sign-board: — "Ultimo  Aprilis,  1563.  The 
provost,  baillies,  and  counsall  convenit  vpon  the  ground  of  the  land 


•_ . ,  -  BISTORT  OF  DUWDEB. 

callit  the  auld  tolbaith,  pertening  to  Elizabeth  Durham,  relict  of  urn- 
quhill  Alex.  Paterson,  and  deoeras  and  ordains  Robert  Pyker  to  tak 
down  and  hold  down,  in  tym  coming,  ane  akelf  or  burdis  pat  up  be 
him  abone  the  dor  of  her  new  bath  next  ajoind  to  his  awn  buth 
window,  and  the  traveaa  of  tjmber  quhilk  held  the  same  ;  and  this, 
becauB  thai  consider  that,  by  virtue  of  hit  titles,  he  had  na  power  to 
do  so." 

-ocial  evil  appears  to  have  been  a  difficulty  in  these  times  as 
well  as  now,  and  numerous  edicts  occur  framed  with  a  view  to  repress 
or  punish  unchastity — the  frequency  of  re-enactment  proving  too  well 
the  unsuccessful  results.  In  1564,  after  narrating  the  inefficiency  of 
former  measures,  and  their  weak  enforcement,  the  authorities  make 
another  assault  upon  the  vice  by  enacting  that  "  The  woman,  of  what 
estait  that  evir  she  be,  salbe  brocht  to  the  raarkit  croee  oppinlie,  and 
her  hair  be  cuttit  of,  and  the  same  to  be  naillit  uppon  the  outis-stuill, 
and  also  to  mak  her  public  repentance  in  the  kirk,  and  this  for  the 
first  fait  For  the  second  fait,  she  salbe  had  to  the  merkat  croce,  her 
hair  cuttit  of,  naillit  up  as  said  is,  herself  caryit  in  ane  cart  thro  all 
the  ports  of  the  town,  and  twa  shillings  tane  of  her  fee  to  pay  the 
carter  for  his  labors ;  and  she  banisht  the  burgh  for  year  and  day, 
and  forfault  under  the  pane  contenit  in  the  aald  acts." 

The  male  delinquent  was  not  overlooked,  in  which  many  social 
reformers  may  think  our  forefathers  showed  more  regard  for  strict 
justice  than  modern  legislation.  It  was  provided  that  "he  sail 
remaine  forty-eight  hours  in  the  stepill,  on  bread  and  water,  and  that 
nane  enter  in  the  stepill  to  bear  him  company  except  the  officer,  under 
the  pane  of  40s.,  to  be  taken  of  ilk  ane  of  them,  and  distribut  to  the 
poor." 

Under  same  date,  it  was  "  ordanit  that  all  baxters  [bakers]  of  this 
burgh  bak  ther  bred  [of]  sufficient  guid  and  dry  stuff,  and  abill  to 
furoeinh  the  toun  and  the  queen's  Majesty's  lieges  resortand  thereto  ; 
and  that  the  4d.  laif  wey  twenty-four  unces,  and  the  2d.  laif  twal  unces : 
and  sicklyk  that  all  browsters  [brewers]  of  this  burgh  mak  ther  aill 
gad  and  sufficient,  and  sell  the  pynt  therof  na  derer  nor  2d.,  to  be  con- 
Hi. l«-rit  worth  that  price  be  the  consumers ;  and  the  aill  quhilk  they 
fyml  not  worth  that  price  to  be  sauld  for  three  half  pennies."  If  such 
a  regulation  were  now  imposed,  we  fear  our  modern  browsters  would 
have  so  little  faith  in  the  discrimination  of  the  consumers  that  very 
little  twopenny  ale  would  be  offered. 


IflNUTES  OF  HEAD  COURT  1560-81.  2t>SJ 

Our  next  extracts  show  how  the  paving  and  sanitary  departments 
were  managed: — "4th  Oct.,  1560.  Ordanit  Cowgaitt  be  all  calsyit 
be  the  persons  detbound  thereto,  begynand  at  the  est,  and  sua  soud- 
wart  to  our  lady-wynd ;  and  gif  the  said  personis  begins  uocht  the 
same  within  ten  days  nixt  eftir  the  date  heiroff,  ther  hed  dykis  salbe 
cassine  doun,  and  samekill  [as  much]  as  ther  haif  of  the  town's  cassy 
salbe  appropriated  to  the  town  in  tyme  coming." 

"  Also  ordanit,  that  na  persoun  presume,  eftir  this  day,  to  lay  ony 
mydding  within  the  west  port,  bot  [nor]  ynder  the  north  gaitt  of  the 
same  betwix  that  gaitt  and  the  playfild,  vnder  the  pane  of  xls.,  sa  oft 
as  thai  failze  and  disposing  of  ther  myddings  to  ony  persoun  that  will 
tak  it  away.  Also  ordanit,  that  all  myddings  be  takin  and  haldin 
away  from  the  swineburne  to  the  foirgaitt,  and  nane  laid  in  the  buriall 
wynd  in  tyme  cumin g,  under  the  pane  of  xls." 

"16  March,  1562.  James  Petrie  comperit  and  confest  that  he  tuk 
doun  the  common  well,  callit  the  frier  well,  quhilk  servit  the  haill 
toun1  with  guid  and  wholsom  water,  and  he  is  ordanit  to  pay,  for  repa- 
ration of  the  said  well  and  common  warkis,  the  sum  of  ten  lib. ;  and  if 
lie  big  and  repair  the  said  well  as  well  as  it  wes  before,  his  present 
pane  be  remittit." 

In  the  conservation  of  the  public  recreation  ground,  the  authori- 
ties proved  as  vigilant  as  in  regard  to  the  water  supply,  as  the  following 
bears  : — "  2d  Oct.,  1581.  Ordanit,  that  our  communitie,  in  the  Maid- 
lane  geir  [Magdalen  Yard  or  Green],  be  observit  and  keipit  in  tymes 
cum  ing,  to  the  vse  of  the  town,  as  it  hes  bein  in  tymes  bygane  past 
memore  of  man,  and  that  all  persons  arryveris  out  and  destroyeris  of 
the  samyn,  and  in  special,  David  brok  be  callit,  and  accusit  therfor, 
and  compellit  to  mak  the  samyn  als  sufficient,  as  it  was,  or  thai  put 
hand  thairin.  Ordanit  that  the  cornis  quhilkis  ar  wrangusle  sawn 
beneth  the  geit  at  the  wid,  and  uther  guidis  properlie  apperteyning  to 
this  burgh,  be  trampit  doun,  and  the  samyn  keipt  in  ley,  for  the  weill 
of  commoun,  salmond  fischingis,  and  for  the  lugeis  to  seik  folkis  in 
tyme  of  pest,  as  thai  wer  befoir  past  memre  of  man." — "  Ordanit,  that 
the  provost,  bailzeis,  counsall,  and  deacons  of  craftis,  every  year,  upon 
the  third  day  of  May,  pas  throw  this  burgh,  and  consider  all  commu- 
niteis  of  the  samyn,  als  weill  within  as  without  the  portis  thairof, 
and  to  considder  gif  ony  persone  hes  brokin  the  said  communiteis,  or 

1  This  was  probably  the  well  in  the  Meadows,  on  the  site  of  High  School, 
afterwards  called  St  Francis  well,  being  in  the  grounds  of  the  F.  auciscan  friars. 


270  BISTORT  OF  DCKDEJt 

narrowit  the  gettis,  wyndis,  vennollis,  passages,  or  ony  other  prove- 
leges  of  the  samy  n,  or  approprUt  ony  pairt  thairof  to  thame,  or  lay  it 
ony  myddings,  without  the  said  portia,  upon  the  towns  communitie , 
that  the  said  provost,  bailieis,  counsal,  and  deacons  of  craftis  incon- 
tinent, tak  ordor  with  the  feiltis  and  offenceis  done  agains  the  commoun 
wi-ill,  and  or  [before]  thai  deparit  of  the  grund  to  cart  doun,  repair, 
and  mak  remcid  therof.  ....  Ordaint,  that  the  provost  and  bail 
incontinent,  aerche  and  seik  all  steipis,  tiriottis,  half-boll  mettis,  pekk- 
staneis,  and  utln-ris  small  wechts,  el  wand  U,  and  all  sic  messouris,  and 
to  causa  ane  univeraall  ordour  to  be  had  thairoff  among  all  the  inhabi- 
tants of  this  burgh,  without  respect  of  ony  penone." 

UK  re  is  something  to  provoke  a  smile  in  the  grouping  of  the  three 
classes  of  delinquents  in  the  following,  and  the  inference  that  the 
"swyne"  were  not  to  pretend  ignorance  of  the  bellman's  procla- 
mation :— "  25th  April,  1588.  It  is  statute  that  the  auld  actis  maid 
anent  expelling  of  beggaris,  vagabondia,  and  swyne,  furth  of  this  burgh, 
be  instantly  putt  to  executioun  with  all  severitie,  and  that  publica- 
tion n  be  maid  heirof  be  the  bell,  to  the  effect  nane  pretend  ignorance 
therof. " 

It  would  appear  from  what  follows  that  every  thing  was  not  done 
"  decently  and  in  order"  within  the  sanctuary  in  those  days ;  but  it 
is  to  be  noted  that  such  irregularities  were  far  from  uncommon,  it 
being  well  known  that  old  St  Paul's,  in  London,  was  long  a  com- 
mon market-place,  and  public  resort  for  the  idle  and  vicious  dur- 
ing the  week.  It  is  not  quite  clear  whether  the  regulation  anent 
the  wives  of  the  Councillors  arose  from  their  non-attendance,  or  con- 
gregating by  themselves  in  some  particular  part  of  the  church  : — 
"  9th  May,  1588.  Concludit  that  the  auld  actis  maid  anent 
removing  of  steillis,  stockis,  and  movable  sett  is  and  staneis  furth  of 
the  kirk,  be  putt  to  execution  aganes  the  transgressonris  thairof  with 
all  severitie  bot  respect  to  persoun  ;  and  that  the  kirkmaister  preecntlio 
and  incontinent  attend  thairto,  and  that  evrie  persoun  of  the  - 
cause  thair  wyffis  sit  within  the  body  of  the  kirk,  in  all  tyme  camming, 
vnder  the  pane  of  20s.,  to  be  uplifted  of  the  persoun  contravenare  sa 
oft  as  thair  wyffis  mil  be  found  transgressing  this  present." 

Although  James  VI.  took  but  little  interest  in  his  ill-fated  mother, 
during  her  long  imprisonment  in  England,  he  received  the  tidings  of 
her  execution  with  the  outward  signs  of  grief  and  indignation,  lie 
if. -tied  oidcjs  calling  1m  subjects  to  anus;  but  his  resentment  was 


MINUTES  OP  HEAD  COURT  1588.  271 

short-lived,  and  no  hostilities  ensued.  The  following  extracts  show 
that  Dundee  had  to  bestir  itself  on  this  occasion : — "  16th  May, 
1588.  Ordanit  the  haill  nichtbouris  and  fensible  persouns  of  this 
burgh  to  be  in  reddyness,  weill  boddine  with  jak-speir,  steill  bonnet 
or  hagbutt,1  and  other  armour  appoyntit  be  act  of  parliament,  to 
attend  and  awaitt  vpon  the  provost  and  bailleis  directioun,  quhen  thai 
sail  be  chairgit  according  to  the  kyngis  maiesties  chairgis  directit  and 
publishit  to  that  effect,  under  the  pane  contenit  in  the  actis  of  parlia- 
ment &  statutes  of  this  burgh." 

"  16th  May,  1588.  Appoyntit  and  disponit  to  Eobert  Bawand  and 
Patrik  Lowrie,  meassounis,  ane  burgeschip,  in  recompenss  of  thair 
bounty  and  skayth  sustenit  in  the  touns  wark,  in  bigging  of  the  Mur- 
raygaitt  port,  and  ordanit  the  persones  name  to  be  presentit  be  thame 
to  be  inserted  in  the  locket  buik,  and  admitted  to  his  fredome." 

"24th  May,  1588.  Concludit  that  the  bailleis  sail  distribute  the 
spairis  to  sic  persones  in  thair  quarteris  as  ar  habill  to  vse  and  lay  the 
sam  vpou  the  townis  prices — viz.,  10s.  the  pece,  and  ordanit  the  sowmes 
to  be  ressavit  thairfor,  quhilk  will  extend  to  60  lib.,  to  be  delivery t  to 
Thomas  Davidsoun,  for  mounting  and  stocking  the  ordinance."  Then 
follows  the  imposition  of  500  merks  for  mounting  the  guns  and  buy- 
ing powder. 

"  7th  Aug.,  1588.  Quhilk  day  the  bailleis  and  counsall,  vnderstand- 
ing  the  gude  and  thankfull  service  done  by  Patrick  Ramsay,  smyth, 
and  his  gude  attendance  on  the  knok  and  stepill  in  tyine  of  troublis, 
nominat  and  appoyntit  the  said  Patrik  to  haif  the  owir  and  chairge  of 
the  ordinance  being  in  the  stepill,  vuder  Thomas  Davidson,  principal 
maister  thairof;  and  the  said  Patrick  in  all  tyme  cumyng  sail  be 
gunare  thairof ;  for  the  quhilk  service  the  saids  pro  vest  and  bailleis 
hes,  be  this  present,  inlairgit  the  said  Patric's  stipend  appoyntit, 
quhilk  wes  of  befoir  17  merkis,  and  now  hes  ordaint  to  be  payit  zeirlie 
of  twentie  lib.,  augmenting  to  the  first  stipend  13  merkis  zeirlie,  and 
this  augmentation  to  indure  onlie  during  the  provest  and  bailleis  will 
allenarlie." 

The  old  enemy,  the  plague,  having  again  threatened  the  country, 
precautions  against  its  spread  are  thus  ordered  : — "  30th  July,  1588. 
It  is  statute  that,  in  respect  of  the  last  infectioun  of  the  plague  or 
pest  within  the  toun  of  Leyth,  that  this  burgh  sail  be  substantiouslie 

1  The  haybutt,  haquebut,  or  harquebusse  was  a  sort  of  musket,  cocked  by  means 
of  a  •wheel,  and  carrying  a  ball  of  nearly  two  oz.  in  weight. 


-  7  -  BWTOtT  Of 

attendit  to  and  watchit,  ra  far  as  is  pomabill,  for  prrservatioun  of  the 
Mm,  and  first,  that  thair  be  four  quaiicr-maUten  electit  for  visiting 
daylie,  in  the  morning  bctwix  fyre  and  aex,  of  all  person!*  within  thair 
quarterii  quha  sail  immediaUie  report  gif  thair  be  ony  seik  or  diaeaait 
personis,  to  the  baillic  of  thair  quartcris." 

•  James  soon  made  another  demand  on  the  burgeon* — namely, 
to  assist  him  with  ships  for  hi*  matrimonial  expedition  to  Denmark ; 
to  which  the  following  minute  seems  to  refer:— "9th  Oct.,  1588. 
Nominated  Johne  Fyndlasoun  to  pass  to  my  lord  admiral!,  and  d eclair 
the  townia  gudewill  to  his  lordschip's  furtherance  and  service,  and 
that  the  toun  has  concludit  to  remember  his  lordships  frendadiij) 
declairit  to  thame  in  all  thair  advis,  with  ane  tokine  of  ane  hondreth 
crownU,  and  ano  pair  of  pistollettis ;  and  this  present  to  bo  ane  war- 
rand  to  the  said  Johne  for  that  effect" 

That  domestic  grievance,  a  scolding  wife,  seems  to  have  been  too 
plentiful  in  those  days,  and  was  thus  legislated  upon  : — "  Gif  it  sail  hap- 
pen any  mens  wives,  or  uther  women  that  hes  niony  to  pay,  to  be 
hard  ojiinly  in  shamefull  flytin^r.  n  j>roching.  slandering,  cursing,  ban- 
ning, or  making  my  horrible  Imprecations,  or  fearfull  Blasphemies  of 
the  name  of  God  betwixt  them  and  any  uther  person,  that  the  offendar, 
havand  money  to  pay,  sail  stand  in  ward  whill  they  pay  xL  as.  to  the 
reparatione  of  the  comon  warkes  of  this  Brugh.  And  also  sail  pase  to  the 
Hercat  Croce  of  this  Brugh,  or  to  the  place  wher  they  offended  their 
nighbour,  and  upon  ther  knees  ask  them  forgeviness.  And  the  per- 
son that  hes  no  money  to  pay  sail  be  put  in  the  cockstool  be  the  space 
of  three  houres,  in  the  moist  patent  tyme  of  day,  and  therafter  sati&fie 
the  partie." 

We  conclude  our  extracts  with  the  following,  which  refers  to  the 
executive  then  found  necessary  to  regulate  the  ordinary  affairs  of  the 
town  : — "  It  is  concludit  by  common  consent,  that  the  haill  officcarc* 
and  serivants  of  this  brugh  bear  continually  ther  halberts  upon  thcr 
persones,  and  attend  daily  and  diligently  vpon  the  direction  of  the 
Provest  and  Bailies ;  and  that  two  of  ther  number  continually  wait 
rpon  the  hie  street  and  calsay  of  this  brugh,  betwixt  the  flesch  home 
and  the  old  Tolbuith," 


£wttott 


THE     PORT     OF     DUNDEE. 


EARLY  NOTICES  OP  THB  PORT — THIS  CRAIG  HARBOUR — FIRST  VESSELS — DAMAGE  TO 
HARBOUR  IN  1668 — MANAGEMENT  BY  THB  TOWN — THE  FIRST  HARBOUR  ACT  OF  1815 
— SUBSEQUENT  EXTENSIONS — MODERN  WORKS — STATISTICS. 

UNTIL  a  comparatively  recent  period,  the  Shipping  of  Scotland  was  so 
limited,  both  in  the  number  and  capacity  of  the  vessels,  that  it  is 
needless  to  go  far  back  for  traces  of  the  maritime  importance  of  Dun- 
dee. Its  natural  advantages  as  a  port  would  doubtless  secure  for  it  a 
share  of  trade  in  early  times,  as  soon  as  intercourse  arose  with  other 
countries,  and  this  would  necessitate  some  provision  being  made  for 
the  safety  and  accommodation  of  vessels  frequenting  the  place.  In 
the  middle  of  the  12th  century,  we  know  that  shipbuilding  had  been 
introduced  into  this  country,  since  a  powerful  French  baron  got  ships 
built  at  Inverness,  out  of  the  timber  of  the  Spey  forests,  with  which 
he  sailed  to  join  the  Crusaders  in  Palestine.  In  the  year  1297,  we 
find,  in  a  despatch  from  "Wallace  to  the  towns  of  Lubeck  and  Ham- 
burg, hopes  held  out  to  the  traders  there  that  commerce  with  the  ports 
of  Scotland  would  be  again  restored,  implying  that  it  had  previously 
existed,  before  the  aggressions  of  England  had  driven  our  country- 
men from  peaceful  pursuits  to  the  sterner  duties  of  warfare  in  defence 
of  their  liberties.  Under  Bruce,  a  Scottish  fleet,  if  it  might  be  so 
called,  was  sent  out  in  1334  to  harass  the  English  coast,  to  which 
Dundee  probably  contributed.  At  all  events,  some  twenty  years 
later,  its  shipping  had  attained  sufficient  importance  to  require  officials 
to  collect  the  shore-dues,  and  customs  arising  from  food,  the  revenues 
so  derived  being  very  considerable.1  Grants  were  made  from  these 
"  great  customs,"  as  they  were  called,  to  different  parties,  in  particular 

1  Chamberlain  Rolls,  I.,  p.  13. 


274  nurroRT  or  DUICDWL 

one  of  £100  to  an  ancestor  of  the  Earl*  of  Crawford.  This  family 
possessed  a  harbour  or  pier  at  the  Craig,  in  connection  with  the  family 
palace  and  grounds,  which  stretched  from  the  shore  northward  to  the 
churches ;  and  it  is  not  improbable  that  this  was  the  first,  and  for  a 
long  period,  the  only  port  of  the  town.  It  had  an  important  advant- 
age in  those  early  times,  in  being  protected  by  the  fortalice  which 
atoodon  St  Nicolas'  Craig.  From  this  Port  the  "  St  Mary"  sailed  in 
1390,  freighted  with  the  Earl  of  Crawford  and  his  suite  for  the  cele- 
brated tournament  on  London  Bridge. 

In  the  Parliament  of  Jamea  II.,  held  in  1458,  a  grant  of  duties 
was  given  upon  vessels  for  repairing  the  harbour  of  Dundee ;  and,  in 
connection  with  this,  Hani  vug,  a  contemporary  writer,  describes  oar 
town  as  "  the  principal  burgh  benorth  the  Scottish  Sea,"  or  Firth  of 
Forth.  The  duties  referred  to  were  ten  shillings  on  every  ship,  five  on 
every  crayer,  boss,  barge,  and  balinger,  one  on  every  fercoet,  and  six 
pennies  on  every  large  boat.1  The  nature  of  the  works  on  which 
these  duties  were  to  be  expended  is  not  mentioned ;  but  no  doubt 
they  consisted  of  the  rude  pier  or  "  shore,"  and  bulwarks,  which  then 
constituted  harbour  engineering. 

The  next  reference  to  shipping  we  have  met  with  concerns  another 
"  Marie,"  which  seems  to  have  been  owned  by  several  persons,  and 
figures  under  date  '1491,  in  a  disputed  case  which  came  before  the 
Lords  Auditors  of  Parliament,  by  whom  it  was  decreed  "  That  Patrik 
Liel  sal  pay  to  James  of  Drummond  the  soume  of  five  Bens  guldennis 
for  the  outred  [settlement  or  clearance]  of  his  parte  of  his  ship  callit 
the  Marl  of  Dunde."  What  particular  merchandise  employed  the 
shipping  in  those  days  does  not  appear ;  but,  from  numerous  allusions, 
French  and  Rhenish  wines  had  been  long  rather  extensively  imported, 
and  being  subject  to  a  considerable  duty,  materially  assisted  the  town's 
revenue.1  In  1559,  when  the  English  were  asked  for  aid  against 
Mary  of  Guise  and  her  French  troops,  it  was  reported  that,  amongst 
the  supplies  which  Dundee  could  produce,  were  200  tuns  of  wine, 
arrested  in  merchants'  hands,  which  were  to  be  delivered  for  £34 
Soots  the  tun,  or  £8  10s.  sterling.' 

1  SkMM — df.  Mr6.  tiff*-  •»•  Percott*. 

•  The  "  BUck  Book  of  Taymouth  "  contain*  entries  of  claret  and  whit*  win*, 
Mot  from  Dundee  to  the  Breadalbane  cellars,  and  one  kind,  called  "  vlet  wine,"  i* 
•uppond  to  mean  that  brought  born*  in  flaak%  with  oil  at  UM  top  instead  of  cork*. 

•  l>tkr,  v«L  VL,  Ml. 


SHIPPING  IN  THE  EIGHTEENTH  CENTURY;  275 

After  a  long  period,  during  which  either  the  shipping  was  not 
recorded,  or  the  record  was  lost  in  the  general  disasters;  it  appears 
that,  in  1567,  in  the  regency  of  the  Earl  of  Murray,  the  Magistrates 
of  Dundee  sent  three  vessels  to  join  the  fleet  appointed  to  pursue 
Bothwell,  who  was  supposed  to  have  turned  pirate  in  the  North  Sea, 
after  being  obliged  to  leave  Scotland  on  the  surrender  of  Queen  Mary 
at  Carberry  Hill.  The  vessels  sent  from  Dundee,  named  the  "  James," 
"  Primrose,"  and  "  Eobert,"  are  said  to  have  formed  the  principal  part 
of  this  fleet. 

In  Tucker's  Report  to  the  Government  of  the  Lord  Protector  Crom- 
well, in  1654,  he  speaks  of  Dundee,  its  commerce,  and  shipping,  thus  : 
— "  The  towne  of  Dundee  was  sometime  a  towne  of  riches  and  trade  ; 
but  the  many  rencontres  it  hath  met  with  in  the  time  of  domestick 
comotions,  and  her  obstinacy  and  pride  of  late  years  rendering  her  a 
prey  to  the  soldier,  have  much  shaken  and  abated  her  grandeur ;  and 
notwithstanding  all,  she  remaynes  still,  though  not  glorious,  yett  not 
contemptible."  At  that  time  the  shipping  ranged  from  25  to  120 
tons  burden — ten  ships  aggregating  615  tons,  less  than  one  half  of  the 
registered  measurement  of  individual  vessels  which  presently  belong 
to  the  port.  Again,  in  the  year  1691,  as  reported  to  the  Convention 
of  Royal  Burghs,  the  shipping  had  increased  to  twenty-one  vessels, 
the  largest  measuring  200,  and  the  smallest  10  tons,  aggregating  1091 
tons,  the  whole  being  valued  at  £2920.  In  1717,  the  number  of 
vessels  had  increased  to  between  fifty  and  sixty,  employed  chiefly  in 
the  coasting  trade.  Dr  Small  states  that,  in  1792,  there  were  116 
vessels  belonging  to  the  port,  navigated  by  698  men,  and  measuring 
8550^  tons.  Of  these  34  were  employed  in  the  foreign,  and  78  in  the 
coasting  trades,  and  4  in  the  whale-fishery. 

In  1798,  The  Dundee,  Perth,  &  London  Shipping  Co.  began  its 
operations  with  four  smacks  of  80  tons,  which,  in  1801,  were  increased 
by  other  two  of  60  tons,  intended  for  the  Glasgow  trade ;  and  two 
smaller -ones  for  the  Leith  trade.  In  1806,  the  Company  purchased, 
from  Mr  Richardson  of  Pitfour,  four  vessels,  which  he  had  for  some 
time  previously  employed  in  the  London  trade. 

Respecting  the  state  of  the  harbour  in  former  times,  it  appears  that 
the  piers  or  moles  were  formed  of  wood,  with  breakwaters  of  stone,  to 
form  a  basin  or  place  for  the  shipping  to  lie  in  security.  The  shore- 
head,  or  the  side  next  the  town,  ran  along  from  the  west  side  of  the 
Castlehill,  across  the  present  Greenmarket,  along  the  line  of  Butcher 


276  DISTORT  0V  DCKDNL 

Bow,  anciently  called  Old  Shore-head  Street,  and  thence  downward* 
to  the  ferry  landing  at  8t  Nicola*1  Craig,  otherwise  the  Chapel  Crai; ! 

In  the  autumn  of  1668,  a  riolent  storm  inflicted  great  damage  on 
the  harbour  and  shipping ;  and  the  local  resource*  being  inadequate 
for  the  restoration  of  the  former,  application  wa*  made  to  Parliament, 
which  recommended  a  collection  for  the  purpose  throughout  the  king- 
dom. This  was  made  at  all  the  parish  churches  in  the  following 
year,  and  apparently  with  some  success.  Ten  years  afterwards,  Mr 
Edward  of  Murroes  says  that,  "the  harbour,  by  great  labour  and 
expense,  has  been  rendered  a  very  safe  and  agreeable  station  for  Tea- 
sels ;"  while,  some  time  after,  Ochterlony  describes  it  as  "  a  good 
shore,  well  built  with  hewn  stone,  with  a  key  on  both  sydes,  whereof 
they  load  and  unload  their  ships,  with  a  great  house  on  the  shore, 
called  the  Pack -house,  where  they  lay  up  their  merchant  goods."  The 
revenues  of  the  harbour  being  taken  as  part  of  the  general  income  of 
the  town,  and  that  subject  to  all  the  vicissitudes  of  the  times,  no  special 
funds  were  available  for  its  maintenance  and  improvement,  and  we 
accordingly  find  constant  appeals  in  all  directions  to  prevent  it  from 
becoming  ruinous.  In  1700,  another  appeal  was  made  to  Parliament, 
craving  aid  for  repairing  the  harbour,  and  paying  the  public  debts, 
which  appears  to  have  been  fruitless,  for,  five  years  later,  the  burgh 
succumbed  into  temporary  bankruptcy.  Preparatory  to  this,  the  Ma- 
gistrates sought  to  save  the  harbour  revenues,  by  enacting  that  they 
should  henceforth  be  kept  specially  by  the  Shoremaster,  "  for  the  use 
of  the  shore  allenarly."  This  equivocal  proceeding  became  long  after 
wards  the  source  of  contention,  inasmuch  as  it  gave  colour  to  the  views 
of  one  party,  that  all  the  harbour  revenue  ought  to  be  expended  on 
harbour  works — a  doctrine  which  the  dominant  party  in  the  Council 
energetically  repudiated,  and,  by  churning  vested  rights,  deferred  fora 
long  period  the  establishment  of  a  harbour  corporation. 

On  emerging  from  their  financial  difficulties,  the  Magistrate*  and 
Council  raised  money  on  "  the  common  good,"  and  expended  consider- 
able sums  on  the  harbour,  under  the  direction  of  the  celebrated 
Smeaton ;  trade  revived,  and,  in  1 764,  the  harbour  was  yielding  a 
surplus.  From  that  year  down  to  1814,  when  the  management  was 
transferred,  the  town  had  collected  in  harbour-dues  £38,696,  of  which 
there  was  expended,  on  the  piers,  &c.,  £9,468 ;  showing  a  balance  of 
£89,228,  which  had  been  applied  to  the  general  uses  of  the  burgh. 
In  1815,  the  first  Harbour  Act  *aiu»  into  operation  uider  which  the 


FIRST  HARBOUR  ACT.  277 

Council  relinquished,  for  twenty-one  years,  its  rights  to  the  shore- 
dues,  &c.,  in  favour  of  Harbour  Commissioners.  Under  this  manage- 
ment, plans  by  Mr  Stevenson  and  Mr  Telford  were  obtained,  and 
those  of  Mr  Telford  being  preferred,  were,  with  certain  modifications, 
carried  into  execution.  In  1819,  another  Act  was  passed,  upon  the 
petition  of  the  Magistrates  and  Council,  for  supplying  certain  defects 
in  the  first,  under  which  the  works  progressed  until  1830.  The  Com- 
missioners then  finding  their  time  running  down,  and  having  regard 
to  the  limited  nature  of  the  accommodation  provided — there  being  then 
but  one  Wet  Dock — sought  a  continuance  of  their  Trust,  on  an  inde- 
pendent footing  ;  which  the  Town  Council  at  first  strenuously  resisted  ; 
but  matters  were  ultimately  arranged,  and  the  Harbour  Board  was 
established  on  a  permanent  and  popular  basis.  In  wading  through 
the  controversial  literature  to  which  the  proposal  of  placing  Harbour 
affairs  on  an  independent  basis  gave  rise,  one  cannot  help  a  smile  at  the 
prophecies  of  ruin  to  the  town  with  which  its  authorities  then  regarded 
such  proposals,  and  which  events  so  speedily  demonstrated  to  be 
groundless.  For  instance,  in  an  elaborate  report,  in  1829,  we  read  : — 
"  There  is  a  connection  so  close  between  the  Harbour  and  the  Burgh, 
that  it  is  altogether  vain  to  expect  a  beneficial  result  from  any  attempt 
to  separate  the  one  from  the  other.  Under  the  present  system  there  is 
no  difficulty.  There  is  one  common  end,  and  one  common  interest,  with- 
out preference  or  jealousy — the  general  benefit  of  the  community — and 
so  the  Council  are  enabled  to  undertake  improvements  without  hesita- 
tion, except  what  arises  from  want  of  revenue.  .  .  .  No  good  can  be  ex- 
pected, either  as  regards  the  Harbour  viewed  by  itself,  or  the  welfare 
of  the  Burgh  generally,  if  this  measure  be  carried  into  effect.  The  time 
is  not  yet  come  when  Docks  so  extensive  are  necessary.  When  the 
trade  shall  actually  have  increased  so  much  as  to  call  for  the  magnifi- 
cent Docks  which  Mr  Jardine  has  proposed,  then  let  them  be  exe- 
cuted ;  and  then  the  expense,  being  spread  over  a  greatly  increased 
trade,  will  not  be  felt." 

The  party  of  progress  prevailed,  and  the  9th  August,  1832,  is  yet 
remembered  by  elderly  townsmen  for  a  public  demonstration  on  a 
larger  scale  than  has  ever  perhaps  occurred  in  Dundee.  It  was  called 
the  Eeform  Jubilee.  The  vast  concourse  assembled  on  the  Mag- 
dalen Green,  formed  in  procession,  and  proceeded  to  the  site  of  the 
Seminaries,  where  the  foundation  stone  was  laid ;  and  thence  to  the 
harbour,  where  a  similar  duty  was  performed  at  the  New  Wet  Dock, 


878  mrroRT  or  PHTDRE. 

Few  people  may  be  aware  that,  in  the  south  wort  comer  of  Earl  Grej't 
Dock,  a  film  plate  reposes  in  its  stony  bed,  bearing  an  inscription 
coached  in  «uch  enthusiastic  and  coiuprehensiYe  terms  M  the  fol- 
lowing :— 

On  the  Day, 
8ei  apart  by  tbt  Pe»i>le 

of  the 

United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland, 
fora 

GRAND  NATIONAL  JUBILEE, 

la  oalebntion  of  the  Diafranchiaement  of  the  Rotten  Boroughs—  the  1  nfmachia* 

ment  of  L*rge  and  Flourishing  Town*— and  UM  general  Extosjsta 

of  the  Suffrages  of  the  People,  in  the  Election  of  their 

Representatives  in  the  Hooae  of  Common*  :— 
Hie  Moat  Oracioua  Majesty,  KIHO  WILLIAM  TOT  FOCBTH,  King  ; 
The  Right  Hon.  EARL  ORKT,  Prime  Minister ; 

Thia  Wet  Dock,  named 
EARL    GREY'S    DOCK, 

In  honour  of  the  honest,  cealoua,  eloquent,  long-tried,  and  rnnilstsnt  A<lvoeat*, 
and  now  triumphant  Leader  of  Reform — 

One  of  the  Work*. 

Anthoriaed  by  a  Statute  of  the  British  Parliament,  pasurt  in  the  eleventh  year  oi 
the  reign  of  George  the  Fourth,  vesting  for  ever  the  Harbour  of 

Dundee  ami  iU  revenues  in  Trustees  popularly  elected — 

Waa  Founded,  in  presence  of  the  Harbour  Trustees,  the  Magistrates  and  Council, 

the  GuiMry,  tin-  Nine  Incorporated  Trades,  the  Fraternity  of  Masters 

and  Seamen,  the  Three  United  Trades,  the  Commissioners 

of  Police,  and  the  other  Public  Bodies  and 

Societies  of  the  Town  ; 

And  also  in  presence  and  with  the  •••'•tanco  of 

The  ancient  and  honourable  Craft  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons, 

By  the  Right  Honourable  GEOBOK  LORD  KECSAIRD, 

Grand  Master  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Scotland  : 

The  odions  system  of  self-election  of  the  Magistrates  and  Council  of  this  Burgh 

baring  been  abolished,  by  Parliament,  in  1881,  and  WILLIAM  LJXIWAT, 

Esq.,  sisoted  by  the  suffrages  of  the  Burgesses,  and  holding 

the  office  of  Chief  Magistrate  of  the  Burgh. 

THOMAS  TKLTORD,  JAMB  JAKDDTK,  and  JOHH  Giro,  Engineers  ; 

And  JAMB  LESLIE,  Esq.,  Superintending  Engineer  of  the  Harbour. 

9th  August,  1891 

For  many  yean  the  Dock  accommodation  consisted  of  a  Tidal  or 
entrance  Dock  of  tho  extent  of  4}  acres ;  Earl  Grey  Dock,  5|  acres ; 
Kuiy  William  IV.  Dock,  6J  acres ;  and,  with  the  Graving  Dock 
aiul  1'ut'  i,t  Slip  for  repairing  purposes,  these  formed  adequate  facili- 


DUNDEE  SHIPPING.  279 

ties-  for  the  number  and  class  of  vessels  frequenting  the  port,  which 
were  chiefly  those  engaged  in  the  coasting  trade.  As  the  intro- 
duction of  railways,  and  the  extended  use  of  steamers,  gradually  dis- 
placed the  coasters,  while  vessels  of  greater  size  and  larger  draught 
took  up  the  trade  with  Calcutta  and  other  foreign  ports,  it  became 
necessary  to  meet  the  altered  conditions  of  the  trade,  and  accordingly 
an  unfinished  tide  harbour,  at  the  east  end  of  the  works,  was  converted, 
in  1865,  into  the  Camperdown  Dock  (area  8£  acres);  and,  in  1869, 
further  powers  were  obtained,  upon  a  Report  by  Mr  Harrison,  to  com- 
plete the  Victoria  Dock,  of  lOf  acres,  and  construct  another  graving 
dock  in  connection  with  it, — these  works  being  now  actively  proceed- 
ing. The  Trustees  having  also  acquired  the  fore-shore  and  land,  be- 
tween the  railway  and  river  eastward  to  Stannergate  point,  have  thus 
secured  the  means  of  largely  extending  the  harbour  works  in  future. 
The  total  area  of  the  Docks  will  now  be  35^  acres — the  extent  of 
river  frontage  being  about  two  miles.  From  the  commencement  of  the 
Harbour  Works,  in  1815  to  1833,  the  sum  expended  was  £248,742 
2s.  8|d. ;  when  the  works  now  in  hand  are  finished  the  total  outlay 
will  probably  reach  £740,000. 

The  following  statistics  exhibit  the  rise  and  fluctuation  of  the 
SHIPPING  belonging  to  the  Port : — 

Year.  Vessels.  Tonnage.  Men  and  Boys, 

1654 10 

1690... 21  1,091 

1731 70  2,309 

1792 116  8,550 

1843   335  50,670  2,966 

1848 351  54,919  3,143 

1853 328  58,407  3,189 

1858 275  51,200  2,764 

1863 222  47,573  2,527 

1868 192  48,980  2,654 

1872. 179  53,581  2,518 

The  decrease  in  the  number  of  vessels  and  seamen  is  due  to  the 
more  extensive  employment  of  steamers,  which  have  gradually  dis- 
placed the  small  coasters.  This  is  brought  out  by  the  following 
figures : — 

1843.  1872. 

No.    Tonnage.  Men.                                 No.    Tonnage.  Men. 
Sailing  Vessels,... 326     48,859   Kqfifi     Sailing  Vessels,...  146     40,303    ) 
Steamers, 9       1,811    j  !  Steamers, 33     13,278   j 


280  BISTORT  OF  DCffDBft 

The  following  table  exhibit*  the  progressive  increase  of  the  HARBOUB 
RBVCHUB  from  1816  to  the  present  time  : — 

1797  to  1800 £    4,650    0  0  £1.550    0  0 

1815  to  1825                      «4.4«1  11  4  6,44«    I  S 

18*6  to  18*0 62,114     4  6  18,02811  1 

1881  to  1840..............  186,670    8  11  15,186  11  6 

1841  to  1850 226,70818  0ft  25,088    4  8 

1851  to  1860                    J31.528  18  1  25,725    8  8 

1861  to  1870 810,87716  7J  84,64110  6 

1871  to  1878. 125,87018  8  62,086    0  1 

The  large  and  steadily  increasing  income  of  the  Harbour  Trust  is  of 
course  primarily  appliod  to  the  maintenance  and  improvement  of  the 
works,  and  for  providing  suitable  appliances  for  the  trade  of  the  port. 
Of  the  latter,  a  thirty  ton  crane,  erected  a  good  many  yean  ago,  was 
regarded  at  the  time  as  a  great  achievement ;  but  the  progress  of  me- 
chanical science  suggested  more  powerful  and  expeditions  appliances 
for  loading,  and  accordingly  a  hydraulic  crane  was  recently  erected  at 
the  Camperdown  Dock,  while  at  the  present  time  a  seventy  ton  steam 
crane  is  in  preparation,  to  meet  the  requirements  of  the  engineering 
trade.  Buildings  of  an  ornamental  character  are  not  to  be  expected 
about  harbour  works ;  but  besides  contributing  to  the  Royal  Arch, 
elsewhere  alluded  to,  the  Harbour  Trustees  also  took  part  in  erecting 
the  Custom-house  Buildings,  in  Dock  Street,  partly  occupied  by  Har- 
bour offices.  This  structure  is  a  dignified  and  effective  specimen  of 
Classic  architecture,  143  feet  in  length,  and  three  storeys  in  height 
It  is  builtr  wholly  of  local  stone,  and  was  the  joint  design  of  Mr 
Leslie,  formerly  harbour  engineer,  and  the  late  Mr  Taylor  of  Glasgow. 
The  central  portion  of  the  facade  consists  of  a  bold  tetrastyle  portico 
of  the  Ionic  order,  elevated  on  an  arched  rusticated  basement,  sur- 
mounted by  a  pediment  charged  with  the  royal  arms,  the  cornice  of 
the  order,  as  also  the  rustication  of  the  lower  storey,  being  continued 
along  the  rest  of  the  front. 


gtttion 


BOYAL  rNTTRMARY — ROYAL  ASTLTJM  FOB  LUNATICS — BOTAL  OBPHAN INSTITUTION — HIGH 
SCHOOL — MOBGAN'S  HOSPITAL— EDUCATIONAL  AND  CHARITABLE  INSTITUTIONS. 

EOYAL    INFIEMAEY. 

TOWARDS  the  end  of  the  last  century,  when  the  town  began  to  recover 
from  the  effects  of  the  rebellion,  and  to  share  in  the  benefits  resulting 
from  the  Union,  trade  and  manufactures  improved,  the  population 
increased,  and  with  it  came  a  corresponding  increase  in  the  number  of 
necessitous  and  indigent  poor.  For  these  there  was  no  institution 
for  furnishing  medical  or  surgical  assistance.  To  remedy  this  incon- 
venience, several  benevolent  invividuals,  headed  by  the  Eev.  Dr  Small, 
commenced  a  subscription  for  the  establishment  of  a  Dispensary,  in 
the  year  1782.  The  town  was  divided  into  convenient  districts,  of 
which  the  medical  gentlemen  of  the  place  took  charge  gratuitously, 
and  not  only  prescribed  to  those  who  called  on  them,  but  visited  the 
poor  at  their  own  houses.  The  beneficial  effects  of  the  infant  Dispen- 
sary became  very  soon  apparent,  and  were  sensibly  felt  by  the  poor. 
It  was,  however,  limited  in  means — its  greatest  annual  income  only 
reaching  £110  5s. ;  and,  above  all,  the  want  of  a  house  for  the  recep- 
tion of  patients,  where  they  could  be  more  properly  treated  than  at 
their  own  homes,  in  a  great  measure  diminished  its  usefulness.  An 
attempt  was  therefore  made  to  obtain  a  more  liberal  subscription — 
not  restricted  to  the  town,  but  extending  into  the  neighbouring  pa- 
rishes— to  provide  the  means  for  building  an  Infirmary,  which  might 
be  a  benefit  and  a  blessing  to  the  town  and  the  country  around  it. 
This  happily  succeeded;  a  piece  of  ground  was  purchased  on  the 
north  side  of  King  Street,  having  an  elevated  situation,  and  at  the 
time  sufficiently  di  tached  from  other  buildings  to  secure  quietness  and 
salubrious  air  to  the  patients.  The  foundation-stone  was  laid  on  the 
17th  June,  1793  ;  the  building  of  the  centre  part  was  finished  in  1796, 
and  opened  for  the  reception  of  patients  in  the  spring  of  1798.  The 
sum  expended  for  the  site  was  £160;  the  erection  of  the  house,  and 
laying  out  of  the  grounds,  cost  £1273  ;  and,  with  furnishing  and  other 
outlays,  the  whole  cost  of  the  establishment,  previous  to  its  opening, 


BISTORT  UV  DUVDJU. 

WM  £1900  6*.  4|d,  The  bonding  at  first  ww  capable  of  accommo- 
dating about  fifty -«ix  patienU,  bat  bed*  for  only  twenty  ware  provided. 
By  fitting  up  additional  bed*  from  time  to  time,  sufficient  accommo- 
dation  waa  afforded  till  the  year  1820,  when  it  WM  found  neoeaaary 
to  erect  and  furnish  two  wings,  the  ezpenae  of  which  waa  about  £800 ; 
making  the  total  ooat  of  the  Infirmary,  aa  it  stood  in  1826,  about 
£2700,  and  its  accommodation  equal  to  one  hundred  and  four  beds, 

For  more  than  half  a 'century  this  building  served  to  accommodate 
the  sick  poor ;  but  the  increase  of  population,  combined  with  ita  ina- 
dequacy on  occasions  when  epidemics  prevailed,  and  the  increase  of 
dwellings  around  ita  site,  rendered  a  change  imperative.  A  timely 
bequest  of  £8000,  for  a  new  hospital,  by  Mias  Soutar,  furnished  the 
nucleus  of  a  building  fund,  and,  accordingly,  through  the  energy  of 
Sir  John  Ogilvy  and  other  philanthropic  citizens,  steps  were  taken 
for  the  erection  of  a  building  which  should  be  thoroughly  adapted  to 
ita  purpose,  and  worthy  of  the  town.  A  site  was  obtained  in  an  ele- 
vated position  adjoining  the  Barrack  Park ;  on  the  22d  July,  1852, 
the  foundation  stone  waa  laid  with  great  ceremony  by  the  Duke  of 
Athole ;  and,  on  the  7th  Feb.  1855,  the  present  building  was  opened 
for  the  reception  of  patients.  The  structure  waa  designed  by  Messrs 
Coe  &  Goodwin  of  London,  and  is  in  the  Tudor  style,  the  internal 
arrangement  being  on  the  corridor  system,  which  was  then  believed  to 
be  the  moat  advantageous.  The  building  is  333  feet  in  length,  hav- 
ing a  wing  at  either  end,  extending  backwards  168  feet,  and  three 
storeys  in  height  In  the  centre  of  the  front  the  administrative  offices 
are  placed,  with  the  kitchen,  &c.,  immediately  behind,  while  commu- 
nication is  had  to  the  male  and  female  wards  to  the  right  and  left  by 
a  continuous  corridor  of  340  feet  in  length,  lighted  from  behind.  The 
wards  occupy  the  fronts  both  of  main  building  and  wings,  the  main 
wards  being  100  feet  long,  22  feet  wide,  and  17  feet  high.  Accom- 
modation is  provided  for  300  patients,  with  an  allowance  of  1720 
cubic  space  to  each.  The  entire  ooat  of  the  building  waa  about 
£14,500. 

The  Infirmary  has  from  ita  commencement  been  supported  wholly 
by  voluntary  contributions,  which  the  universal  recognition  of  its 
advantages  and  excellent  management  have  elicited  from  all  classes  in 
the  town  and  district  It  waa  incorporated  by  Royal  Charter  in  1819, 
by  which  the  qualification  of  life-governors  is  declared  to  be  a  pay- 
ment of  ten  guineas ;  and  of  governors  a  guinea  yearly,  or  five  guinea* 


ROYAL  INFIRMARY. 


283 


in  one  sum,  and  half-a-guinea  yearly.  The  governors  have  certain 
privileges  in  the  nomination  of  patients ;  but  practically  the  benefits 
of  the  institution  are  available  to  all  sick  and  hurt  poor,  either  as  out 
or  in-door  patients.  For  a  long  period,  a  prejudice  existed  in  the 
public  mind,  which  deterred  persons  from  leaving  their  own  dwellings 
for  treatment  in  the  hospital,  and,  though  not  yet  extinct,  the  greater 
success  attending  the  best  advice  and  attentive  treatment  derived 
within  its  walls  is  gradually  overcoming  this  feeling.  The  affairs  of 
the  Infirmary  are  administered  by  a  Court  of  Directors,  which  meets 
quarterly,  and  consists  of  a  President,  five  Vice-Presidents,  a  Weekly 
Committee  of  eighteen  members,  six  house-visitors,  three  honorary  con- 
sulting physicians,  and  three  honorary  surgeons,  all  of  whom  act  gra- 
tuitously. The  staff  consists  of  a  medical-superintendent  as  the  chief,  a 
medical-assistant,  matron,  &c.  Separate  accommodation  for  the  nurses 
and  working  staff  has  recently  been  provided,  mainly  through  the 
liberality  of  Mr  Armitstead,  who  gave  £1000  towards  that  object. 

The  funds  required  for  the  efficient  maintenance  of  the  Infirmary,  on 
a  scale  equal  to  the  necessities  of  the  place,  are  considerable,  and  have 
not  hitherto  been  provided  so  liberally  as  could  be  desired,  which  led 
the  governors,  last  year,  to  institute  simultaneous  collections  in  all 
the  churches  on  a  "  Hospital  Sunday."  The  success  of  this  effort,  and 
a  more  general  recognition  by  the  public  at  large  of  the  paramount 
claims  of  the  institution,  will,  it  is  hoped,  place  this  noble  charity  on 
a  sounder  financial  position  than  it  has  hitherto  attained.  Last  year, 
the  ordinary  income  from  all  sources  was  £4794  13s.  9d. ;  the  expen- 
diture was  £5663  6s.  lOd. ;  and  the  debt  stood  at  £1643  8s.  lOd. 
The  following  table  shows  the  cases  treated  during  the  last  seven 
years : — 


1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

Medical,.... 

931 

471 

601 

682 

593 

568 

651 

Surgical,."... 

974 

731 

576 

644 

665 

612 

609 

Fever,  

600 

415 

582 

560 

358 

1138 

215 

Total,... 

2505 

1617 

1759 

1886 

1616 

2318 

1475 

Death  r 

7.6 

8.93 

For  the  treatment  of  out-patients,  the  town,  including  the  suburb  of 


OIBTQBT  OF  DtnriiKC. 

Lochee,  it  divided  into  four  districts,  with  a  surgeon  to  etch,  who 
Attended  to  0861  CMOS  daring  the  year  1872-3. ' 

ROYAL    ASYLUM    FOB    LUNATIC& 

FOB  a  considerable  time  after  the  establishment  of  the  Infirmary,  no 
separate  accommodation  existed  for  the  insane.  Down  to  a  compara- 
tively recent  period,  confinement,  and  not  cure,  seemed  to  be  the  ob- 
ject in  view,  in  dealing  with  the  unhappy  beings  afflicted  with  mental 
disorder.  The  restraint  and  neglect  practised  by  our  fathers  would  of 
itself  have  driven  some  men  crazy,  tending  as  it  did  to  aggravate  the 
sufferer's  distemper,  inflaming  melancholy  into  madness,  and  extin- 
guishing utterly  the  flickering  spark  of  reason.  Happily  Bedlam  and 
its  horrors  now  belong  to  the  past,  the  very  name  growing  obsolete. 
Instead  of  the  miserable  cell,  the  iron  cage,  the  chains,  and  the  other 
concomitants  of  the  mistaken  harshness  of  the  former  system,  the 
more  enlightened  spirit  of  our  age  has  planted  the  land  with  well- 
ordered  asylums,  in  which  humanity  and  science  combine  to  make 
confinement  subservient  to  recovery,  where  that  is  practicable,  and  in 
any  case  to  alleviate  the  wretchedness  of  mental  disease.  While  thus 
doing  all  that  skill  and  kindness  can  accomplish  for  the  lunatics,  a 
safeguard  is  at  the  same  time  provided  for  the  public  from  their  un- 
conscious violence,  or  the  fatal  consequences  of  their  delusions. 

In  1805,  a  Committee  of  the  Infirmary  Directors  was  appointed  to 
procure  subscriptions  for  an  asylum ;  and  a  site  having  been  obtained 

1  The  following  is  a  lirt  of  the  legacies  and  donation*,  of  £100  and  upward*, 
made  to  the  Infirmary  since  1 860  : — 

Alexander  Pirie,  Dundee^. £2000    0    0    Lord  Panmure, £344    1     8 

Thoe.  Kerr,  Grange, 2000    0    0    Isabella  Mudie.  B.  Ferry,..     51818    7 

Ja*.  Edward,  B*lrudderyr.  1000  0  0  Alex.  Smieton,  Dundee,-.  500  0  0 
Alex.  Edward,  Dundee,....  1000  0  0  Ed.  Baxter,  Kinoaldrunv.  300  0  0 

Her.  J.  Spence,  Kinnaird,   1000    0    0    Mis*  Symers,  Dundee^ 200    0    0 

W.  Otbson,  Arbroath, 1000    0    0    A.  Anderson.  Carnoustie^.      fOO    0    0 

M.  A.  Baxter,  BsJgariem,...   1000    0    0    Mn  Gardiner,  Dodhope^...     200    0    0 

D.  Ogilry,  Dundee, 60415    0    Ann  Watt,  a  Ferry, 200    0    0 

Win.  and  Misses  How, 600    0    0    Ja*.  Thomson,  Edinburgh,     182    0    0 

Dr  Smith,  Danwid<v 450    0    0    T.  a  Thomson,.... 17919    7 

Margt.  Johnston,  Arbroath,     402  17    0    Agnes  Arklayr 160    0    0 

Wm.  Luke,  Dundee, 385    0    0    Cha*.  Anderson,  Pertlv...     10011     9 

£100  each— Colin  Symers,  Darid  Martin,  Mn  Martin,  John  M'Combe,  Archibald 
Crichton,  Patrick  Scott,  Miss  Scott,  Chas.  Chalmers,  Henry  Henderson,  Baxter 
Bros,  ft  Co.,  J.  Lipman,  Mn  Symem,  all  of  Dundee ;  and  Mary  Brown,  Kewbig- 
ging;  Jessie  Powrie,  Brought?  Ferry  ;  Earl  of  Airiie;and  J.  A.  Guthiie,  London. 


ROYAt  ASYLUM  FOR  LUNATICS.  •       285 

In  what  was  then  a  retired  and  salubrious  outskirt  of  the  town,  the 
foundation  stone  of  the  present  edifice  was  laid,  on  the  3d  September, 
1812,  by  Viscount  Duncan,  assisted  by  the  Hon.  William  Maule.1  It 
was  opened  for  the  reception  of  patients  on  1st  April,  1820,  on  a 
limited  scale  ;  but  extensions  were  required  in  1830,  1839,  and  sub- 
sequent years,  with  the  view  of  completing  a  comprehensive  plan  by 
Mr  Burn  of  Edinburgh.  The  latest  addition  was  a  commodious  chapel 

.}  It  is  fitting  to  record  the  names  of  the  most  active  founders  of  this  beneficent 
institution.  David  Blair  of  Cookston  took  the  most  active  part,  and  worthily 
filled  the  office  of  Chairman  from  its  erection  till  his  death  in  1836,  when  Pat- 
rick Scott,  who  had  exerted  himself  from  the  first,  succeeded  to  the  chair.  Dr 
Alex.  Rainsay  was  the  first  Physician,  and  Ebenezer  Anderson  acted  as  Treasurer. 
The  following  list  of  individual  subscribers,  above  £50,  (exclusive  of  legacies,)  may 
also  be  interesting  : — 

Honourable  W.  Maule  of  Panmure,              £200    0  0 

J.  Erskine  of  Linlathen,  and  family,             160     5  0 

David  Blair  of  Cookston,         115  15  0 

Earl  of  Strathmore,      ...         105     0  0 

James  Fyffe  of  Smithfield 105     0  0 

Mungo  Dick  of  Pitkerro,          105     0  0 

George  Paterson  of  Castle  Huntly,                10210  0 

James  Morison  of  Naughton,              ...         ...         ...  89     5  0 

Sermon  by  Dr  Chalmers,         86     7  0 

Alexander  Pitcairn  of  Pratis,              ...         ...         ...  84     0  0 

John  Baxter  of  Idvies,              68  18  0 

William  Wilson  of  Balbeuchly,           60  10  0 

Alexander  Riddoch  of  Blacklunans,               57  10  0 

David  Lyon,  London,               55     5  0 

Sermon  by  Dr  Andrew  Thomson,      54    2  0 

Lord  Kinnaird,              52  10  0 

William  Jobson  of  Lochore, 52  10  0 

John  Guthrie  of  Guthrie 52  10  ^0 

James  Graham  of  Meathie 52  10  0 

D.  &  P.  Arklay, 52  10  0 

Archibald  Campbell  of  Blythswood,              52  10  0 

John  Maberly,  M.P.,  London,            50    4  2 

Sir  D.  Wedderburn, 50    0  0 

The  Public  Bodies  subscribed  as  follows: — 

Balance  of  Subscriptions  for  Army  Substitutes,      ...  £528     1  8 

The  Trades'  Incorporations,                273  14  0 

Six  Natives  of  Forfar  at  Madras,        168     0  0 

Magistrates  and  Council  of  Dundee,              105     0  0 

Parish  of  Kettins, 100    0  0 

Parish  of  Mains,             94     3  0 

Seamen  Fraternity,       63     0  0 

Burgh  of  Forfar,             52  10  0 


TTTKTORT  OF  OtTTCDHL 

for  the  inmate*.  The  original  ground*  extended  to  12  term  ;  but  other 
4  acres  have  tinea  been  acquired  The  sum  of  £36,626  has  been  ex- 
pended since  1820  upon  the  buildings,  which  are  extensive,  the  main 
block  being  in  the  form  of  the  Utter  H,  and  measuring  320  feet  in 
extreme  length,  by  180  feet  over  the  wings.  The  accommodation  f->r 
patients,  besides  being  inadequate,  is  rather  behind  the  day,  to  that  the 
great  advances  of  modern  science  desiderate  better  arrangement*  and  a 
change  of  site.  These  considerations,  urged  by  the  Board  of  Lunacy, 
have  become  so  pressing,  owing  to  the  proximity  of  public  works  and 
other  buildings,  that  the  Directors  are  at  present  taking  the  prelimi- 
nary steps  for  removing  the  establishment  to  some  country  site,  where 
greater  extent  and  retirement  can  be  secured.  The  greatly  enhanced 
value  of  the  present  site  will,  it  is  expected,  render  this  a  lens  costly 
undertaking  than  it  would  otherwise  have  been,  and  the  probability 
therefore  is  that  it  will  be  effected  at  no  distant  date. 

The  Asylum  is  incorporated  by  Royal  Charter,  which  veste  the  ma- 
nagement in  a  body  of  thirty-nine  Directors,  of  whom  twenty-nun* 
are  called  Ordinary,  and  are  popularly  chosen  from  the  different  public 
bodies  of  the  town  and  county.  At  the  annual  meeting,  a  weekly 
committee  of  six,  and  three  house-visitors,  are  appointed  as  an  execu- 
tive, to  co-operate  with  the  permanent  staff,  which  consist*  of  a  resid- 
ent medical  superintendent,  matron,  &c.  The  non-resident  officials 
include  a  consulting-physician,  treasurer,  secretary,  and  chaplain. 

The  Asylum  is  self-supporting,  the  lowest  rate  charged  for  patiento 
being  9s.  6d.  per  week ;  but  this  is  confined  to  those  sent  from 
twenty-six  parishes,  which  had  contributed  £20  or  more  to  the  funds 
of  the  institution.  For  all  other  pauper  inmates  the  charge  is  10s.  6d. 
per  week ;  whilst  for  other  classes  it  ranges  from  15s.  to  63s.,  besides  a 
physician's  fee  on  admission,  and  repeated  annually  so  long  as  the 
patient  remains  in  the  house.  The  income  for  1873  amounted  to 
£5405  2s.  lid.,  and  the  expenditure  £5976  4a.  6d.  The  total  num- 
ber of  patients  under  treatment  during  the  year  was  264 — the  daily 
average  of  inmates  being  191.  During  the  whole  period  of  its  exist- 
ence the  Asylum  has  been  considered  one  of  the  best  managed  and 
most  successful  in  the  kingdom.  It  is  the  only  Asylum  in  Scotland 
in  which  systematic  school  teaching  of  the  patients  is  conducted  as 
part  of  their  treatment.  The  total  admissions  from  1820  to  1873 
have  been  2485,  of  which  1113  were  discharged  cored,  giving  a  per- 
cekUge  of  44. 7& 


ROYAL    OKPHAN    INSTITUTION. 

This  charity  originated  in  1815,  when,  at  a  meeting  held  in  a  Com- 
mittee-Boom of  the  Trades'  Hall,  it  was  resolved  to  solicit  subscrip- 
tions for  establishing  an  educational  institution  for  destitute  orphan 
children.  In  a  very  short  time,  about  £700  was  collected,  with  which 
a  beginning  was  made,  and,  as  additional  funds  flowed  in,  the  scope 
of  the  charity  was  enlarged,  by  providing  maintenance  and  clothing 
for  the  more  necessitous  children ;  but  these  advantages  were  for  a 
time  limited  to  twelve  of  each  sex.  On  acquiring  the  Orphan  House 
in  Small's  Wynd,  education  was  procured  for  day  scholars  paying  one 
shilling  a  quarter,  the  number  of  whom  was  never  less,  and  frequently 
much  more,  than  a  hundred  and  fifty.  In  this  way,  long  before  the 
idea  of  Ragged  or  Industrial  Schools  was  broached,  many  destitute 
children  were  rescued  from  want  and  wretchedness,  while  a  far  greater 
number  were  redeemed  from  hopeless  ignorance.  To  give  stability  to 
the  institution,  a  Crown  Charter  was  applied  for,  and  obtained  in 
1830,  which  provided  for  the  due  regulation  of  its  affairs  and  the 
application  of  its  funds.  These  are  under  the  control  of  a  President, 
five  Yice-Presidents,  seven  Directors  ex-officiis,  and  twelve  ordinary 
Directors.  The  funds  having  been  increased  by  various  benefactions, 
and  husbanded  by  careful  management,  led  the  Directors  to  consider 
the  propriety  of  extending  the  usefulness  of  the  charity  beyond  the 
limited  range  possible  within  the  premises  in  Small's  Wynd.  A  sub- 
scription was  opened,  and  so  liberally  responded  to  that  a  sum  of 
£5889  11s.  Od.  was  obtained  for  a  building  fund.  A  site  was  obtained 
at  Craigie,  on  very  favourable  terms,  from  the  late  Mr  J.  A.  Guthrie, 
who  gave  in  addition  a  donation  of  £300,  and  a  commodious  build- 
ing erected,  at  a  cost,  including  furniture,  &c.,  of  about  £6000,  which 
was  opened  in  1870.  It  provides  suitable  accommodation  for  70 
children,  the  number  at  present  being  53.  Though  nearly  all  the 
children  are  the  offspring  of  parents  of  delicate  constitution,  their 
health  in  the  Orphanage  has  been  in  the  highest  degree  satisfactory, 
and  their  moral  and  intellectual  training  no  less  so,  under  the  kind 
and  judicious  system  of  management.  All  the  children  who  have  left 
to  engage  in  the  duties  of  life,  for  the  last  thirteen  years,  have  done 
well ;  and  it  is  gratifying  to  find  old  pupils  embracing  every  opportu- 
nity of  revisiting  the  Institution  which  was  the  home  of  their  earlier 


?  "  *  IdSTOUT  OF  DtnCDKE. 

yearn.  When  it  is  remembered  that  the  children  an  comfortably 
lodged  and  clothed,  and  substantially,  though  plainly,  fed,  the  care- 
fulness of  the  management  may  be  inferred  from  the  fact,  that  the 
cost  amounts  only  to  £9  6s.  per  annum,  or,  including  education  and 
all  expenses,  £17  per  head—*  sum  which  contrasts  strikingly  with 
the  cost  in  many  similar  establishments.  The  total  revenue  last  year 
was  £923  19s.  7d.,  which  might  surely,  with  the  growing  wealth  of 
the  town,  be  increased  so  as  to  enable  the  Directors  to  extend  the 
benefits  of  this  deserving  Institution  to  the  full  limit  of  its  aocommo- 


THE    HIGH    SCHOOL 

THB  schools  of  Dundee  are  of  old  date,  and  have  long  enjoyed  a  de- 
served celebrity  for  elementary  education.  The  popular  belief,  that 
Sir  William  Wallace  received  his  education  here,  rests  only  on  the 
doubtful  authority  of  Blind  Harry's  ballad,  and  even  if  accepted  could 
only  refer  to  such  tuition  as  would  then  be  found  in  some  of  the  mo- 
nastic or  religious  houses,  which  it  is  well  known  were  then,  and  for 
long  after,  the  only  repositories  of  learned  or  educated  men.  The 
earliest  authentic  notice  of  a  school  occurs  in  1435,1  when  one  Lau- 
rence Lownan  was  master.  He  managed  to  build  a  school  and  school- 
house  ;  but  having  omitted  to  procure  the  sanction  of  the  Bishop  of 
Brechin,  to  which  See  the  ecclesiastics  of  Dundee  were  amenable,  the 
teacher  incurred  the  displeasure  of  that  dignitary,  and  was  visited 
with  the  censure  of  the  Church.  It  was  not,  however,  till  the  era  of 
the  Reformation,  and  under  the  energetic  direction  of  Knox,  that 
public  schools  were  regularly  instituted.  Baffled,  as  the  great  Re- 
former was,  in  securing  a  third  of  the  revenues  of  the  Romish  Church 
for  education,  it  is  easy  to  see  that  the  stray  endowments,  which  were 
snatched  from  the  rapacious  hands  of  the  nobles,  were  quite  inadequate 
to  realise  his  wise  and  noble  scheme.  Prior  to  1558,  some  kind  of 
systematic  teaching  appears  to  have  been  established  in  Dundee,  for, 
in  that  year,  we  find  it  enacted  in  the  Head  Court,  that  "  masters  of 
scholars,  doctors  of  the  same,  and  parents  of  bairns,  being  yrat,"  should 
attend  to  the  behaviour  of  the  youngsters  in  the  church.  Frequent 
enactments  as  to  the  breaking  of  "  tho  glasen  windowes"  of  the  church, 
rather  confirm  the  tradition  that  tho  first  school  was  located  within 

•  Re*  Kfi.  Bracliiu.  I.,  |«.  «i. 


THE  HIGH  SCHOOL.  289 

the  sacred  edifice — a  supposition  which  may  also  receive  confirmation 
from  the  ascertained  fact,  that  certain  of  the  early  Reformed  ministers 
were  at  the  same  time  rectors  of  the  Grammar  School.  One  of  these 
was  the  celebrated  Mr  David  Lindsay,  a  descendant  of  the  House  of 
Edzell,  who,  in  1601,  resigned  the  mastership  of  the  Grammar  School 
of  Montrose  for  that  of  Dundee,  shortly  after  undertaking  the  mi- 
nisterial duties  of  St  Mary's.  It  is  interesting  to  find  that,  at  this 
early  period,  the  ordinary  rudiments  of  education  were  supplemented 
by  the  softening  element  of  music.  In  1603,  Lindsay  had  as  coad- 
jutor one  John  Williamson,  who  is  described  as  "  master  of  the  sang 
schole,"  within  the  burgh,  for  which  the  Magistrates  gave  him  a  salary 
of  sixteen  merks  yearly.  Lindsay's  salary,  as  schoolmaster,  was  250 
merks,  and  as  minister  he  latterly  had  350  merks  in  addition  ;  but,  in 
1606,  he  resigned  the  former  office,  in  respect  that  "  he  wes  not  habile 
to  dischairge,  with  ane  guid  conscience,  bayth  the  sayd  offices."  In 
1613,  the  Magistrates  presented  him  with  a  sum  of  500  merks,  in  con- 
sideration of  his  services,  "  als  weill  in  the  educatioun  and  informa- 
tione  of  the  youth  in  letteris  and  gude  maneris,  as  in  the  dischairge 
of  his  office  and  calling  of  the  ministrie,"  and  of  the  burden  upon  him, 
"in  the  sustentatione  of  his  wyiff,  bairnis,  and  familie."  Lindsay 
remained  in  Dundee  until  1619,  when,  having  evinced  a  leaning  to 
Episcopacy,  he  was  promoted  first  to  the  bishopric  of  Brechin,  and 
afterwards  to  that  of  Edinburgh.  It  was  at  his  head  that  Jenny 
Geddes  flung  her  stool  when  he  began  to  read  the  Book  of  Common 
Prayer,  in  the  High  Church,  in  July  1637. 

It  appears  that,  after  the  establishment  of  the  Hospital  at  the  foot  of 
South  Tay  Street,  which  was  supported  from  the  "  Hospital  Fund,"  or 
old  ecclesiastical  revenues  assigned  by  Queen  Mary's  Charter,  the  Gram- 
mar School  was  located  in  the  same  building,  and  partly  supported  from 
the  same  source,  as  grants  to  the  master  appear  continuously  in  the  Hos- 
pital accounts.  The  buildings  were  destroyed  by  tire  by  Montrose  in 
1645,  but  were  afterwards  rebuilt.  In  the  Council  records,  we  find  this 
entry,  under  date  May  2,  1653,  two  years  after  the  disastrous  siege 
under  General  Monck  : — "  Mr  Jon  Mairten,  student  of  divinitie  at  St 
Andrews,  admitted  Mr  of  the  Grammer  School,  and  his  yearly  fee  is 
400  merks  Scots,  payed  by  the  Ther.  and  Hospital  Mr.  The  quarter 
payments  payable  by  the  schollars,  13sh  4d  yr  qrtr."  In  1674,  we 
iind  I  IK-  "Magistrates,  who  held  the  appointment  of  the  Masters,  enact- 
in^  iLv.  luiiowing  curious  regulations  in  connection  with  the  schools, 


liUrrOEY  Of  DOWDEt 


which  we  quote  fur  the  information  of  School-boards  al  the 
time:  — 

1.  ThrtjmjmteaNKKiattelafftkhtov^UtlMMMtar  or  eldest  Doctor. 
each  T'*t  and  evening  in  UM  week  dayes,  sad  after  the  afternoon's  Mnnaa 
on  UM  Lord1*  day,  and  UM  notts  of  UM  Mnnon  ar  to  be  exacted,  and  UM  pafat  of 
•ne  (Malm  sung  ;  and  that  UM  schollai*  be  examined  upon  UM  Catorhisme,  either 
Utine  or  English  M  UM  Mr.  dull  appoint 

2.  That  all  UM  Scholar*  con  veen  wt  UM  Mr.  and  Doctor*  in  UM  School,  at  6  iii 
the  morning  in  summer,  and  7  in  winter,  and  also  alter  breakfast,  and  at  on*  of 
the  clock  after  dinner. 

8.  That  the  play  be  seldom  granted  in  noctim,  and  that  upon  play-days  the 
Mr.  or  one  of  the  Dra.  go  forth  wt  the  echoUars  to  the  MafU'tn  guear,  aii-l. 
after  S  hoars'  play,  bring  them  back  to  UM  school,  and  exact  ane  account  of  ther 
leeeons, 

4.  That  nane  of  the  Latin  Schollara,  who  hare  learned  ther  construction*,  be 
permitted  to  speak  english  wtin  or  wtout  the  schools  to  the  Masters,  or  any  of 
ther  Condesciplea,  sub  posna,  4c.  ;  and  that  ther  be  clandestine  Captors  for  that 
effect,  and  for  those  that  rides  horses  (!)  especially  in  time  of  Merest,  and  for 
those  that  frequent  the  ahoar  boat*  or  ships  ;  and  that  the  Rolle  be  called  ones 
every  Monday  for  chsstisfng  the  delinquents. 

6.  That,  if  any  be  found  swearing,  breaking  the  Sabbath  day,  rebellious  to 
ther  Masters,  Trowans  fm  the  school,  fugitive*  fan  disciplin—  for  the  1st  fault 
they  be  publickly  whipped  ;  for  the  2d,  flogged  ;  and  fur  the  3d,  whuM  the 
•cbool  till  they  find  surety  for  their  better  conduct. 

«.  That  those  in  the  Masters  clssse  be  accustomed  to  harrangue,  upon  some 
Miliject  prescribed  by  the  Master,  ones  in  the  month  at  leasts.  —  Buryk  L*m,  pp. 
61—2. 

in  1793,  when  Tay  Street  WM  opened  through  the  ground*,  it  in 
iiuted  that  accommodation  was  still  provided  "  for  the  Academy  and 
Kngliah  School,  as  formerly."  At  a  later  period,  the  Grammar 
K>!  was  located  in  an  old  building  in  St  Clement's  Lane,  be- 
hind the  Town  House.  Prior  to  1829,  however,  the  school  had  been 
transferred  to  a  range  of  buildings,  which  stood  in  the  Xethergate,  at 
the  south-west  corner  of  the  Churchyard  ;  and  upon  tho  demolition  of 
these  buildings,  the  schools  were  merged  into  the  "  Public  Seminaries." 
This  building  occupies  a  fine  site,  within  a  semicircular  enclosure  which 
iortos  Kuclid  Crescent,  at  the  top  of  Reform  Street,  and  was  erected 
m  1632-3.  It  was  designed  by  Mr  John  Angus  of  Edinburgh,  and 
consists  of  a  facade  227  feet  in  length,  with  a  hexastyle  Grecian  Doric 
portico  as  the  central  feature,  and  two  end  wings,  which  have  from 
time  to  time  been  extended  backwards,  to  provide  additional  accom- 
modation. Itaiita  the  Academy  and  Cmnntnr  .Schools,  the  buildup 
now  uuuUiiM  liw  bcuool  of  lAaufcU  ;  and,  uholher  lor  *rdui«ctui..l 


effect  or  educational  organisation,  must  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  most 
creditable  institutions  within  the  town.  Its  designation  was,  some 
years  ago,  changed  from  the  "  Public  Semi  naries"  to  the  "  High 
School,"  and  its  administration  rests  with  a  body  of  Directors  nomi- 
nated by  the  various  public  bodies — the  staff  con  sisting  of  a  rector, 
and  masters  of  the  various  departments.  Besides  the  emoluments 
derived  from  the  fees,  the  teachers  have  the  benefit  of  various  bequests 
and  endowments,  some  of  old  standing,  devised  by  wealthy  and  pub- 
lic-spirited townsmen,  in  furtherance  of  education — an  account  of  these 
being  afterwards  given. 

THE    MORGAN     HOSPITAL. 

OF  institutions  of  the  "  Hospital"  class,  for  the  education  and  main- 
tenance of  the  young,  and  for  which  Edinburgh  and  other  towns  are 
famous,  this  is  the  only  example  possessed  by  Dundee.  For  it  the 
community  is  indebted  to  John  Morgan,  the  second  son  of  Thomas 
Morgan,  a  brewer,  who,  in  the  latter  half  of  last  century,  occupied 
premises  on  the  east  side  of  Tally  Street,  where  John  was  born,  Feb. 
28,  1760.  After  receiving  his  education  at  the  Grammar  School,  he 
entered  a  writer's  office  ;  but,  tiring  of  that  employment,  he  started, 
along  with  a  younger  brother,  Thomas,  for  India,  about  the  year  1780. 
After  a  time,  John  settled  down  in  the  interior  as  an  indigo  planter, 
in  which  occupation  his  brother  joined  him,  after  following  for  some 
time  the  medical  profession,  to  which  he  had  been  bred  at  home.  In 
1812,  the  two  brothers  re-appeared  in  Dundee,  having  realised  an  ample 
fortune  in  the  East,  and  took  up  residence  in  the  mansion-house  of 
Balgay,  along  with  their  mother  and  two  surviving  sisters.  During 
their  three  years'  residence  here,  they  rather  avoided  intercourse  with 
society,  and  were  much  occupied  in  realising  their  Indian  property. 
Removing  first  to  Edinburgh,  and  then  for  a  brief  period  to  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Haddington,  they  finally  settled  down  in  the  metropolis ; 
where  death  successively  reduced  the  family  group  to  one  survivor, 
John ;  and  he,  too,  succumbed  to  the  last  enemy,  on  Aug.  25,  1850, 
being  then  in  the  91st  year  of  his  age. 

It  was  not  surmised,  during  his  lifetime,  that  John  Morgan  enter- 
tained any  liberal  designs  towards  his  native  town.  His  only  gift 
was  one  of  £100,  sent  in  1830,  for  the  benefit  of  the  poor  members 
of  the  .Nine  Trades,  which  was  prudently  acknowledged  by  the  Trades 


11ISTORT  OF  DUXDEt 

electing  him  an  honorary  member  of  their  Incorporation,  a  compliment 
with  which  he  appeared  to  be  much  flattered.  After  his  death,  cer- 
tain testamentary  writings  came  to  light,  which  revealed  some  peculiar 
trait*  in  his  character.  It  appears  his  ambition  had  been  to  connect 
his  name  with  some  old  family ;  and  failing  to  identify  his  lineage 
with  any  historical  Morgans,  he  resolved  to  found  one  for  himself. 
Selecting  a  gentleman  of  his  acquaintance,  in  whom,  and  his  descend- 
ants, his  wealth  might  sustain  the  name  and  position  they  were  to 
assume,  he  devised  his  fortune  to  accumulate  until  it  reached  a  million, 
with  which  estates  were  to  be  purchased  in  Forfarshire  and  the  Lo- 
thians.  A  change,  however,  had,  fortunately  for  Dundee,  come  over 
his  mind :  this  will  was  obliterated  and  annulled ;  and  by  another 
writing,  dated  October  10,  1842,  he  set  forth  his  intention  of  esta- 
blishing au  hospital  in  Dundee,  after  the  model  of  George  lleriot's 
in  Edinburgh.  Certain  losses  which  he  experienced  in  realising  his 
fortune  led  to  modifications  in  the  extent  and  scope  of  this  scheme, 
as  expressed  in  a  subsequent  writing,  which  restricted  the  Hospital  to 
100  instead  of  180  boys.  The  deeds  were  much  altered  and  obliter- 
ated, and  on  that  account  grave  doubts  aroue  as  to  their  validity. 
The  means  were,  however,  found  for  trying  the  case  in  the  Court  of 
Session,  where  the  decision  was  advene  to  the  town.  It  was  appealed 
to  the  House  of  Lords,  but,  at  the  eleventh  hour,  it  seemed  to  meet 
with  a  fatal  obstacle  :  the  local  agent,  Mr  David  Rollo,  received  a 
message  that  it  came  on  for  hearing  on  the  following  day ;  but  could 
only  be  heard  upon  a  guarantee  being  forthcoming  for  the  expenses  of 
the  appeal  Mr  Rollo,  with  great  spirit  and  promptitude,  gave  his 
personal  guarantee,  with  the  verbal  acquiescence  of  Mr  Hume,  con- 
vener of  the  Nine  Trades.  The  result  was  a  judgment  by  the  House 
of  Lords,  finding  that  the  deeds  constituted  "  a  good  and  valid  bequest 
of  the  fortunes  of  John  Morgan,  or  so  much  thereof  as  shall  be  suffi- 
cient for  building  and  endowing  au  Hospital  for  the  education  and 
maintenance  of  100  boys  in  the  town  of  Dundee." 

The  matter  having  been  remitted  back  to  the  Court  of  Session  to 
frame  a  scheme  for  establishing  the  Hospital,  the  sum  of  £73,000  was 
duly  set  apart  for  that  purpose.  A  site,  extending  to  between  3  and 
4  acres  was  obtained,  at  the  junction  of  the  Forfar  and  Pitkeno 
roads,  behind  the  Baxter  Park.  The  building  is  an  elegant  and  com- 
modious structure,  designed  in  the  French  Gothic  style  by  Peddie  & 
Xinnear  of  Edinburgh,  and,  with  the  site,  cost  about  £24,000.  IU 


INSTITUTION  FOR  THE  BLIND.  293 

principal  front,  facing  the  west,  is  183  feet  in  length,  with  the  main 
doorway  in  the  centre,  over  which  rises  a  tower,  having  circular 
turrets,  with  conical  roofs  on  its  four  angles,  between  which  a  high- 
pitched  roof  rises,  supporting  a  belfry.  From  its  elevated  position, 
the  building  forms  a  prominent  object  in  almost  any  general  view  of 
the  town,  and  from  the  grounds  of  the  Baxter  Park,  which  adjoin  it 
on  the  south,  it  is  particularly  effective.  Besides  the  class-rooms  and 
dormitories  for  the  boys,  the  building  comprises,  on  the  south  flank, 
a  large  hall  or  chapel ;  and  on  the  north,  a  commodious  residence  for 
the  master.  The  funds  available  for  its  maintenance  did  not  permit 
more  than  sixty  boys  being  received  at  first ;  but  the  number  has 
now  been  increased,  and  they  receive  their  board,  clothing,  and  educa- 
tion within  its  walls.  The  governors  are  elected  upon  a  popular  basis 
— two  from  each  of  the  Town  Councils  of  Dundee,  Forfar,  Arbroath, 
and  Montrose,  as  well  as  the  Presbytery,  the  High  School,  and  Nine 
Trades,  with  other  ex-officio  representatives. 


INSTITUTION    FOE    THE    BLIND. 

THE  claims  of  those  deprived  of  sight,  upon  the  sympathy  and  help 
of  the  benevolent,  do  not  require  to  be  demonstrated ;  and  when  it  is 
remembered  that  the  well-doing  blind  people  have  no  desire  to  be  pau- 
perised, or  to  claim  exemption  from  the  active  duties  of  life,  the  work 
of  aiding  them  in  the  peculiar  channels  of  education  and  industry, 
snitable  to  the  lot  which  Providence  has  assigned  to  them,  becomes 
more  a  matter  of  duty  to  right-thinking  minds.  The  Institution  in 
Dallfield  Walk  is  well  fitted  to  give  effect  to  such  philanthropy. 
Through  the  liberality  of  Mr  and  Mrs  Molison,  commodious  buildings 
have  been  erected,  where  the  industrial  and  educational  departments, 
which  the  Institution  maintains,  can  be  successfully  carried  out.  The 
total  number  of  blind  persons  in  Dundee  is  about  130.  Of  these 
many  are  of  course  disqualified  by  age,  infirmity,  or  other  causes,  from 
engaging  in  work  at  a  public  institution ;  while  others  have  friends  in 
a  position  to  provide  for  their  support.  Notwithstanding  this,  there 
must  always  be  many  deprived  of  sight  to  whom  the  education  and 
industrial  training  afforded  at  this  Institution  are  of  the  greatest  advant- 
age ;  Avhile  its  existence  ought  to  render  the  public  proof  against  the 
misplaced  compassion  which  is  too  apt  thoughtlessly  to  foster  indolence 


?'* »  naroRT  or  DVHDU. 

and  viee,  by  bestowing  aim  on  those  who  prefer  to  supplicate  for 
charity  on  the  street*  rather  than  ton  by  hone*  industry. 

The  indoitrUl  department  provide*  occupation  Tor  an  average  of 
18  blind  persona,  the  half  of  whom  are  generally  employed  in  basket- 
making,  while  the  other*  prepare  mattreawa,  mats,  Ac.  It  is  not, 
perhaps,  generally  known  that  the  Institution  haa  a  shop  for  the  tale 
of  thaw  good*,  in  South  Union  Street  The  wages  paid  in  this  de- 
partment last  year  amounted  to  about  £350.  In  the  educational 
branch,  about  eight  children  are  regularly  instructed.  For  support, 
the  Institution  depends  wholly  on  voluntary  subscriptions,  which, 
last  year,  amounted  only  to  £157  2s.  Od,,  a  sum  quite  inadequate  to 
meet  ordinary  wants,  even  though  the  industrial  department  goes  far 
to  be  self-eupporting.  The  excellent  equipment  of  the  charity,  in 
respect  of  accommodation,  and  the  strong  claims  it  presents  on  the 
consideration  of  the  public,  will  surely  obtain  better  support  for  it  in 
the  future. 

DEAF    AND   DUMB    INSTITUTION. 

Tin  observations  we  have  made  in  commendation  of  the  Institution 
for  the  Blind,  may  be  held  as  applying  with  equal  force  to  the  one 
now  under  notice,  as  a  most  deserving  agency  for  philanthropic  effort. 
Originally  established  on  a  humblo  scale  in  1846,  within  premises  in 
Meadow  Street,  it  was  removed  two  yean  afterwards  to  a  house  in 
Bncklemaker  Wynd,  where  it  continued  for  twenty-three  years.  The 
property  having  been  sold,  with  a  view  to  the  street  improvements 
now  in  progress,  it  became  necessary  to  transfer  the  Institution  to 
other  quarters,  and  a  suitable  site  having  been  obtained  at  Dudhope 
Bank  in  Logie  Den,  a  plain,  but  neat  and  commodious  building  was 
erected  there  in  1870.  The  change  has  proved  in  the  highest  degree 
beneficial  to  the  health  of  the  inmates,  from  the  salubrity  of  the  situa- 
tion, and  the  airy  and  well-ventilated  rooms  which  are  provided — the 
principal  class-room  being  30  feet  by  24,  and  18  feet  high.  There  are 
about  30  children,  of  both  sexes,  regularly  oared  for  and  taught ;  but, 
on  Sabbath  days,  the  attendance  is  swelled  to  from  80  to  100,  by  the 
attendance  of  those  who  have  left  school,  and  assemble  to  receive 
spiritual  instruction  at  the  Institution.  The  re-unions  of  old  pupils, 
and  their  friends  are  largely  attended,  and  are  countenanced  by  not  a 
few  of  the  benevolent  residents  in  the  town,  who  take  an  interest  in 
the  Institution. 


ENDOWMENTS  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  AND  CHARITABLE 
PURPOSES. 

Of  these  foundations,  to  the  consolidation  of  which  public  attention 
has  been  recently  directed,  a  large  number  exist.  The  earliest  and 
most  important  are  the  Hospital  Fund1  and  Johnston's  charity.  By 
the  special  Act  of  1864,  these  funds,  now  amounting  to  £48,747  and 
£21,147  respectively,  are  vested  in  the  Magistrates  and  Town  Council. 
The  latter  originated  in  a  gift  of  £1000,  by  Eobert  Johnston  of  Lon- 
don, in  1639,  with  a  small  portion  of  which  a  piece  of  land,  called 
"  Monorgan's  Croft,"  was  purchased,  which  in  process  of  time  increased 
in  value  something  like  a  hundred  fold.  "We  now  proceed  to  the 
enumeration  of  the  other 

EDUCATIONAL    INSTITUTION'S, 

Arranged  Chronologically. 


L— 3r  Saitliam  ««lbf*,  1656. 

By  deed  date